29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

§ 1926.757 Open web steel joists.
(a) General.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are used and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a steel joist shall be field-bolted at the column to provide lateral stability to the column during erection. For the installation of this joist:
(i) A vertical stabilizer plate shall be provided on each column for steel joists. The plate shall be a minimum of 6 inch by 6 inch (152 mm by 152 mm) and shall extend at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the bottom chord of the joist with a 13/16 inch (21 mm) hole to provide an attachment point for guying or plumbing cables.
(ii) The bottom chords of steel joists at columns shall be stabilized to prevent rotation during erection.
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted, and each end of the bottom chord is restrained by the column stabilizer plate.
(2) Where constructibility does not allow a steel joist to be installed at the column:
(i) an alternate means of stabilizing joists shall be installed on both sides near the column and shall:
(A) provide stability equivalent to paragraph (a)(1) of this section;
(B) be designed by a qualified person;
(C) be shop installed; and
(D) be included in the erection drawings.
(ii) hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted and the joist is stabilized.
(3) Where steel joists at or near columns span 60 feet (18.3 m) or less, the joist shall be designed with sufficient strength to allow one employee to release the hoisting cable without the need for erection bridging.
(4) Where steel joists at or near columns span more than 60 feet (18.3 m), the joists shall be set in tandem with all bridging installed unless an alternative method of erection, which provides equivalent stability to the steel joist, is designed by a qualified person and is included in the site-specific erection plan.
(5) A steel joist or steel joist girder shall not be placed on any support structure unless such structure is stabilized.
(6) When steel joist(s) are landed on a structure, they shall be secured to prevent unintentional displacement prior to installation.
(7) No modification that affects the strength of a steel joist or steel joist girder shall be made without the approval of the project structural engineer of record.
(8) Field-bolted joists.
(i) Except for steel joists that have been pre-assembled into panels, connections of individual steel joists to steel structures in bays of 40 feet (12.2 m) or more shall be fabricated to allow for field bolting during erection.
(ii) These connections shall be field-bolted unless constructibility does not allow.
(9) Steel joists and steel joist girders shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall arrest system unless written approval to do so is obtained from a qualified person.
(10) A bridging terminus point shall be established before bridging is installed. (See appendix C to this subpart.)
(b) Attachment of steel joists and steel joist girders.
(1) Each end of “K” series steel joists shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two 1/8-inch (3 mm) fillet welds 1 inch (25 mm) long or with two 1/2-inch (13 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.
(2) Each end of “LH” and “DLH” series steel joists and steel joist girders shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two 1/4-inch (6 mm) fillet welds 2 inches (51 mm) long, or with two 3/4-inch (19 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, each steel joist shall be attached to the support structure, at least at one end on both sides of the seat, immediately upon placement in the final erection position and before additional joists are placed.
(4) Panels that have been pre-assembled from steel joists with bridging shall be attached to the structure at each corner before the hoisting cables are released.
(c) Erection of steel joists.
(1) Both sides of the seat of one end of each steel joist that requires bridging under Tables A and B shall be attached to the support structure before hoisting cables are released.
(2) For joists over 60 feet, both ends of the joist shall be attached as specified in paragraph (b) of this section and the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section met before the hoisting cables are released.
(3) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging under Tables A and B, only one employee shall be allowed on the joist until all bridging is installed and anchored.
Table A—Erection Bridging for Short Span Joists
Joist Span
NM=diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory for joists under 40 feet.
8L1 NM
10K1 NM
12K1 23-0
12K3 NM
12K5 NM
14K1 27-0
14K3 NM
14K4 NM
14K6 NM
16K2 29-0
16K3 30-0
16K4 32-0
16K5 32-0
16K6 NM
16K7 NM
16K9 NM
18K3 31-0
18K4 32-0
18K5 33-0
18K6 35-0
18K7 NM
18K9 NM
18K10 NM
20K3 32-0
20K4 34-0
20K5 34-0
20K6 36-0
20K7 39-0
20K9 39-0
20K10 NM
22K4 34-0
22K5 35-0
22K6 36-0
22K7 40-0
22K9 40-0
22K10 40-0
22K11 40-0
24K4 36-0
24K5 38-0
24K6 39-0
24K7 43-0
24K8 43-0
24K9 44-0
24K10 NM
24K12 NM
26K5 38-0
26K6 39-0
26K7 43-0
26K8 44-0
26K9 45-0
26K10 49-0
26K12 NM
28K6 40-0
28K7 43-0
28K8 44-0
28K9 45-0
28K10 49-0
28K12 53-0
30K7 44-0
30K8 45-0
30K9 45-0
30K10 50-0
30K11 52-0
30K12 54-0
10KCS1 NM
10KCS2 NM
10KCS3 NM
12KCS1 NM
12KCS2 NM
12KCS3 NM
14KCS1 NM
14KCS2 NM
14KCS3 NM
16KCS2 NM
16KCS3 NM
16KCS4 NM
16KCS5 NM
18KCS2 35-0
18KCS3 NM
18KCS4 NM
18KCS5 NM
20KCS2 36-0
20KCS3 39-0
20KCS4 NM
20KCS5 NM
22KCS2 36-0
22KCS3 40-0
22KCS4 NM
22KCS5 NM
24KCS2 39-0
24KCS3 44-0
24KCS4 NM
24KCS5 NM
26KCS2 39-0
26KCS3 44-0
26KCS4 NM
26KCS5 NM
28KCS2 40-0
28KCS3 45-0
28KCS4 53-0
28KCS5 53-0
30KC53 45-0
30KCS4 54-0
30KCS5 54-0
Table B—Erection Bridging for Long Span Joists
Joist Span
NM = diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory for joists under 40 feet.
18LH02 33-0.
18LH03 NM.
18LH04 NM.
18LH05 NM.
18LH06 NM.
18LH07 NM.
18LH08 NM.
18LH09 NM.
20LH02 33-0.
20LH03 38-0.
20LH04 NM.
20LH05 NM.
20LH06 NM.
20LH07 NM.
20LH08 NM.
20LH09 NM.
20LH10 NM.
24LH03 35-0.
24LH04 39-0.
24LH05 40-0.
24LH06 45-0.
24LH07 NM.
24LH08 NM.
24LH09 NM.
24LH10 NM.
24LH11 NM.
28LH05 42-0.
28LH06 42-0.
28LH07 NM.
28LH08 NM.
28LH09 NM.
28LH10 NM.
28LH11 NM.
28LH12 NM.
28LH13 NM.
32LH06 47-0 through 60-0.
32LH07 47-0 through 60-0.
32LH08 55-0 through 60-0.
32LH09 NM through 60-0.
32LH10 NM through 60-0.
32LH11 NM through 60-0.
32LH12 NM through 60-0.
32LH13 NM through 60-0.
32LH14 NM through 60-0.
32LH15 NM through 60-0.
36LH07 47-0 through 60-0.
36LH08 47-0 through 60-0.
36LH09 57-0 through 60-0.
36LH10 NM through 60-0.
36LH11 NM through 60-0.
36LH12 NM through 60-0.
36LH13 NM through 60-0.
36LH14 NM through 60-0.
36LH15 NM through 60-0.
(4) Employees shall not be allowed on steel joists where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B except in accordance with § 1926.757(d).
(5) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be used during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points are required to provide stability. (See appendix C of this subpart.)
(d) Erection bridging.
(1) Where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B, the following shall apply:
(i) A row of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the midspan of the steel joist;
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iii) No more than one employee shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.
(2) Where the span of the steel joist is over 60 feet (18.3 m) through 100 feet (30.5 m), the following shall apply:
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(ii) Two rows of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the third points of the steel joist;
(iii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iv) No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.
(3) Where the span of the steel joist is over 100 feet (30.5 m) through 144 feet (43.9 m), the following shall apply:
(i) All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;
(ii) Hoisting cables shall not be released until all bridging is installed and anchored; and
(iii) No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all bridging is installed and anchored.
(4) For steel members spanning over 144 feet (43.9 m), the erection methods used shall be in accordance with § 1926.756.
(5) Where any steel joist specified in paragraphs (c)(2) and (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3) of this section is a bottom chord bearing joist, a row of bolted diagonal bridging shall be provided near the support(s). This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the hoisting cable(s) is released.
(6) When bolted diagonal erection bridging is required by this section, the following shall apply:
(i) The bridging shall be indicated on the erection drawing;
(ii) The erection drawing shall be the exclusive indicator of the proper placement of this bridging;
(iii) Shop-installed bridging clips, or functional equivalents, shall be used where the bridging bolts to the steel joists;
(iv) When two pieces of bridging are attached to the steel joist by a common bolt, the nut that secures the first piece of bridging shall not be removed from the bolt for the attachment of the second; and
(v) Bridging attachments shall not protrude above the top chord of the steel joist.
(e) Landing and placing loads.
(1) During the construction period, the employer placing a load on steel joists shall ensure that the load is distributed so as not to exceed the carrying capacity of any steel joist.
(2) Except for paragraph (e)(4) of this section, no construction loads are allowed on the steel joists until all bridging is installed and anchored and all joist-bearing ends are attached.
(3) The weight of a bundle of joist bridging shall not exceed a total of 1,000 pounds (454 kg). A bundle of joist bridging shall be placed on a minimum of three steel joists that are secured at one end. The edge of the bridging bundle shall be positioned within 1 foot (.30 m) of the secured end.
(4) No bundle of decking may be placed on steel joists until all bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist bearing ends attached, unless all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The employer has first determined from a qualified person and documented in a site-specific erection plan that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the load;
(ii) The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of three steel joists;
(iii) The joists supporting the bundle of decking are attached at both ends;
(iv) At least one row of bridging is installed and anchored;
(v) The total weight of the bundle of decking does not exceed 4,000 pounds (1816 kg); and
(vi) Placement of the bundle of decking shall be in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section.
(5) The edge of the construction load shall be placed within 1 foot (.30 m) of the bearing surface of the joist end.

Title 29 published on 2014-07-01

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