29 CFR Part 1926, Subpart P, Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926 - Sloping and Benching

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. B
Appendix B to Subpart P of Part 1926—Sloping and Benching
(a) Scope and application. This appendix contains specifications for sloping and benching when used as methods of protecting employees working in excavations from cave-ins. The requirements of this appendix apply when the design of sloping and benching protective systems is to be performed in accordance with the requirements set forth in § 1926.652(b)(2).
(b) Definitions.
Actual slope means the slope to which an excavation face is excavated.
Distress means that the soil is in a condition where a cave-in is imminent or is likely to occur. Distress is evidenced by such phenomena as the development of fissures in the face of or adjacent to an open excavation; the subsidence of the edge of an excavation; the slumping of material from the face or the bulging or heaving of material from the bottom of an excavation; the spalling of material from the face of an excavation; and ravelling, i.e., small amounts of material such as pebbles or little clumps of material suddenly separating from the face of an excavation and trickling or rolling down into the excavation.
Maximum allowable slope means the steepest incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable site conditions as protection against cave-ins, and is expressed as the ratio of horizontal distance to vertical rise (H:V).
Short term exposure means a period of time less than or equal to 24 hours that an excavation is open.
(c) Requirements—(1) Soil classification. Soil and rock deposits shall be classified in accordance with appendix A to subpart P of part 1926.
(2) Maximum allowable slope. The maximum allowable slope for a soil or rock deposit shall be determined from Table B-1 of this appendix.
(3) Actual slope. (i) The actual slope shall not be steeper than the maximum allowable slope.
(ii) The actual slope shall be less steep than the maximum allowable slope, when there are signs of distress. If that situation occurs, the slope shall be cut back to an actual slope which is at least 1/2 horizontal to one vertical (1/2H:1V) less steep than the maximum allowable slope.
(iii) When surcharge loads from stored material or equipment, operating equipment, or traffic are present, a competent person shall determine the degree to which the actual slope must be reduced below the maximum allowable slope, and shall assure that such reduction is achieved. Surcharge loads from adjacent structures shall be evaluated in accordance with § 1926.651(i).
(4) Configurations. Configurations of sloping and benching systems shall be in accordance with Figure B-1.
Figure B-1
Slope Configurations
(All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio)
B-1.1Excavations made in Type A soil.
1. All simple slope excavation 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 3/4:1.
Simple Slope—General
Exception: Simple slope excavations which are open 24 hours or less (short term) and which are 12 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1/2:1.
Simple Slope—Short Term
2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 3/4 to 1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows:
Simple Bench
Multiple Bench
3. All excavations 8 feet or less in depth which have unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum vertical side of 31/2 feet.
Unsupported Vertically Sided Lower Portion—Maximum 8 Feet in Depth
All excavations more than 8 feet but not more than 12 feet in depth which unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and a maximum vertical side of 31/2 feet.
Unsupported Vertically Sided Lower Portion—Maximum 12 Feet in Depth
All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions that are supported or shielded shall have a maximum allowable slope of 3/4:1. The support or shield system must extend at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side.
Supported or Shielded Vertically Sided Lower Portion
4. All other simple slope, compound slope, and vertically sided lower portion excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted under § 1926.652(b).
B-1.2 Excavations Made in Type B Soil
1. All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1.
Simple Slope
2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows:
Single Bench
Multiple Bench
3. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1.
Vertically Sided Lower Portion
4. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b).
B-1.3 Excavations Made in Type C Soil
1. All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 11/2:1.
Simple Slope
2. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 11/2:1.
Vertical Sided Lower Portion
3. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b).
B-1.4 Excavations Made in Layered Soils
1. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth made in layered soils shall have a maximum allowable slope for each layer as set forth below.
2. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b).

Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-04-11; vol. 79 # 70 - Friday, April 11, 2014
    1. 79 FR 20316 - Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Final rule.
      The final rule becomes effective on July 10, 2014. (Certain provisions have compliance deadlines after this date as explained later in this preamble.)
      29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926

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Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 29 CFR 1926 after this date.

  • 2014-04-15; vol. 79 # 72 - Tuesday, April 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 21164 - Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Operator Certification
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Notice of informal public hearing.
      Informal public hearing: The informal public hearing will be held on Monday, May 19, 2014, at 9:30 a.m. in the auditorium of the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210. Notice of intention to appear: Each person who wishes to testify at the hearing must submit a notice of intention to appear by April 25, 2014. Each person who files a notice of intention to appear may submit a written copy of additional comments to the record before or during the hearing for inclusion in the hearing record. Organizations may submit a single notice of intention to appear regarding multiple members of that organization, but the notice must list the name, occupational title, and position of each individual who plans to testify. In addition, all notices must also include the following information: (1) An email address or other contact information for receiving additional information about the hearing; (2) Name of the establishment or organization, if any, that each individual represents; (3) A brief summary of any documentary evidence each individual plans to present.
      29 CFR Part 1926