40 CFR 141.135 - Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors.

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§ 141.135 Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors.
(a) Applicability.
(1) Subpart H systems using conventional filtration treatment (as defined in § 141.2) must operate with enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening to achieve the TOC percent removal levels specified in paragraph (b) of this section unless the system meets at least one of the alternative compliance criteria listed in paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section.
(2) Alternative compliance criteria for enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening systems. Subpart H systems using conventional filtration treatment may use the alternative compliance criteria in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (vi) of this section to comply with this section in lieu of complying with paragraph (b) of this section. Systems must still comply with monitoring requirements in § 141.132(d).
(i) The system's source water TOC level, measured according to § 141.131(d)(3), is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(ii) The system's treated water TOC level, measured according to § 141.131(d)(3), is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(iii) The system's source water TOC level, measured according to § 141.131(d)(3), is less than 4.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average; the source water alkalinity, measured according to § 141.131(d)(1), is greater than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), calculated quarterly as a running annual average; and either the TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are no greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively; or prior to the effective date for compliance in § 141.130(b), the system has made a clear and irrevocable financial commitment not later than the effective date for compliance in § 141.130(b) to use of technologies that will limit the levels of TTHMs and HAA5 to no more than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively. Systems must submit evidence of a clear and irrevocable financial commitment, in addition to a schedule containing milestones and periodic progress reports for installation and operation of appropriate technologies, to the State for approval not later than the effective date for compliance in § 141.130(b). These technologies must be installed and operating not later than June 30, 2005. Failure to install and operate these technologies by the date in the approved schedule will constitute a violation of National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
(iv) The TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are no greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively, and the system uses only chlorine for primary disinfection and maintenance of a residual in the distribution system.
(v) The system's source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured monthly according to § 141.131(d)(4), is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(vi) The system's finished water SUVA, measured monthly according to § 141.131(d)(4), is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(3) Additional alternative compliance criteria for softening systems. Systems practicing enhanced softening that cannot achieve the TOC removals required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section may use the alternative compliance criteria in paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section in lieu of complying with paragraph (b) of this section. Systems must still comply with monitoring requirements in § 141.132(d).
(i) Softening that results in lowering the treated water alkalinity to less than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), measured monthly according to § 141.131(d)(1) and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(ii) Softening that results in removing at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), measured monthly according to § 141.131(d)(6) and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.
(b) Enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening performance requirements.
(1) Systems must achieve the percent reduction of TOC specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section between the source water and the combined filter effluent, unless the State approves a system's request for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
(2) Required Step 1 TOC reductions, indicated in the following table, are based upon specified source water parameters measured in accordance with § 141.131(d). Systems practicing softening are required to meet the Step 1 TOC reductions in the far-right column (Source water alkalinity >120 mg/L) for the specified source water TOC:
Step 1 Required Removal of TOC by Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Softening for Subpart H Systems Using Conventional Treatment 1,2
Source-waterTOC, mg/L Source-water alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3 (in precentages)
0-60 >60-120 >120 3
1 Systems meeting at least one of the conditions in paragraph (a)(2)(i)-(vi) of this section are not required to operate with enhanced coagulation.
2 Softening system meeting one of the alternative compliance criteria in paragraph (a)(3) of this section are not required to operate with enhanced softening.
3 System practicing softening must meet the TOC removal requirements in this column.
>2.0-4.0 35.0 25.0 15.0
>4.0-8.0 45.0 35.0 25.0
>8.0. 50.0 40.0 30.0
(3) Subpart H conventional treatment systems that cannot achieve the Step 1 TOC removals required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section due to water quality parameters or operational constraints must apply to the State, within three months of failure to achieve the TOC removals required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section, for approval of alternative minimum TOC (Step 2) removal requirements submitted by the system. If the State approves the alternative minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, the State may make those requirements retroactive for the purposes of determining compliance. Until the State approves the alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, the system must meet the Step 1 TOC removals contained in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(4) Alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements. Applications made to the State by enhanced coagulation systems for approval of alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under paragraph (b)(3) of this section must include, at a minimum, results of bench- or pilot-scale testing conducted under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section. The submitted bench- or pilot-scale testing must be used to determine the alternate enhanced coagulation level.
(i) Alternate enhanced coagulation level is defined as coagulation at a coagulant dose and pH as determined by the method described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) through (v) of this section such that an incremental addition of 10 mg/L of alum (or equivalent amount of ferric salt) results in a TOC removal of ≤ 0.3 mg/L. The percent removal of TOC at this point on the “TOC removal versus coagulant dose” curve is then defined as the minimum TOC removal required for the system. Once approved by the State, this minimum requirement supersedes the minimum TOC removal required by the table in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. This requirement will be effective until such time as the State approves a new value based on the results of a new bench- and pilot-scale test. Failure to achieve State-set alternative minimum TOC removal levels is a violation of National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
(ii) Bench- or pilot-scale testing of enhanced coagulation must be conducted by using representative water samples and adding 10 mg/L increments of alum (or equivalent amounts of ferric salt) until the pH is reduced to a level less than or equal to the enhanced coagulation Step 2 target pH shown in the following table:
Enhanced Coagulation Step 2 target pH
Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) Target pH
0-60 5.5
>60-120 6.3
>120-240 7.0
>240 7.5
(iii) For waters with alkalinities of less than 60 mg/L for which addition of small amounts of alum or equivalent addition of iron coagulant drives the pH below 5.5 before significant TOC removal occurs, the system must add necessary chemicals to maintain the pH between 5.3 and 5.7 in samples until the TOC removal of 0.3 mg/L per 10 mg/L alum added (or equivalant addition of iron coagulant) is reached.
(iv) The system may operate at any coagulant dose or pH necessary (consistent with other NPDWRs) to achieve the minimum TOC percent removal approved under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
(v) If the TOC removal is consistently less than 0.3 mg/L of TOC per 10 mg/L of incremental alum dose at all dosages of alum (or equivalant addition of iron coagulant), the water is deemed to contain TOC not amenable to enhanced coagulation. The system may then apply to the State for a waiver of enhanced coagulation requirements.
(c) Compliance calculations.
(1) Subpart H systems other than those identified in paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section must comply with requirements contained in paragraph (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section. Systems must calculate compliance quarterly, beginning after the system has collected 12 months of data, by determining an annual average using the following method:
(i) Determine actual monthly TOC percent removal, equal to:
(1−(treated water TOC/source water TOC)) × 100
(ii) Determine the required monthly TOC percent removal (from either the table in paragraph (b)(2) of this section or from paragraph (b)(3) of this section).
(iii) Divide the value in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section by the value in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.
(iv) Add together the results of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section for the last 12 months and divide by 12.
(v) If the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section is less than 1.00, the system is not in compliance with the TOC percent removal requirements.
(2) Systems may use the provisions in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section in lieu of the calculations in paragraph (c)(1)(i) through (v) of this section to determine compliance with TOC percent removal requirements.
(i) In any month that the system's treated or source water TOC level, measured according to § 141.131(d)(3), is less than 2.0 mg/L, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(ii) In any month that a system practicing softening removes at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(iii) In any month that the system's source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured according to § 141.131(d)(4), is ≤2.0 L/mg-m, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(iv) In any month that the system's finished water SUVA, measured according to § 141.131(d)(4), is ≤2.0 L/mg-m, the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(v) In any month that a system practicing enhanced softening lowers alkalinity below 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), the system may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(3) Subpart H systems using conventional treatment may also comply with the requirements of this section by meeting the criteria in paragraph (a)(2) or (3) of this section.
(d) Treatment technique requirements for DBP precursors. The Administrator identifies the following as treatment techniques to control the level of disinfection byproduct precursors in drinking water treatment and distribution systems: For Subpart H systems using conventional treatment, enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening.
[63 FR 69466, Dec. 16, 1998, as amended at 66 FR 3779, Jan. 16, 2001; 71 FR 482, Jan. 4, 2006]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-02-26; vol. 79 # 38 - Wednesday, February 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10665 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Minor Corrections to the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on April 28, 2014 without further notice, unless EPA receives adverse comment by March 28, 2014. If EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect. The incorporation by reference of certain material listed in the rule was approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of April 15, 2013.
      40 CFR Parts 141 and 142

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-02-26; vol. 79 # 38 - Wednesday, February 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10665 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Minor Corrections to the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on April 28, 2014 without further notice, unless EPA receives adverse comment by March 28, 2014. If EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect. The incorporation by reference of certain material listed in the rule was approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of April 15, 2013.
      40 CFR Parts 141 and 142