32 CFR Part 187, Enclosure 2 to Part 187 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 187, Encl. 2
Enclosure 2 to Part 187—Requirements for Environmental Considerations—Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources
A. General. This enclosure implements the requirements of Executive Order 12114 to provide for procedural and other actions to be taken to enable officials to be informed of pertinent environmental considerations when authorizing or approving certain major Department of Defense actions that do significant harm to the environment of a foreign nation or to a protected global resource.
B. Actions included. 1. The requirements of this enclosure apply only to the following actions:
a. Major Federal actions that significantly harm the environment of a foreign nation that is not involved in the action. The involvement of the foreign nation may be directly by participation with the United States in the action, or it may be in conjunction with another participating nation. The focus of this category is on the geographical location of the environmental harm and not on the location of the action.
b. Major Federal actions that are determined to do significant harm to the environment of a foreign nation because they provide to that nation: (1) A product, or involve a physical project that produces a principal product, emission, or effluent, that is prohibited or strictly regulated by Federal law in the United States because its toxic effects on the environment create a serious public health risk; or (2) a physical project that is prohibited or strictly regulated in the United States by Federal law to protect the environment against radioactive substances. Included in the category of “prohibited or strictly regulated” are the following: asbestos, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, isocyanates, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, beryllium, arsenic, cadmium, and benzene.
c. Major Federal actions outside the United States that significantly harm natural or ecological resources of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource protected by international agreement binding on the United States, designated for protection by the Secretary of State. Such determinations by the President or the Secretary of State to be listed in Attachment 1 to this enclosure, entitled, “Protected Global Resources”.
2. The actions prescribed by this enclosure are the exclusive and complete requirement for taking account of environmental considerations with respect to Federal actions that do significant harm to the environment of foreign nations and protected global resources as described in subsection B.1., of this enclosure. No action is required under this enclosure with respect to Federal actions that affect only the environment of a participating or otherwise involved foreign nation and that do not involve providing products or physical projects producing principal products, emissions, or effluents that are prohibited or strictly regulated by Federal law in the United States, or resources of global importance that have been designated for protection.
C. Environmental Document Requirements.
1. General. a. There are two types of environmental documents officials shall use in taking account of environmental considerations for actions covered by this enclosure:
(1) Environmental studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by the United States and one or more foreign nations or by an international body or organization in which the United States is a member or participant; and
(2) Environmental reviews—concise reviews of the environmental issues involved that are prepared unilaterally by the United States.
b. This section identifies the procedures for the preparation of environmental studies or reviews when required by this enclosure and the exceptions from the requirement to prepare environmental studies or reviews. If an environmental document already exists for a particular action, regardless of what Federal agency prepared it, no new document is required by this enclosure.
2. Lead Agency. When one or more other Federal agencies are involved with the Department of Defense in an action or program, a lead agency may be designated to supervise the preparation of environmental documentation. In appropriate cases, more than one agency may act as joint lead agencies. The following factors should be considered in making the lead agency designation:
a. The magnitude of agency involvement;
b. Which agency or agencies have project approval and disapproval authority;
c. The expert capabilities concerning the environmental effects of the action;
d. The duration of agency involvement; and
e. The sequence of agency involvement.
3. Exemptions. There are general exemptions from the requirements of this enclosure provided by Executive Order 12114, and the Secretary of Defense has the authority to approve additional exemptions.
a. General Exemptions. The following actions are exempt from the procedural and other requirements of this enclosure under general exemptions established for all agencies by Executive Order 12114:
(1) Actions that the DoD component concerned determines do not do significant harm to the environment outside the United States or to a designated resource of global importance.
(2) Actions taken by the President. These include: Signing bills into law; signing treaties and other international agreements; the promulgation of Executive Orders; Presidential proclamations; and the issuance of Presidental decisions, instructions, and memoranda. This includes actions taken within the Department of Defense to prepare or assist in preparing recommendations, advice, or information for the President in connection with one of these actions by the President. It does not include actions taken within the Department of Defense to implement or carry out these instruments and issuances after they are promulgated by the President.
(3) Actions taken by or pursuant to the direction of the President or a cabinet officer in the course of armed conflict. The term “armed conflict” refers to: hostilities for which Congress has declared war or enacted a specific authorization for the use of armed forces; hostilities or situations for which a report is prescribed by section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution, 50 U.S.C.A. 1543(a)(1) (Supp. 1978); and other actions by the armed forces that involve defensive use or introduction of weapons in situations where hostilities occur or are expected. This exemption applies as long as the armed conflict continues.
(4) Actions taken by or pursuant to the direction of the President or a cabinet officer when the national security or national interest is involved. The determination that the national security or national interest is involved in actions by the Department of Defense must be made in writing by the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics).
(5) The activities of the intelligence components utilized by the Secretary of Defense under Executive Order 12036, 43 FR 3674 (1978). These components include the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the offices for the collection of specialized intelligence through reconnaissance programs, the Army Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, the Office of Naval Intelligence, and the Air Force Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence.
(6) The decisions and actions of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs), the Defense Security Assistance Agency, and the other responsible offices within DoD components with respect to arms transfers to foreign nations. The term “arms transfers” includes the grant, loan, lease, exchange, or sale of defense articles or defense services to foreign governments or international organizations, and the extension or guarantee of credit in connection with these transactions.
(7) Votes and other actions in international conferences and organizations. This includes all decisions and actions of the United States with respect to representation of its interests at international organizations, and at multilateral conferences, negotiations, and meetings.
(8) Disaster and emergency relief actions.
(9) Actions involving export licenses, export permits, or export approvals, other than those relating to nuclear activities. This includes: Advice provided by DoD components to the Department of State with respect to the issuance of munitions export licenses under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. 2778 (1976); advice provided by DoD components to the Department of Commerce with respect to the granting of export licenses under the Export Administration Act of 1969, 50 U.S.C. App. 2401-2413 (1970 & Supp. V 1975); and direct exports by the Department of Defense of defense articles and services to foreign governments and international organizations that are exempt from munitions export licenses under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. 2778 (1976). The term “export approvals” does not mean or include direct loans to finance exports.
(10) Actions relating to nuclear activities and nuclear material, except actions providing to a foreign nation a nuclear production or utilization facility, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, or a nuclear waste management facility.
b. Additional Exemptions. The Department of Defense is authorized under Executive Order 12114 to establish additional exemptions that apply only to the Department's operations. There are two types of additional exemptions: Case-by-case and class.
(1) Case-by-Case Exemptions. Exemptions other than those specified above may be required because emergencies, national security considerations, exceptional foreign policy requirements, or other special circumstances preclude or are inconsistent with the preparation of environmental documentation and the taking of other actions prescribed by this enclosure. The following procedures apply for approving these exemptions:
(a) Emergencies. This category includes actions that must be taken to promote the national defense or security and that cannot be delayed, and actions necessary for the protection of life or property. The heads of the DoD components are authorized to approve emergency exemptions on a case-by-case basis. The Department of Defense is required to consult as soon as feasible with the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality with respect to emergency exemptions. The requirement to consult as soon as feasible is not a requirement of prior consultation. A report of the emergency action will be made by the DoD component head to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), who, with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs), shall undertake the necessary consultations.
(b) Other Circumstances. National security considerations, exceptional foreign policy requirements, and other special circumstances not identified in paragraph C.3.a. of this enclosure, may preclude or be inconsistent with the preparation of environmental documentation. In these circumstances, the head of the DoD component concerned is authorized to exempt a particular action from the environmental documentation requirements of this enclosure after obtaining the prior approval of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), who, with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs), shall consult, before approving the exemption, with the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality. The requirement for prior consultation is not a requirement for prior approval.
(2) Class Exemptions. Circumstances may exist where a class exemption for a group of related actions is more appropriate than a specific exemption. Class exemptions may be established by the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), who, with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs), shall consult, before approving the exemption, with the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality. The requirement for prior consultation is not a requirement for prior approval. Requests for class exemptions will be submitted by the head of the DoD component concerned to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics) after coordination with other interested DoD components. Notice of the establishment of a class exemption will be issued as Attachment 2 to this enclosure to be entitled, “Class Exemptions—Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources.”
4. Categorical Exclusions. The Department of Defense is authorized by Executive Order 12114 to provide for categorical exclusions. A categorical exclusion is a category of actions that normally do not, individually or cumulatively, do significant harm to the environment. If an action is covered by a categorical exclusion, no environmental document is required. Categorical exclusions will be established by the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), and will be identified in Attachment 3 to this enclosure to be entitled, “Categorical Exclusions—Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources.” DoD components identifying recurring actions that have been determined, after analysis, not to do significant harm to the environment should submit requests for categorical exclusions and accompanying justification to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics).
D. Environmental studies. 1. General. Environmental studies are one of two alternative types of documents to be used for actions described by section B. of this enclosure.
a. An environmental study is an analysis of the likely environmental consequences of the action that is to be considered by DoD components in the decision-making process. It includes a review of the affected environment, significant actions taken to avoid environmental harm or otherwise to better the environment, and significant environmental considerations and actions by the other participating nations, bodies, or organizations.
b. An environmental study is a cooperative action and not a unilateral action undertaken by the United States. It may be bilateral or multilateral, and it is prepared by the United States in conjunction with one or more foreign nations, or by an international body or organization in which the United States is a member or participant. The environmental study, because it is prepared as a cooperative undertaking, may be best suited for use with respect to actions that provide strictly regulated or prohibited products or projects to a foreign nation (B.l.b.) and actions that affect a protected global resource (B.l.c.).
2. Department of State Coordination. Communications with foreign governments concerning environmental studies and other formal arrangements with foreign governments concerning environmental matters under this directive will be coordinated with the Department of State. Informal, working-level communications and arrangements are not included in this coordination requirement. Coordination with the Department of State will be through the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs).
3. Whether to Prepare an Environmental Study. The judgment whether the action is one that would do significant harm to one of the environments covered by this enclosure normally will be made in consultation with concerned foreign governments or organizations. If a negative decision is made, the file will be documented with a record of that decision and the decision-makers who participated. If a decision is made to prepare a study then, except as provided by this enclosure, no action concerning the proposal may be taken that would do significant harm to the environment until the study has been completed and the results considered.
4. Content of the Study. The document is a study of the environmental aspects of the proposed action to be considered in the decision-making process. The precise content of each study must be flexible because of such considerations as the sensitivity of obtaining information from foreign governments, the availability of useful and understandable information, and other factors identified under “Limitations,” (subsection D.6., of this enclosure). The study should, however, include consideration of the following:
a. A general review of the affected environment;
b. The predicted effect of the action on the environment;
c. Significant known actions taken by governmental entities with respect to the proposed action to protect or improve the environment; and
d. If no actions are being taken to protect or enhance the environment, whether the decision not to do so was made by the affected foreign government or international organization.
5. Distribution of the Study. Except as provided under “Limitations,” (subsection D.6., of this enclosure), and except where classified information is involved, environmental studies will be made available to the Department of State, the Council on Environmental Quality, other interested Federal agencies, and, on request, to the public in the United States. Interested foreign governments also may be informed of the studies, subject to the “Limitations” (subsection D.6., of this enclosure) and controls on classified information, and furnished copies of the documents. No distribution is required prior to the preparation of the final version of the study or prior to taking the action that caused the study to be prepared.
6. Limitations. The requirements with respect to the preparation, content, and distribution of environmental studies in the international context must remain flexible. The specific procedures must be determined on a case-by-case basis and may be modified where necessary to:
a. Enable the component to act promptly. Considerations such as national security and foreign government involvement may require prompt action that must take precedence in the environmental review process;
b. Avoid adverse impacts on relations between the United States and foreign governments and international organizations;
c. Avoid infringement or the appearance of infringement on the sovereign responsibilities of another government. The collection of information and the preparation and distribution of environmental documentation for actions in which another nation is involved, or with respect to the environment and resources of another nation, unless done with proper regard to the sovereign authority of that nation, may be viewed by that nation as an interference in its internal affairs and its responsibility to evaluate requirements with respect to the environment;
d. Ensure consideration of:
(1) Requirements of governmental confidentiality. This refers to the need to protect sensitive foreign affairs information and information received from another government with the understanding that it will be protected from disclosure regardless of its classification;
(2) National security requirements. This refers to the protection of classified information and other national security interests;
(3) Availability of meaningful information. Information on the environment of foreign nations may be unavailable, incomplete, or not susceptible to meaningful evaluation, particularly where the affected foreign nation is not a participant in the analysis. This may reduce or change substantially the normal content of the environmental study;
(4) The extent of the participation of the DoD component concerned and its ability to affect the decision made. The utility of the environmental analysis and the need for an in-depth review diminishes as DoD's role and control over the decision lessens; and
(5) International commercial, commercial confidentiality, competitive, and export promotion factors. This refers to the requirement to protect domestic and foreign trade secrets and confidential business information from disclosure. Export promotion factors includes the concept of not unnecessarily hindering United States exports.
7. Classified Information. Classified information will be safeguarded from disclosure in accordance with the Department of Defense procedures (32 CFR 159) established for such information under Executive Order 12065. The requirements of that Executive Order take precedence over any requirement of disclosure in this directive.
E. Environmental Reviews. 1. General. Environmental reviews are the second of the two alternative types of documents to be used for actions covered by section B. of this enclosure.
a. An environmental review is a survey of the important environmental issues involved. It includes identification of these issues, and a review of what if any consideration has been or can be given to the environmental aspects by the United States and by any foreign government involved in taking the action.
b. An environmental review is prepared by the DoD component concerned either unilaterally or in conjunction with another Federal agency. While an environmental review may be used for any of the actions identified by section B., it may be uniquely suitable, because it is prepared unilaterally by the United States, to actions that affect the environment of a nation not involved in the undertaking (B.l.a.).
2. Department of State Coordination. Communications with foreign governments concerning environmental agreements and other formal arrangements with foreign governments concerning environmental matters under this enclosure will be coordinated with the Department of State. Informal working-level communications and arrangements are not included in this coordination requirement. Coordination with the Department of State will be through the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs).
3. Whether to Prepare an Environmental Review. Sufficient information will be gathered, to the extent it is reasonably available, to permit an informed judgment as to whether the proposed action would do significant harm to the environments covered by this enclosure. If a negative decision is made, a record will be made of that decision and its basis. If a decision is made to prepare a review, then, except as provided by this enclosure, no action concerning the proposal may be taken that would do significant environmental harm until the review has been completed.
4. Content of the Review. An environmental review is a survey of the important environmental issues associated with the proposed action that is to be considered by the DoD component concerned in the decision-making process. It does not include all possible environmental issues and it does not include the detailed evaluation required in an environmental impact statement under Enclosure 1 of this part. There is no foreign government or international organization participation in its preparation, and the content therefore may be circumscribed because of the availability of information and because of foreign relations sensitivities. Other factors affecting the content are identified under “Limitations,” (subsection E.6., of this enclosure). To the extent reasonably practical the review should include consideration of the following:
a. A statement of the action to be taken including its timetable, physical features, general operating plan, and other similar broad-guage descriptive factors;
b. Identification of the important environmental issues involved;
c. The aspects of the actions taken or to be taken by the DoD component that ameliorate or minimize the impact on the environment; and
d. The actions known to have been taken or to be planned by the government of any participating and affected foreign nations that will affect environmental considerations.
5. Distribution. Except as provided under “Limitations,” (subsection E.6., of this enclosure), and except where classified information is involved, environmental reviews will be made available to the Department of State, the Council on Environmental Quality, other interested Federal agencies, and, on request, to the public in the United States. Interested foreign governments also may be informed of the reviews and, subject to the “Limitations” (subsection E.6., of this enclosure) and controls on classified information, will be furnished copies of the documents on request. This provision for document distribution is not a requirement that distribution be made prior to taking the action that is the subject of the review.
6. Limitations. The requirements with respect to the preparation, content, and distribution of environmental reviews in the international context must remain flexible. The specific procedures must be determined on a case-by-case basis and may be modified where necessary to:
a. Enable the component to act promptly. Considerations such as national security and foreign government involvement may require prompt action that must take precedence in the environmental review process;
b. Avoid adverse impacts on relations between the United States and foreign governments and international organizations;
c. Avoid infringement or the appearance of infringement on the sovereign responsibilities of another government. The collection of information and the preparation and distribution of environmental documentation for actions in which another nation is involved or with respect to the environment and resources of another nation, unless done with proper regard to the sovereign authority of that nation, may be viewed by that nation as an interference in its internal affairs and its prerogative to evaluate requirements with respect to the environment; and
d. Ensure consideration of:
(1) Requirements of governmental confidentiality. This refers to the need to protect sensitive foreign affairs information and information received from another government with the understanding that it will be protected from disclosure regardless of its classification;
(2) National security requirements. This refers to the protection of classified information;
(3) Availability of meaningful information. Information on the environment of foreign nations may be unavailable, incomplete, or not susceptable to meaningful evaluation, and this may reduce or change substantially the normal content of the environmental review;
(4) The extent of the participation of the DoD component concerned and its ability to affect the decision made. The utility of the environmental analysis and the need for an in-depth review diminishes as the role of the Department of Defense and control over the decision lessens; and
(5) International commercial, commercial confidentiality, competitive, and export promotion factors. This refers to the requirements to protect domestic and foreign trade secrets and confidential business information from disclosure. Export promotion factors includes the concept of not unnecessarily hindering United States exports.
7. Classified Information. Classified information will be safeguarded from disclosure in accordance with the DoD procedures (32 CFR 159) established for such information under Executive Order 12065. The requirements of that Executive Order take precedence over any requirement of disclosure in this part.

Title 32 published on 2014-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.