(a) Each community water system must provide to its customers an annual report that contains the information specified in this section and § 141.154.
(b) Information on the source of the water delivered:
(1) Each report must identify the source(s) of the water delivered by the community water system by providing information on:
(i) The type of the water: e.g., surface water, ground water; and
(ii) The commonly used name (if any) and location of the body (or bodies) of water.
(2) If a source water assessment has been completed, the report must notify consumers of the availability of this information and the means to obtain it. In addition, systems are encouraged to highlight in the report significant sources of contamination in the source water area if they have readily available information. Where a system has received a source water assessment from the primacy agency, the report must include a brief summary of the system's susceptibility to potential sources of contamination, using language provided by the primacy agency or written by the operator.
(1) Each report must include the following definitions:
(i)Maximum Contaminant Level Goal or MCLG: The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.
(ii)Maximum Contaminant Level or MCL: The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology.
(2) A report for a community water system operating under a variance or an exemption issued under § 1415 or 1416 of SDWA must include the following definition: Variances and Exemptions: State or EPA permission not to meet an MCL or a treatment technique under certain conditions.
(3) A report that contains data on contaminants that EPA regulates using any of the following terms must include the applicable definitions:
(i)Treatment Technique: A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
(ii)Action Level: The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.
(iii)Maximum residual disinfectant level goal or MRDLG: The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.
(iv)Maximum residual disinfectant level or MRDL: The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
(d) Information on detected contaminants.
(1) This sub-section specifies the requirements for information to be included in each report for contaminants subject to mandatory monitoring (except Cryptosporidium). It applies to:
(i) Contaminants subject to a MCL, action level, maximum residual disinfectant level, or treatment technique (regulated contaminants).
(ii) Contaminants for which monitoring is required by § 141.40 (unregulated contaminants); and
(iii) Disinfection by-products or microbial contaminants for which monitoring is required by §§ 141.142 and 141.143, except as provided under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, and which are detected in the finished water.
(2) The data relating to these contaminants must be displayed in one table or in several adjacent tables. Any additional monitoring results which a community water system chooses to include in its report must be displayed separately.
(3) The data must be derived from data collected to comply with EPA and State monitoring and analytical requirements during calendar year 1998 for the first report and subsequent calendar years thereafter except that:
(i) Where a system is allowed to monitor for regulated contaminants less often than once a year, the table(s) must include the date and results of the most recent sampling and the report must include a brief statement indicating that the data presented in the report are from the most recent testing done in accordance with the regulations. No data older than 5 years need be included.
(ii) Results of monitoring in compliance with §§ 141.142 and 141.143 need only be included for 5 years from the date of last sample or until any of the detected contaminants becomes regulated and subject to routine monitoring requirements, whichever comes first.
(4) For detected regulated contaminants (listed in appendix A to this subpart), the table(s) must contain:
(i) The MCL for that contaminant expressed as a number equal to or greater than 1.0 (as provided in appendix A to this subpart);
(ii) The MCLG for that contaminant expressed in the same units as the MCL;
(iii) If there is no MCL for a detected contaminant, the table must indicate that there is a treatment technique, or specify the action level, applicable to that contaminant, and the report must include the definitions for treatment technique and/or action level, as appropriate, specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section;
(iv) For contaminants subject to an MCL, except turbidity and total coliforms, the highest contaminant level used to determine compliance with an NPDWR and the range of detected levels, as follows:
(A) When compliance with the MCL is determined annually or less frequently: The highest detected level at any sampling point and the range of detected levels expressed in the same units as the MCL.
(B) When compliance with the MCL is determined by calculating a running annual average of all samples taken at a monitoring location: the highest average of any of the monitoring locations and the range of all monitoring locations expressed in the same units as the MCL. For the MCLs for TTHM and HAA5 in § 141.64(b)(2), systems must include the highest locational running annual average for TTHM and HAA5 and the range of individual sample results for all monitoring locations expressed in the same units as the MCL. If more than one location exceeds the TTHM or HAA5 MCL, the system must include the locational running annual averages for all locations that exceed the MCL.
(C) When compliance with the MCL is determined on a system-wide basis by calculating a running annual average of all samples at all monitoring locations: the average and range of detection expressed in the same units as the MCL. The system is required to include individual sample results for the IDSE conducted under subpart U of this part when determining the range of TTHM and HAA5 results to be reported in the annual consumer confidence report for the calendar year that the IDSE samples were taken.
Note to paragraph (d)(4)(iv):
When rounding of results to determine compliance with the MCL is allowed by the regulations, rounding should be done prior to multiplying the results by the factor listed in appendix A of this subpart.
(v) For turbidity.
(A) When it is reported pursuant to § 141.13: The highest average monthly value.
(B) When it is reported pursuant to the requirements of § 141.71: the highest monthly value. The report should include an explanation of the reasons for measuring turbidity.
(C) When it is reported pursuant to § 141.73 or § 141.173 or § 141.551: the highest single measurement and the lowest monthly percentage of samples meeting the turbidity limits specified in § 141.73 or § 141.173, or § 141.551 for the filtration technology being used. The report should include an explanation of the reasons for measuring turbidity;
(vi) For lead and copper: the 90th percentile value of the most recent round of sampling and the number of sampling sites exceeding the action level;
(vii) For total coliform:
(A) The highest monthly number of positive samples for systems collecting fewer than 40 samples per month; or
(B) The highest monthly percentage of positive samples for systems collecting at least 40 samples per month;
(viii) For fecal coliform: The total number of positive samples; and
(ix) The likely source(s) of detected contaminants to the best of the operator's knowledge. Specific information regarding contaminants may be available in sanitary surveys and source water assessments, and should be used when available to the operator. If the operator lacks specific information on the likely source, the report must include one or more of the typical sources for that contaminant listed in appendix A to this subpart that is most applicable to the system.
(5) If a community water system distributes water to its customers from multiple hydraulically independent distribution systems that are fed by different raw water sources, the table should contain a separate column for each service area and the report should identify each separate distribution system. Alternatively, systems could produce separate reports tailored to include data for each service area.
(6) The table(s) must clearly identify any data indicating violations of MCLs, MRDLs, or treatment techniques, and the report must contain a clear and readily understandable explanation of the violation including: the length of the violation, the potential adverse health effects, and actions taken by the system to address the violation. To describe the potential health effects, the system must use the relevant language of appendix A to this subpart.
(7) For detected unregulated contaminants for which monitoring is required (except Cryptosporidium), the table(s) must contain the average and range at which the contaminant was detected. The report may include a brief explanation of the reasons for monitoring for unregulated contaminants.
(e) Information on Cryptosporidium, radon, and other contaminants:
(1) If the system has performed any monitoring for Cryptosporidium, including monitoring performed to satisfy the requirements of § 141.143, which indicates that Cryptosporidium may be present in the source water or the finished water, the report must include:
(i) A summary of the results of the monitoring; and
(ii) An explanation of the significance of the results.
(2) If the system has performed any monitoring for radon which indicates that radon may be present in the finished water, the report must include:
(i) The results of the monitoring; and
(ii) An explanation of the significance of the results.
(3) If the system has performed additional monitoring which indicates the presence of other contaminants in the finished water, EPA strongly encourages systems to report any results which may indicate a health concern. To determine if results may indicate a health concern, EPA recommends that systems find out if EPA has proposed an NPDWR or issued a health advisory for that contaminant by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791). EPA considers detects above a proposed MCL or health advisory level to indicate possible health concerns. For such contaminants, EPA recommends that the report include:
(i) The results of the monitoring; and
(ii) An explanation of the significance of the results noting the existence of a health advisory or a proposed regulation.
(f) Compliance with NPDWR. In addition to the requirements of § 141.153(d)(6), the report must note any violation that occurred during the year covered by the report of a requirement listed below, and include a clear and readily understandable explanation of the violation, any potential adverse health effects, and the steps the system has taken to correct the violation.
(1) Monitoring and reporting of compliance data;
(2) Filtration and disinfection prescribed by subpart H of this part. For systems which have failed to install adequate filtration or disinfection equipment or processes, or have had a failure of such equipment or processes which constitutes a violation, the report must include the following language as part of the explanation of potential adverse health effects: Inadequately treated water may contain disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites which can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.
(3) Lead and copper control requirements prescribed by subpart I of this part. For systems that fail to take one or more actions prescribed by §§ 141.80(d), 141.81, 141.82, 141.83 or 141.84, the report must include the applicable language of appendix A to this subpart for lead, copper, or both.
(4) Treatment techniques for Acrylamide and Epichlorohydrin prescribed by subpart K of this part. For systems that violate the requirements of subpart K of this part, the report must include the relevant language from appendix A to this subpart.
(5) Recordkeeping of compliance data.
(6) Special monitoring requirements prescribed by §§ 141.40 and 141.41; and
(7) Violation of the terms of a variance, an exemption, or an administrative or judicial order.
(g) Variances and Exemptions. If a system is operating under the terms of a variance or an exemption issued under § 1415 or 1416 of SDWA, the report must contain:
(1) An explanation of the reasons for the variance or exemption;
(2) The date on which the variance or exemption was issued;
(3) A brief status report on the steps the system is taking to install treatment, find alternative sources of water, or otherwise comply with the terms and schedules of the variance or exemption; and
(4) A notice of any opportunity for public input in the review, or renewal, of the variance or exemption.
(h) Additional information:
(1) The report must contain a brief explanation regarding contaminants which may reasonably be expected to be found in drinking water including bottled water. This explanation may include the language of paragraphs (h)(1) (i) through (iii) or systems may use their own comparable language. The report also must include the language of paragraph (h)(1)(iv) of this section.
(i) The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally-occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity.
(ii) Contaminants that may be present in source water include:
(A)Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife.
(B)Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming.
(C)Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses.
(D)Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems.
(E)Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally-occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.
(iii) In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, EPA prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. FDA regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health.
(iv) Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the Environmental Protection Agency's Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).
(2) The report must include the telephone number of the owner, operator, or designee of the community water system as a source of additional information concerning the report.
(3) In communities with a large proportion of non-English speaking residents, as determined by the Primacy Agency, the report must contain information in the appropriate language(s) regarding the importance of the report or contain a telephone number or address where such residents may contact the system to obtain a translated copy of the report or assistance in the appropriate language.
(4) The report must include information (e.g., time and place of regularly scheduled board meetings) about opportunities for public participation in decisions that may affect the quality of the water.
(5) The systems may include such additional information as they deem necessary for public education consistent with, and not detracting from, the purpose of the report.
(6)Systems required to comply with subpart S.
(i) Any ground water system that receives notice from the State of a significant deficiency or notice from a laboratory of a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample that is not invalidated by the State under § 141.402(d) must inform its customers of any significant deficiency that is uncorrected at the time of the next report or of any fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample in the next report. The system must continue to inform the public annually until the State determines that particular significant deficiency is corrected or the fecal contamination in the ground water source is addressed under § 141.403(a). Each report must include the following elements.
(A) The nature of the particular significant deficiency or the source of the fecal contamination (if the source is known) and the date the significant deficiency was identified by the State or the dates of the fecal indicator-positive ground water source samples;
(B) If the fecal contamination in the ground water source has been addressed under § 141.403(a) and the date of such action;
(C) For each significant deficiency or fecal contamination in the ground water source that has not been addressed under § 141.403(a), the State-approved plan and schedule for correction, including interim measures, progress to date, and any interim measures completed; and
(D) If the system receives notice of a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample that is not invalidated by the State under § 141.402(d), the potential health effects using the health effects language of Appendix A of subpart O.
(ii) If directed by the State, a system with significant deficiencies that have been corrected before the next report is issued must inform its customers of the significant deficiency, how the deficiency was corrected, and the date of correction under paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this section.