(a) Combatant immunity. Under the law of armed conflict, only a lawful combatant enjoys “combatant immunity” or “belligerent privilege” for the lawful conduct of hostilities during armed conflict.
(b) Enemy. “Enemy” includes any entity with which the United States or allied forces may be engaged in armed conflict, or which is preparing to attack the United States. It is not limited to foreign nations, or foreign military organizations or members thereof. “Enemy” specifically includes any organization of terrorists with international reach.
(c) In the context of and was associated with armed conflict. Elements containing this language require a nexus between the conduct and armed hostilities. Such nexus could involve, but is not limited to, time, location, or purpose of the conduct in relation to the armed hostilities. The existence of such factors, however, may not satisfy the necessary nexus (e.g., murder committed between members of the same armed force for reasons of personal gain unrelated to the conflict, even if temporally and geographically associated with armed conflict, is not “in the context of” the armed conflict). The focus of this element is not the nature or characterization of the conflict, but the nexus to it. This element does not require a declaration of war, ongoing mutual hostilities, or confrontation involving a regular national armed force. A single hostile act or attempted act may provide sufficient basis for the nexus so long as its magnitude or severity rises to the level of an “armed attack” or an “act of war,” or the number, power, stated intent or organization of the force with which the actor is associated is such that the act or attempted act is tantamount to an attack by an armed force. Similarly, conduct undertaken or organized with knowledge or intent that it initiate or contribute to such hostile act or hostilities would satisfy the nexus requirement.
(d) Military Objective. “Military objectives” are those potential targets during an armed conflict which, by their nature, location, purpose, or use, effectively contribute to the opposing force's war-fighting or war-sustaining capability and whose total or partial destruction, capture, or neutralization would constitute a military advantage to the attacker under the circumstances at the time of the attack.
(e) Object of the attack. “Object of the attack” refers to the person, place, or thing intentionally targeted. In this regard, the term includes neither collateral damage nor incidental injury or death.
(f) Protected property. “Protected property” refers to property specifically protected by the law of armed conflict such as buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, or places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not being used for military purposes or are not otherwise military objectives. Such property would include objects properly identified by one of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions but does not include all civilian property.
(g) Protected under the law of war. The person or object in question is expressly “protected” under one or more of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 or, to the extent applicable, customary international law. The term does not refer to all who enjoy some form of protection as a consequence of compliance with international law, but those who are expressly designated as such by the applicable law of armed conflict. For example, persons who either are hors de combat or medical or religious personnel taking no active part in hostilities are expressly protected, but other civilians may not be.
(h) Should have known. The facts and circumstances were such that a reasonable person in the Accused's position would have had the relevant knowledge or awareness.
Title 32 published on 2012-07-01
no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.
This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.