40 CFR 141.172 - Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

§ 141.172 Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.
(a) Determination of systems required to profile. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart must determine its TTHM annual average using the procedure in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and its HAA5 annual average using the procedure in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The annual average is the arithmetic average of the quarterly averages of four consecutive quarters of monitoring.
(1) The TTHM annual average must be the annual average during the same period as is used for the HAA5 annual average.
(i) Those systems that collected data under the provisions of subpart M (Information Collection Rule) must use the results of the samples collected during the last four quarters of required monitoring under § 141.142.
(ii) Those systems that use “grandfathered” HAA5 occurrence data that meet the provisions of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section must use TTHM data collected at the same time under the provisions of §§ 141.12 and 141.30.
(iii) Those systems that use HAA5 occurrence data that meet the provisions of paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(A) of this section must use TTHM data collected at the same time under the provisions of §§ 141.12 and 141.30.
(2) The HAA5 annual average must be the annual average during the same period as is used for the TTHM annual average.
(i) Those systems that collected data under the provisions of subpart M (Information Collection Rule) must use the results of the samples collected during the last four quarters of required monitoring under § 141.142.
(ii) Those systems that have collected four quarters of HAA5 occurrence data that meets the routine monitoring sample number and location requirements for TTHM in §§ 141.12 and 141.30 and handling and analytical method requirements of § 141.142(b)(1) may use those data to determine whether the requirements of this section apply.
(iii) Those systems that have not collected four quarters of HAA5 occurrence data that meets the provisions of either paragraph (a)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section by March 16, 1999 must either:
(A) Conduct monitoring for HAA5 that meets the routine monitoring sample number and location requirements for TTHM in §§ 141.12 and 141.30 and handling and analytical method requirements of § 141.142(b)(1) to determine the HAA5 annual average and whether the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section apply. This monitoring must be completed so that the applicability determination can be made no later than March 31, 2000, or
(B) Comply with all other provisions of this section as if the HAA5 monitoring had been conducted and the results required compliance with paragraph (b) of this section.
(3) The system may request that the State approve a more representative annual data set than the data set determined under paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section for the purpose of determining applicability of the requirements of this section.
(4) The State may require that a system use a more representative annual data set than the data set determined under paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section for the purpose of determining applicability of the requirements of this section.
(5) The system must submit data to the State on the schedule in paragraphs (a)(5)(i) through (v) of this section.
(i) Those systems that collected TTHM and HAA5 data under the provisions of subpart M (Information Collection Rule), as required by paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(2)(i) of this section, must submit the results of the samples collected during the last 12 months of required monitoring under § 141.142 not later than December 31, 1999.
(ii) Those systems that have collected four consecutive quarters of HAA5 occurrence data that meets the routine monitoring sample number and location for TTHM in §§ 141.12 and 141.30and handling and analytical method requirements of § 141.142(b)(1), as allowed by paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(2)(ii) of this section, must submit those data to the State not later than April 16, 1999. Until the State has approved the data, the system must conduct monitoring for HAA5 using the monitoring requirements specified under paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section.
(iii) Those systems that conduct monitoring for HAA5 using the monitoring requirements specified by paragraphs (a)(1)(iii) and (a)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, must submit TTHM and HAA5 data not later than March 31, 2000.
(iv) Those systems that elect to comply with all other provisions of this section as if the HAA5 monitoring had been conducted and the results required compliance with this section, as allowed under paragraphs (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, must notify the State in writing of their election not later than December 31, 1999.
(v) If the system elects to request that the State approve a more representative annual data set than the data set determined under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, the system must submit this request in writing not later than December 31, 1999.
(6) Any system having either a TTHM annual average ≥0.064 mg/L or an HAA5 annual average ≥0.048 mg/L during the period identified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section must comply with paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) Disinfection profiling.
(1) Any system that meets the criteria in paragraph (a)(6) of this section must develop a disinfection profile of its disinfection practice for a period of up to three years.
(2) The system must monitor daily for a period of 12 consecutive calendar months to determine the total logs of inactivation for each day of operation, based on the CT99.9 values in Tables 1.1-1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of § 141.74(b), as appropriate, through the entire treatment plant. This system must begin this monitoring not later than April 1, 2000. As a minimum, the system with a single point of disinfectant application prior to entrance to the distribution system must conduct the monitoring in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section. A system with more than one point of disinfectant application must conduct the monitoring in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section for each disinfection segment. The system must monitor the parameters necessary to determine the total inactivation ratio, using analytical methods in § 141.74(a), as follows:
(i) The temperature of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly flow.
(ii) If the system uses chlorine, the pH of the disinfected water must be measured once per day at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly flow.
(iii) The disinfectant contact time(s) (“T”) must be determined for each day during peak hourly flow.
(iv) The residual disinfectant concentration(s) (“C”) of the water before or at the first customer and prior to each additional point of disinfection must be measured each day during peak hourly flow.
(3) In lieu of the monitoring conducted under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section to develop the disinfection profile, the system may elect to meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section. In addition to the monitoring conducted under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section to develop the disinfection profile, the system may elect to meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section.
(i) A PWS that has three years of existing operational data may submit those data, a profile generated using those data, and a request that the State approve use of those data in lieu of monitoring under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section not later than March 31, 2000. The State must determine whether these operational data are substantially equivalent to data collected under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section. These data must also be representative of Giardia lamblia inactivation through the entire treatment plant and not just of certain treatment segments. Until the State approves this request, the system is required to conduct monitoring under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(ii) In addition to the disinfection profile generated under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, a PWS that has existing operational data may use those data to develop a disinfection profile for additional years. Such systems may use these additional yearly disinfection profiles to develop a benchmark under the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section. The State must determine whether these operational data are substantially equivalent to data collected under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section. These data must also be representative of inactivation through the entire treatment plant and not just of certain treatment segments.
(4) The system must calculate the total inactivation ratio as follows:
(i) If the system uses only one point of disinfectant application, the system may determine the total inactivation ratio for the disinfection segment based on either of the methods in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) or (b)(4)(i)(B) of this section.
(A) Determine one inactivation ratio (CTcalc/CT99.9) before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow.
(B) Determine successive CTcalc/CT99.9 values, representing sequential inactivation ratios, between the point of disinfectant application and a point before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow. Under this alternative, the system must calculate the total inactivation ratio by determining (CTcalc/CT99.9) for each sequence and then adding the (CTcalc/CT99.9) values together to determine (Σ (CTcalc/CT99.9)).
(ii) If the system uses more than one point of disinfectant application before the first customer, the system must determine the CT value of each disinfection segment immediately prior to the next point of disinfectant application, or for the final segment, before or at the first customer, during peak hourly flow. The (CTcalc/CT99.9) value of each segment and (Σ(CTcalc/CT99.9)) must be calculated using the method in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section.
(iii) The system must determine the total logs of inactivation by multiplying the value calculated in paragraph (b)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section by 3.0.
(5) A system that uses either chloramines or ozone for primary disinfection must also calculate the logs of inactivation for viruses using a method approved by the State.
(6) The system must retain disinfection profile data in graphic form, as a spreadsheet, or in some other format acceptable to the State for review as part of sanitary surveys conducted by the State.
(c) Disinfection benchmarking.
(1) Any system required to develop a disinfection profile under the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and that decides to make a significant change to its disinfection practice must consult with the State prior to making such change. Significant changes to disinfection practice are:
(i) Changes to the point of disinfection;
(ii) Changes to the disinfectant(s) used in the treatment plant;
(iii) Changes to the disinfection process; and
(iv) Any other modification identified by the State.
(2) Any system that is modifying its disinfection practice must calculate its disinfection benchmark using the procedure specified in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (ii) of this section.
(i) For each year of profiling data collected and calculated under paragraph (b) of this section, the system must determine the lowest average monthly Giardia lamblia inactivation in each year of profiling data. The system must determine the average Giardia lamblia inactivation for each calendar month for each year of profiling data by dividing the sum of daily Giardia lamblia of inactivation by the number of values calculated for that month.
(ii) The disinfection benchmark is the lowest monthly average value (for systems with one year of profiling data) or average of lowest monthly average values (for systems with more than one year of profiling data) of the monthly logs of Giardia lamblia inactivation in each year of profiling data.
(3) A system that uses either chloramines or ozone for primary disinfection must also calculate the disinfection benchmark for viruses using a method approved by the State.
(4) The system must submit information in paragraphs (c)(4)(i) through (iii) of this section to the State as part of its consultation process.
(i) A description of the proposed change;
(ii) The disinfection profile for Giardia lamblia (and, if necessary, viruses) under paragraph (b) of this section and benchmark as required by paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and
(iii) An analysis of how the proposed change will affect the current levels of disinfection.
[63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998, as amended at 66 FR 3779, Jan. 16, 2001]

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