(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this subpart applies to each vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil in bulk as cargo or oil cargo residue, and that—
(1) Is a vessel of the United States;
(2) Operates on the navigable waters of the United States; or
(3) Transfers oil in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(b) This subpart also applies to vessels which engage in oil lightering operations in the marine environment beyond the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, when the cargo lightered is destined for a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(c) This subpart does not apply to the following types of vessels:
(1) Public vessels and vessels deemed public vessels under 14 U.S.C. 827.
(2) Vessels that, although constructed or adapted to carry oil in bulk as cargo or oil cargo residue, are not storing or carrying oil in bulk as cargo or oil cargo residue.
(3) Dedicated response vessels when conducting response operations.
(4) Vessels of opportunity when conducting response operations in a response area.