Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.
The structures and facilities constructed by the United States for local flood protection shall be continuously maintained in such a manner and operated at such times and for such periods as may be necessary to obtain the maximum benefits.
The State, political subdivision thereof, or other responsible local agency, which furnished assurance that it will maintain and operate flood control works in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army, as required by law, shall appoint a permanent committee consisting of or headed by an official hereinafter called the “Superintendent,” who shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of, and directly in charge of, an organization responsible for the efficient operation and maintenance of all of the structures and facilities during flood periods and for continuous inspection and maintenance of the project works during periods of low water, all without cost to the United States.
A reserve supply of materials needed during a flood emergency shall be kept on hand at all times.
No encroachment or trespass which will adversely affect the efficient operation or maintenance of the project works shall be permitted upon the rights-of-way for the protective facilities.
No improvement shall be passed over, under, or through the walls, levees, improved channels or floodways, nor shall any excavation or construction be permitted within the limits of the project right-of-way, nor shall any change be made in any feature of the works without prior determination by the District Engineer of the Department of the Army or his authorized representative that such improvement, excavation, construction, or alteration will not adversely affect the functioning of the protective facilities. Such improvements or alterations as may be found to be desirable and permissible under the above determination shall be constructed in accordance with standard engineering practice. Advice regarding the effect of proposed improvements or alterations on the functioning of the project and information concerning methods of construction acceptable under standard engineering practice shall be obtained from the District Engineer or, if otherwise obtained, shall be submitted for his approval. Drawings or prints showing such improvements or alterations as finally constructed shall be furnished the District Engineer after completion of the work.
It shall be the duty of the superintendent to submit a semiannual report to the District Engineer covering inspection, maintenance, and operation of the protective works.
The District Engineer or his authorized representatives shall have access at all times to all portions of the protective works.
Maintenance measures or repairs which the District Engineer deems necessary shall be promptly taken or made.
Appropriate measures shall be taken by local authorities to insure that the activities of all local organizations operating public or private facilities connected with the protective works are coordinated with those of the Superintendent's organization during flood periods.
The Department of the Army will furnish local interests with an Operation and Maintenance Manual for each completed project, or separate useful part thereof, to assist them in carrying out their obligations under this part.
The Superintendent shall provide at all times such maintenance as may be required to insure serviceability of the structures in time of flood. Measures shall be taken to promote the growth of sod, exterminate burrowing animals, and to provide for routine mowing of the grass and weeds, removal of wild growth and drift deposits, and repair of damage caused by erosion or other forces. Where practicable, measures shall be taken to retard bank erosion by planting of willows or other suitable growth on areas riverward of the levees. Periodic inspections shall be made by the Superintendent to insure that the above maintenance measures are being effectively carried out and, further, to be certain that:
No unusual settlement, sloughing, or material loss of grade or levee cross section has taken place;
No caving has occurred on either the land side or the river side of the levee which might affect the stability of the levee section;
No seepage, saturated areas, or sand boils are occurring;
Toe drainage systems and pressure relief wells are in good working condition, and that such facilities are not becoming clogged;
Drains through the levees and gates on said drains are in good working condition;
No revetment work or riprap has been displaced, washed out, or removed;
No action is being taken, such as burning grass and weeds during inappropriate seasons, which will retard or destroy the growth of sod;
Access roads to and on the levee are being properly maintained;
Cattle guards and gates are in good condition;
Crown of levee is shaped so as to drain readily, and roadway thereon, if any, is well shaped and maintained;
There is no unauthorized grazing or vehicular traffic on the levees;
Encroachments are not being made on the levee right-of-way which might endanger the structure or hinder its proper and efficient functioning during times of emergency.
Such inspections shall be made immediately prior to the beginning of the flood season; immediately following each major high water period, and otherwise at intervals not exceeding 90 days, and such intermediate times as may be necessary to insure the best possible care of the levee. Immediate steps will be taken to correct dangerous conditions disclosed by such inspections. Regular maintenance repair measures shall be accomplished during the appropriate season as scheduled by the Superintendent.
During flood periods the levee shall be patrolled continuously to locate possible sand boils or unusual wetness of the landward slope and to be certain that:
There are no indications of slides or sloughs developing;
Wave wash or scouring action is not occurring;
No low reaches of leave exist which may be overtopped;
No other conditions exist which might endanger the structure.
Appropriate advance measures will be taken to insure the availability of adequate labor and materials to meet all contingencies. Immediate steps will be taken to control any condition which endangers the levee and to repair the damaged section.
(c) Flood walls—
Periodic inspections shall be made by the Superintendent to be certain that:
No seepage, saturated areas, or sand boils are occurring;
No undue settlement has occurred which affects the stability of the wall or its water tightness;
No trees exist, the roots of which might extend under the wall and offer accelerated seepage paths;
The concrete has not undergone cracking, chipping, or breaking to an extent which might affect the stability of the wall or its water tightness;
There are no encroachments upon the right-of-way which might endanger the structure or hinder its functioning in time of flood;
Care is being exercised to prevent accumulation of trash and debris adjacent to walls, and to insure that no fires are being built near them;
No bank caving conditions exist riverward of the wall which might endanger its stability;
Toe drainage systems and pressure relief wells are in good working condition, and that such facilities are not becoming clogged.
Such inspections shall be made immediately prior to the beginning of the flood season, immediately following
each major high water period, and otherwise at intervals not exceeding 90 days. Measures to eliminate encroachments and effect repairs found necessary by such inspections shall be undertaken immediately. All repairs shall be accomplished by methods acceptable in standard engineering practice.
Code of Federal Regulations
- Page 109
Continuous patrol of the wall shall be maintained during flood periods to locate possible leakage at monolith joints or seepage underneath the wall. Floating plant or boats will not be allowed to lie against or tie up to the wall. Should it become necessary during a flood emergency to pass anchor cables over the wall, adequate measures shall be taken to protect the concrete and construction joints. Immediate steps shall be taken to correct any condition which endangers the stability of the wall.
(d) Drainage structures—
Adequate measures shall be taken to insure that inlet and outlet channels are kept open and that trash, drift, or debris is not allowed to accumulate near drainage structures. Flap gates and manually operated gates and valves on drainage structures shall be examined, oiled, and trial operated at least once every 90 days. Where drainage structures are provided with stop log or other emergency closures, the condition of the equipment and its housing shall be inspected regularly and a trial installation of the emergency closure shall be made at least once each year. Periodic inspections shall be made by the Superintendent to be certain that:
Pipes, gates, operating mechanism, riprap, and headwalls are in good condition;
Inlet and outlet channels are open;
Care is being exercised to prevent the accumulation of trash and debris near the structures and that no fires are being built near bituminous coated pipes;
Erosion is not occurring adjacent to the structure which might endanger its water tightness or stability.
Immediate steps will be taken to repair damage, replace missing or broken parts, or remedy adverse conditions disclosed by such inspections.
Whenever high water conditions impend, all gates will be inspected a short time before water reaches the invert of the pipe and any object which might prevent closure of the gate shall be removed. Automatic gates shall be closely observed until it has been ascertained that they are securely closed. Manually operated gates and valves shall be closed as necessary to prevent inflow of flood water. All drainage structures in levees shall be inspected frequently during floods to ascertain whether seepage is taking place along the lines of their contact with the embankment. Immediate steps shall be taken to correct any adverse condition.
(e) Closure structures—
Closure structures for traffic openings shall be inspected by the Superintendent every 90 days to be certain that:
No parts are missing;
Metal parts are adequately covered with paint;
All movable parts are in satisfactory working order;
Proper closure can be made promptly when necessary;
Sufficient materials are on hand for the erection of sand bag closures and that the location of such materials will be readily accessible in times of emergency.
Tools and parts shall not be removed for other use. Trial erections of one or more closure structures shall be made once each year, alternating the structures chosen so that each gate will be erected at least once in each 3-year period. Trial erection of all closure structures shall be made whenever a change is made in key operating personnel. Where railroad operation makes trial erection of a closure structure infeasible, rigorous inspection and drill of operating personnel may be substituted therefor. Trial erection of sand bag closures is not required. Closure materials will be carefully checked prior to and following flood periods, and damaged or missing parts shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
Erection of each movable closure shall be started in sufficient time to permit completion before flood waters reach the top of the structure sill. Information regarding the proper method of erecting each individual closure structure, together with an estimate of the time required by an experienced crew to complete its erection will be given in the Operation and Maintenance Manual which will be furnished local interests upon completion of the project. Closure structures will be inspected frequently during flood periods to ascertain that no undue leakage is occurring and that drains provided to care for ordinary leakage are functioning properly. Boats or floating plant shall not be allowed to tie up to closure structures or to discharge passengers or cargo over them.
(f) Pumping plants—
Pumping plants shall be inspected by the Superintendent at intervals not to exceed 30 days during flood seasons and 90 days during off-flood seasons to insure that all equipment is in order for instant use. At regular intervals, proper measures shall be taken to provide for cleaning plant, buildings, and equipment, repainting as necessary, and lubricating all machinery. Adequate supplies of lubricants for all types of machines, fuel for gasoline or diesel powered equipment, and flash lights or lanterns for emergency lighting shall be kept on hand at all times. Telephone service shall be maintained at pumping plants. All equipment, including switch gear, transformers, motors, pumps, valves, and gates shall be trial operated and checked at least once every 90 days. Megger tests of all insulation shall be made whenever wiring has been subjected to undue dampness and otherwise at intervals not to exceed one year. A record shall be kept showing the results of such tests. Wiring disclosed to be in an unsatisfactory condition by such tests shall be brought to a satisfactory condition or shall be promptly replaced. Diesel and gasoline engines shall be started at such intervals and allowed to run for such length of time as may be necessary to insure their serviceability in times of emergency. Only skilled electricians and mechanics shall be employed on tests and repairs. Operating personnel for the plant shall be present during tests. Any equipment removed from the station for repair or replacement shall be returned or replaced as soon as practicable and shall be trial operated after reinstallation. Repairs requiring removal of equipment from the plant shall be made during off-flood seasons insofar as practicable.
Competent operators shall be on duty at pumping plants whenever it appears that necessity for pump operation is imminent. The operator shall thoroughly inspect, trial operate, and place in readiness all plant equipment. The operator shall be familiar with the equipment manufacturers' instructions and drawings and with the “Operating Instructions” for each station. The equipment shall be operated in accordance with the above-mentioned “Operating Instructions” and care shall be exercised that proper lubrication is being supplied all equipment, and that no overheating, undue vibration or noise is occurring. Immediately upon final recession of flood waters, the pumping station shall be thoroughly cleaned, pump house sumps flushed, and equipment thoroughly inspected, oiled and greased. A record or log of pumping plant operation shall be kept for each station, a copy of which shall be furnished the District Engineer following each flood.
(g) Channels and floodways—
Periodic inspections of improved channels and floodways shall be made by the Superintendent to be certain that:
The channel or floodway is clear of debris, weeds, and wild growth;
The channel or floodway is not being restricted by the depositing of waste materials, building of unauthorized structures or other encroachments;
The capacity of the channel or floodway is not being reduced by the formation of shoals;
Banks are not being damaged by rain or wave wash, and that no sloughing of banks has occurred;
Riprap sections and deflection dikes and walls are in good condition;
Approach and egress channels adjacent to the improved channel or floodway are sufficiently clear of obstructions and debris to permit proper functioning of the project works.
Such inspections shall be made prior to the beginning of the flood season and otherwise at intervals not to exceed 90 days. Immediate steps will be taken to
remedy any adverse conditions disclosed by such inspections. Measures will be taken by the Superintendent to promote the growth of grass on bank slopes and earth deflection dikes. The Superintendent shall provide for periodic repair and cleaning of debris basins, check dams, and related structures as may be necessary.
Code of Federal Regulations
- Page 111
Both banks of the channel shall be patrolled during periods of high water, and measures shall be taken to protect those reaches being attacked by the current or by wave wash. Appropriate measures shall be taken to prevent the formation of jams of ice or debris. Large objects which become lodged against the bank shall be removed. The improved channel or floodway shall be thoroughly inspected immediately following each major high water period. As soon as practicable thereafter, all snags and other debris shall be removed and all damage to banks, riprap, deflection dikes and walls, drainage outlets, or other flood control structures repaired.
(h) Miscellaneous facilities—
Miscellaneous structures and facilities constructed as a part of the protective works and other structures and facilities which function as a part of, or affect the efficient functioning of the protective works, shall be periodically inspected by the Superintendent and appropriate maintenance measures taken. Damaged or unserviceable parts shall be repaired or replaced without delay. Areas used for ponding in connection with pumping plants or for temporary storage of interior run-off during flood periods shall not be allowed to become filled with silt, debris, or dumped material. The Superintendent shall take proper steps to prevent restriction of bridge openings and, where practicable, shall provide for temporary raising during floods of bridges which restrict channel capacities during high flows.
Miscellaneous facilities shall be operated to prevent or reduce flooding during periods of high water. Those facilities constructed as a part of the protective works shall not be used for purposes other than flood protection without approval of the District Engineer unless designed therefor.
(Sec. 3, 49 Stat. 1571, as amended;
33 U.S.C. 701c
[9 FR 9999, Aug. 17, 1944; 9 FR 10203, Aug. 22, 1944]