40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

§ 141.26 Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.
(a) Monitoring and compliance requirements for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium.
(1) Community water systems (CWSs) must conduct initial monitoring to determine compliance with § 141.66(b), (c), and (e) by December 31, 2007. For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and beta particle and photon radioactivity in drinking water, “detection limit” is defined as in § 141.25(c).
(i) Applicability and sampling location for existing community water systems or sources. All existing CWSs using ground water, surface water or systems using both ground and surface water (for the purpose of this section hereafter referred to as systems) must sample at every entry point to the distribution system that is representative of all sources being used (hereafter called a sampling point) under normal operating conditions. The system must take each sample at the same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or the State has designated a distribution system location, in accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section.
(ii) Applicability and sampling location for new community water systems or sources. All new CWSs or CWSs that use a new source of water must begin to conduct initial monitoring for the new source within the first quarter after initiating use of the source. CWSs must conduct more frequent monitoring when ordered by the State in the event of possible contamination or when changes in the distribution system or treatment processes occur which may increase the concentration of radioactivity in finished water.
(2) Initial monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium as follows:
(i) Systems without acceptable historical data, as defined below, must collect four consecutive quarterly samples at all sampling points before December 31, 2007.
(ii) Grandfathering of data: States may allow historical monitoring data collected at a sampling point to satisfy the initial monitoring requirements for that sampling point, for the following situations.
(A) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system having only one entry point to the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003.
(B) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system with multiple entry points and having appropriate historical monitoring data for each entry point to the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003.
(C) To satisfy initial monitoring requirements, a community water system with appropriate historical data for a representative point in the distribution system may use the monitoring data from the last compliance monitoring period that began between June 2000 and December 8, 2003, provided that the State finds that the historical data satisfactorily demonstrate that each entry point to the distribution system is expected to be in compliance based upon the historical data and reasonable assumptions about the variability of contaminant levels between entry points. The State must make a written finding indicating how the data conforms to the these requirements.
(iii) For gross alpha particle activity, uranium, radium-226, and radium-228 monitoring, the State may waive the final two quarters of initial monitoring for a sampling point if the results of the samples from the previous two quarters are below the detection limit.
(iv) If the average of the initial monitoring results for a sampling point is above the MCL, the system must collect and analyze quarterly samples at that sampling point until the system has results from four consecutive quarters that are at or below the MCL, unless the system enters into another schedule as part of a formal compliance agreement with the State.
(3) Reduced monitoring: States may allow community water systems to reduce the future frequency of monitoring from once every three years to once every six or nine years at each sampling point, based on the following criteria.
(i) If the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant (i.e., gross alpha particle activity, uranium, radium-226, or radium-228) is below the detection limit specified in Table B, in § 141.25(c)(1), the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every nine years.
(ii) For gross alpha particle activity and uranium, if the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant is at or above the detection limit but at or below 1/2 the MCL, the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every six years. For combined radium-226 and radium-228, the analytical results must be combined. If the average of the combined initial monitoring results for radium-226 and radium-228 is at or above the detection limit but at or below 1/2 the MCL, the system must collect and analyze for that contaminant using at least one sample at that sampling point every six years.
(iii) For gross alpha particle activity and uranium, if the average of the initial monitoring results for each contaminant is above 1/2 the MCL but at or below the MCL, the system must collect and analyze at least one sample at that sampling point every three years. For combined radium-226 and radium-228, the analytical results must be combined. If the average of the combined initial monitoring results for radium-226 and radium-228 is above 1/2 the MCL but at or below the MCL, the system must collect and analyze at least one sample at that sampling point every three years.
(iv) Systems must use the samples collected during the reduced monitoring period to determine the monitoring frequency for subsequent monitoring periods (e.g., if a system's sampling point is on a nine year monitoring period, and the sample result is above 1/2 MCL, then the next monitoring period for that sampling point is three years).
(v) If a system has a monitoring result that exceeds the MCL while on reduced monitoring, the system must collect and analyze quarterly samples at that sampling point until the system has results from four consecutive quarters that are below the MCL, unless the system enters into another schedule as part of a formal compliance agreement with the State.
(4) Compositing: To fulfill quarterly monitoring requirements for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, or uranium, a system may composite up to four consecutive quarterly samples from a single entry point if analysis is done within a year of the first sample. States will treat analytical results from the composited as the average analytical result to determine compliance with the MCLs and the future monitoring frequency. If the analytical result from the composited sample is greater than 1/2 MCL, the State may direct the system to take additional quarterly samples before allowing the system to sample under a reduced monitoring schedule.
(5) A gross alpha particle activity measurement may be substituted for the required radium-226 measurement provided that the measured gross alpha particle activity does not exceed 5 pCi/l. A gross alpha particle activity measurement may be substituted for the required uranium measurement provided that the measured gross alpha particle activity does not exceed 15 pCi/l. The gross alpha measurement shall have a confidence interval of 95% (1.65σ, where σ is the standard deviation of the net counting rate of the sample) for radium-226 and uranium. When a system uses a gross alpha particle activity measurement in lieu of a radium-226 and/or uranium measurement, the gross alpha particle activity analytical result will be used to determine the future monitoring frequency for radium-226 and/or uranium. If the gross alpha particle activity result is less than detection, 1/2 the detection limit will be used to determine compliance and the future monitoring frequency.
(b) Monitoring and compliance requirements for beta particle and photon radioactivity. To determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels in § 141.66(d) for beta particle and photon radioactivity, a system must monitor at a frequency as follows:
(1) Community water systems (both surface and ground water) designated by the State as vulnerable must sample for beta particle and photon radioactivity. Systems must collect quarterly samples for beta emitters and annual samples for tritium and strontium-90 at each entry point to the distribution system (hereafter called a sampling point), beginning within one quarter after being notified by the State. Systems already designated by the State must continue to sample until the State reviews and either reaffirms or removes the designation.
(i) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity at a sampling point has a running annual average (computed quarterly) less than or equal to 50 pCi/L (screening level), the State may reduce the frequency of monitoring at that sampling point to once every 3 years. Systems must collect all samples required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section during the reduced monitoring period.
(ii) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, the State may allow the CWS to utilize environmental surveillance data collected by the nuclear facility in lieu of monitoring at the system's entry point(s), where the State determines if such data is applicable to a particular water system. In the event that there is a release from a nuclear facility, systems which are using surveillance data must begin monitoring at the community water system's entry point(s) in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(2) Community water systems (both surface and ground water) designated by the State as utilizing waters contaminated by effluents from nuclear facilities must sample for beta particle and photon radioactivity. Systems must collect quarterly samples for beta emitters and iodine-131 and annual samples for tritium and strontium-90 at each entry point to the distribution system (hereafter called a sampling point), beginning within one quarter after being notified by the State. Systems already designated by the State as systems using waters contaminated by effluents from nuclear facilities must continue to sample until the State reviews and either reaffirms or removes the designation.
(i) Quarterly monitoring for gross beta particle activity shall be based on the analysis of monthly samples or the analysis of a composite of three monthly samples. The former is recommended.
(ii) For iodine-131, a composite of five consecutive daily samples shall be analyzed once each quarter. As ordered by the State, more frequent monitoring shall be conducted when iodine-131 is identified in the finished water.
(iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium shall be conducted by means of the analysis of a composite of four consecutive quarterly samples or analysis of four quarterly samples. The latter procedure is recommended.
(iv) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity at a sampling point has a running annual average (computed quarterly) less than or equal to 15 pCi/L (screening level), the State may reduce the frequency of monitoring at that sampling point to every 3 years. Systems must collect the same type of samples required in paragraph (b)(2) of this section during the reduced monitoring period.
(v) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, the State may allow the CWS to utilize environmental surveillance data collected by the nuclear facility in lieu of monitoring at the system's entry point(s), where the State determines if such data is applicable to a particular water system. In the event that there is a release from a nuclear facility, systems which are using surveillance data must begin monitoring at the community water system's entry point(s) in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(3) Community water systems designated by the State to monitor for beta particle and photon radioactivity can not apply to the State for a waiver from the monitoring frequencies specified in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.
(4) Community water systems may analyze for naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity from the same or equivalent sample used for the gross beta particle activity analysis. Systems are allowed to subtract the potassium-40 beta particle activity value from the total gross beta particle activity value to determine if the screening level is exceeded. The potassium-40 beta particle activity must be calculated by multiplying elemental potassium concentrations (in mg/L) by a factor of 0.82.
(5) If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta particle activity exceeds the appropriate screening level, an analysis of the sample must be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present in the sample and the appropriate doses must be calculated and summed to determine compliance with § 141.66(d)(1), using the formula in § 141.66(d)(2). Doses must also be calculated and combined for measured levels of tritium and strontium to determine compliance.
(6) Systems must monitor monthly at the sampling point(s) which exceed the maximum contaminant level in § 141.66(d) beginning the month after the exceedance occurs. Systems must continue monthly monitoring until the system has established, by a rolling average of 3 monthly samples, that the MCL is being met. Systems who establish that the MCL is being met must return to quarterly monitoring until they meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(i) or (b)(2)(iv) of this section.
(c) General monitoring and compliance requirements for radionuclides.
(1) The State may require more frequent monitoring than specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, or may require confirmation samples at its discretion. The results of the initial and confirmation samples will be averaged for use in compliance determinations.
(2) Each public water systems shall monitor at the time designated by the State during each compliance period.
(3) Compliance: Compliance with § 141.66 (b) through (e) will be determined based on the analytical result(s) obtained at each sampling point. If one sampling point is in violation of an MCL, the system is in violation of the MCL.
(i) For systems monitoring more than once per year, compliance with the MCL is determined by a running annual average at each sampling point. If the average of any sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance with the MCL.
(ii) For systems monitoring more than once per year, if any sample result will cause the running average to exceed the MCL at any sample point, the system is out of compliance with the MCL immediately.
(iii) Systems must include all samples taken and analyzed under the provisions of this section in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.
(iv) If a system does not collect all required samples when compliance is based on a running annual average of quarterly samples, compliance will be based on the running average of the samples collected.
(v) If a sample result is less than the detection limit, zero will be used to calculate the annual average, unless a gross alpha particle activity is being used in lieu of radium-226 and/or uranium. If the gross alpha particle activity result is less than detection, 1/2 the detection limit will be used to calculate the annual average.
(4) States have the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling or analytic errors.
(5) If the MCL for radioactivity set forth in § 141.66 (b) through (e) is exceeded, the operator of a community water system must give notice to the State pursuant to § 141.31 and to the public as required by subpart Q of this part.
[65 FR 76745, Dec. 7, 2000, as amended at 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

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Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-11-13; vol. 79 # 219 - Thursday, November 13, 2014
    1. 79 FR 67408 - Notice of Public Meeting and Webinar: Preliminary Regulatory Determinations for the Third Contaminant Candidate List
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of public meeting on potential rulemaking.
      The public meeting and webinar will be held on Tuesday, December 9, 2014, from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time. Persons wishing to attend the meeting in person or online via webinar must register by December 2, 2014, as described in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section.
      40 CFR Part 141