40 CFR 141.132 - Monitoring requirements.

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§ 141.132 Monitoring requirements.
(a) General requirements.
(1) Systems must take all samples during normal operating conditions.
(2) Systems may consider multiple wells drawing water from a single aquifer as one treatment plant for determining the minimum number of TTHM and HAA5 samples required, with State approval in accordance with criteria developed under § 142.16(h)(5) of this chapter.
(3) Failure to monitor in accordance with the monitoring plan required under paragraph (f) of this section is a monitoring violation.
(4) Failure to monitor will be treated as a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the system's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MCLs or MRDLs.
(5) Systems may use only data collected under the provisions of this subpart to qualify for reduced monitoring.
(b) Monitoring requirements for disinfection byproducts—
(1) TTHMs and HAA5—
(i) Routine monitoring. Systems must monitor at the frequency indicated in the following table:
Routine Monitoring Frequency for TTHM and HAA5
Type of system Minimum monitoring frequency Sample location in the distribution system
1 If a system elects to sample more frequently than the minimum required, at least 25 percent of all samples collected each quarter (including those taken in excess of the required frequency) must be taken at locations that represent the maximum residence time of the water in the distribution system. The remaining samples must be taken at locations representative of at least average residence time in the distribution system.
2 Multiple wells drawing water from a single aquifer may be considered one treatment plant for determining the minimum number of samples required, with State approval in accordance with criteria developed under § 142.16(h)(5) of this chapter.
Subpart H system serving at least 10,000 persons Four water samples per quarter per treatment plant At least 25 percent of all samples collected each quarter at locations representing maximum residence time. Remaining samples taken at locations representative of at least average residence time in the distribution system and representing the entire distribution system, taking into account number of persons served, different sources of water, and different treatment methods. 1
Subpart H system serving from 500 to 9,999 persons One water sample per quarter per treatment plant Locations representing maximum residence time. 1
Subpart H system serving fewer than 500 persons One sample per year per treatment plant during month of warmest water temperature. Locations representing maximum residence time. 1 If the sample (or average of annual samples, if more than one sample is taken) exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a point reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets criteria in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.
System using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving at least 10,000 persons One water sample per quarter per treatment plant 2 Locations representing maximum residence time. 1
System using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving fewer than 10,000 persons One sample per year per treatment plant 2 during month of warmest water temperature. Locations representing maximum residence time. 1 If the sample (or average of annual samples, if more than one sample is taken) exceeds the MCL, the system must increase monitoring to one sample per treatment plant per quarter, taken at a point reflecting the maximum residence time in the distribution system, until the system meets criteria in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.
(ii) Systems may reduce monitoring, except as otherwise provided, in accordance with the following table:
Reduced Monitoring Frequency for TTHM and HAA5
If you are a . . . You may reduce monitoring if you have monitored at least one year and your . . . To this level
Subpart H system serving at least 10,000 persons which has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, ≤4.0 mg/L TTHM annual average ≤0.040 mg/L and HAA5 annual average ≤0.030 mg/L One sample per treatment plant per quarter at distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time.
Subpart H system serving from 500 to 9,999 persons which has a source water annual average TOC level, before any treatment, ≤4.0 mg/L TTHM annual average ≤0.040 mg/L and HAA5 annual average ≤0.030 mg/L One sample per treatment plant per year at distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during month of warmest water temperature. NOTE: Any Subpart H system serving fewer than 500 persons may not reduce its monitoring to less than one sample per treatment plant per year.
System using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving at least 10,000 persons TTHM annual average ≤0.040 mg/L and HAA5 annual average ≤0.030 mg/L One sample per treatment plant per year at distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during month of warmest water temperature
System using only ground water not under direct influence of surface water using chemical disinfectant and serving fewer than 10,000 persons TTHM annual average ≤0.040 mg/L and HAA5 annual average ≤0.030 mg/L for two consecutive years OR TTHM annual average ≤0.020 mg/L and HAA5 annual average ≤0.015 mg/L for one year One sample per treatment plant per three year monitoring cycle at distribution system location reflecting maximum residence time during month of warmest water temperature, with the three-year cycle beginning on January 1 following quarter in which system qualifies for reduced monitoring.
(iii) Monitoring requirements for source water TOC. In order to qualify for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, subpart H systems not monitoring under the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section must take monthly TOC samples every 30 days at a location prior to any treatment, beginning April 1, 2008 or earlier, if specified by the State. In addition to meeting other criteria for reduced monitoring in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, the source water TOC running annual average must be ≤4.0 mg/L (based on the most recent four quarters of monitoring) on a continuing basis at each treatment plant to reduce or remain on reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5. Once qualified for reduced monitoring for TTHM and HAA5 under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, a system may reduce source water TOC monitoring to quarterly TOC samples taken every 90 days at a location prior to any treatment.
(iv) Systems on a reduced monitoring schedule may remain on that reduced schedule as long as the average of all samples taken in the year (for systems which must monitor quarterly) or the result of the sample (for systems which must monitor no more frequently than annually) is no more than 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. Systems that do not meet these levels must resume monitoring at the frequency identified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section (minimum monitoring frequency column) in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.060 mg/L or 0.045 mg/L for TTHMs and HAA5, respectively. For systems using only ground water not under the direct influence of surface water and serving fewer than 10,000 persons, if either the TTHM annual average is >0.080 mg/L or the HAA5 annual average is >0.060 mg/L, the system must go to the increased monitoring identified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section (sample location column) in the quarter immediately following the monitoring period in which the system exceeds 0.080 mg/L or 0.060 mg/L for TTHMs or HAA5 respectively.
(v) Systems on increased monitoring may return to routine monitoring if, after at least one year of monitoring their TTHM annual average is ≤0.060 mg/L and their HAA5 annual average is ≤0.045 mg/L.
(vi) The State may return a system to routine monitoring at the State's discretion.
(2) Chlorite. Community and nontransient noncommunity water systems using chlorine dioxide, for disinfection or oxidation, must conduct monitoring for chlorite.
(i) Routine monitoring.
(A) Daily monitoring. Systems must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the chlorite MCL, the system must take additional samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(B) Monthly monitoring. Systems must take a three-sample set each month in the distribution system. The system must take one sample at each of the following locations: near the first customer, at a location representative of average residence time, and at a location reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system. Any additional routine sampling must be conducted in the same manner (as three-sample sets, at the specified locations). The system may use the results of additional monitoring conducted under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section to meet the requirement for monitoring in this paragraph.
(ii) Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the chlorite MCL at the entrance to the distribution system, the system is required to take three chlorite distribution system samples at the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced monitoring.
(A) Chlorite monitoring at the entrance to the distribution system required by paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section may not be reduced.
(B) Chlorite monitoring in the distribution system required by paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section may be reduced to one three-sample set per quarter after one year of monitoring where no individual chlorite sample taken in the distribution system under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section has exceeded the chlorite MCL and the system has not been required to conduct monitoring under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. The system may remain on the reduced monitoring schedule until either any of the three individual chlorite samples taken quarterly in the distribution system under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section exceeds the chlorite MCL or the system is required to conduct monitoring under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, at which time the system must revert to routine monitoring.
(3) Bromate—
(i) Routine monitoring. Community and nontransient noncommunity systems using ozone, for disinfection or oxidation, must take one sample per month for each treatment plant in the system using ozone. Systems must take samples monthly at the entrance to the distribution system while the ozonation system is operating under normal conditions.
(ii) Reduced monitoring.
(A) Until March 31, 2009, systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to quarterly, if the system's average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based on representative monthly bromide measurements for one year. The system may remain on reduced bromate monitoring until the running annual average source water bromide concentration, computed quarterly, is equal to or greater than 0.05 mg/L based on representative monthly measurements. If the running annual average source water bromide concentration is ≥0.05 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section in the following month.
(B) Beginning April 1, 2009, systems may no longer use the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section to qualify for reduced monitoring. A system required to analyze for bromate may reduce monitoring from monthly to quarterly, if the system's running annual average bromate concentration is ≤0.0025 mg/L based on monthly bromate measurements under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section for the most recent four quarters, with samples analyzed using Method 317.0 Revision 2.0, 326.0 or 321.8. If a system has qualified for reduced bromate monitoring under paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, that system may remain on reduced monitoring as long as the running annual average of quarterly bromate samples ≤0.0025 mg/L based on samples analyzed using Method 317.0 Revision 2.0, 326.0, or 321.8. If the running annual average bromate concentration is >0.0025 mg/L, the system must resume routine monitoring required by paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.
(c) Monitoring requirements for disinfectant residuals—
(1) Chlorine and chloramines—
(i) Routine monitoring. Community and nontransient noncommunity water systems that use chlorine or chloramines must measure the residual disinfectant level in the distribution system at the same point in the distribution system and at the same time as total coliforms are sampled, as specified in § 141.21. Subpart H systems may use the results of residual disinfectant concentration sampling conducted under § 141.74(b)(6)(i) for unfiltered systems or § 141.74(c)(3)(i) for systems which filter, in lieu of taking separate samples.
(ii) Reduced monitoring. Monitoring may not be reduced.
(2) Chlorine dioxide—
(i) Routine monitoring. Community, nontransient noncommunity, and transient noncommunity water systems that use chlorine dioxide for disinfection or oxidation must take daily samples at the entrance to the distribution system. For any daily sample that exceeds the MRDL, the system must take samples in the distribution system the following day at the locations required by paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, in addition to the sample required at the entrance to the distribution system.
(ii) Additional monitoring. On each day following a routine sample monitoring result that exceeds the MRDL, the system is required to take three chlorine dioxide distribution system samples. If chlorine dioxide or chloramines are used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system, or if chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are no disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., no booster chlorination), the system must take three samples as close to the first customer as possible, at intervals of at least six hours. If chlorine is used to maintain a disinfectant residual in the distribution system and there are one or more disinfection addition points after the entrance to the distribution system (i.e., booster chlorination), the system must take one sample at each of the following locations: as close to the first customer as possible, in a location representative of average residence time, and as close to the end of the distribution system as possible (reflecting maximum residence time in the distribution system).
(iii) Reduced monitoring. Chlorine dioxide monitoring may not be reduced.
(d) Monitoring requirements for disinfection byproduct precursors (DBPP)—
(1) Routine monitoring. Subpart H systems which use conventional filtration treatment (as defined in § 141.2) must monitor each treatment plant for TOC no later than the point of combined filter effluent turbidity monitoring and representative of the treated water. All systems required to monitor under this paragraph (d)(1) must also monitor for TOC in the source water prior to any treatment at the same time as monitoring for TOC in the treated water. These samples (source water and treated water) are referred to as paired samples. At the same time as the source water sample is taken, all systems must monitor for alkalinity in the source water prior to any treatment. Systems must take one paired sample and one source water alkalinity sample per month per plant at a time representative of normal operating conditions and influent water quality.
(2) Reduced monitoring. Subpart H systems with an average treated water TOC of less than 2.0 mg/L for two consecutive years, or less than 1.0 mg/L for one year, may reduce monitoring for both TOC and alkalinity to one paired sample and one source water alkalinity sample per plant per quarter. The system must revert to routine monitoring in the month following the quarter when the annual average treated water TOC ≥2.0 mg/L.
(e) Bromide. Systems required to analyze for bromate may reduce bromate monitoring from monthly to once per quarter, if the system demonstrates that the average source water bromide concentration is less than 0.05 mg/L based upon representative monthly measurements for one year. The system must continue bromide monitoring to remain on reduced bromate monitoring.
(f) Monitoring plans. Each system required to monitor under this subpart must develop and implement a monitoring plan. The system must maintain the plan and make it available for inspection by the State and the general public no later than 30 days following the applicable compliance dates in § 141.130(b). All Subpart H systems serving more than 3300 people must submit a copy of the monitoring plan to the State no later than the date of the first report required under § 141.134. The State may also require the plan to be submitted by any other system. After review, the State may require changes in any plan elements. The plan must include at least the following elements.
(1) Specific locations and schedules for collecting samples for any parameters included in this subpart.
(2) How the system will calculate compliance with MCLs, MRDLs, and treatment techniques.
(3) If approved for monitoring as a consecutive system, or if providing water to a consecutive system, under the provisions of § 141.29, the sampling plan must reflect the entire distribution system.
[63 FR 69466, Dec. 16, 1998, as amended at 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001; 69 FR 38856, June 29, 2004; 71 FR 482, Jan. 4, 2006]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-02-26; vol. 79 # 38 - Wednesday, February 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10665 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Minor Corrections to the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on April 28, 2014 without further notice, unless EPA receives adverse comment by March 28, 2014. If EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect. The incorporation by reference of certain material listed in the rule was approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of April 15, 2013.
      40 CFR Parts 141 and 142

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-02-26; vol. 79 # 38 - Wednesday, February 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10665 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Minor Corrections to the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on April 28, 2014 without further notice, unless EPA receives adverse comment by March 28, 2014. If EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect. The incorporation by reference of certain material listed in the rule was approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of April 15, 2013.
      40 CFR Parts 141 and 142