40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

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§ 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration.
A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of the conditions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, and is subject to paragraph (c) of this section, beginning December 30, 1991, unless the State has determined, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water must meet all of the conditions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and is subject to paragraph (c) of this section, beginning 18 months after the State determines that it is under the direct influence of surface water, or December 30, 1991, whichever is later, unless the State has determined, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. If the State determines in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii) before December 30, 1991, that filtration is required, the system must have installed filtration and meet the criteria for filtered systems specified in §§ 141.72(b) and 141.73 by June 29, 1993. Within 18 months of the failure of a system using surface water or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water to meet any one of the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section or after June 29, 1993, whichever is later, the system must have installed filtration and meet the criteria for filtered systems specified in §§ 141.72(b) and 141.73.
(a) Source water quality conditions.
(1) The fecal coliform concentration must be equal to or less than 20/100 ml, or the total coliform concentration must be equal to or less than 100/100 ml (measured as specified in § 141.74 (a) (1) and (2) and (b)(1)), in representative samples of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application in at least 90 percent of the measurements made for the 6 previous months that the system served water to the public on an ongoing basis. If a system measures both fecal and total coliforms, the fecal coliform criterion, but not the total coliform criterion, in this paragraph must be met.
(2) The turbidity level cannot exceed 5 NTU (measured as specified in § 141.74 (a)(1) and (b)(2)) in representative samples of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application unless: (i) the State determines that any such event was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable; and (ii) as a result of any such event, there have not been more than two events in the past 12 months the system served water to the public, or more than five events in the past 120 months the system served water to the public, in which the turbidity level exceeded 5 NTU. An “event” is a series of consecutive days during which at least one turbidity measurement each day exceeds 5 NTU.
(b) Site-specific conditions.
(1)
(i) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(1) at least 11 of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, on an ongoing basis, unless the system fails to meet the requirements during 2 of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, and the State determines that at least one of these failures was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable.
(ii) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(2) at all times the system serves water to the public.
(iii) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(3) at all times the system serves water to the public unless the State determines that any such failure was caused by circumstances that were unusual and unpredictable.
(iv) The public water system must meet the requirements of § 141.72(a)(4) on an ongoing basis unless the State determines that failure to meet these requirements was not caused by a deficiency in treatment of the source water.
(2) The public water system must maintain a watershed control program which minimizes the potential for contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses in the source water. The State must determine whether the watershed control program is adequate to meet this goal. The adequacy of a program to limit potential contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses must be based on: the comprehensiveness of the watershed review; the effectiveness of the system's program to monitor and control detrimental activities occurring in the watershed; and the extent to which the water system has maximized land ownership and/or controlled land use within the watershed. At a minimum, the watershed control program must:
(i) Characterize the watershed hydrology and land ownership;
(ii) Identify watershed characteristics and activities which may have an adverse effect on source water quality; and
(iii) Monitor the occurrence of activities which may have an adverse effect on source water quality.
The public water system must demonstrate through ownership and/or written agreements with landowners within the watershed that it can control all human activities which may have an adverse impact on the microbiological quality of the source water. The public water system must submit an annual report to the State that identifies any special concerns about the watershed and how they are being handled; describes activities in the watershed that affect water quality; and projects what adverse activities are expected to occur in the future and describes how the public water system expects to address them. For systems using a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water, an approved wellhead protection program developed under section 1428 of the Safe Drinking Water Act may be used, if the State deems it appropriate, to meet these requirements.
(3) The public water system must be subject to an annual on-site inspection to assess the watershed control program and disinfection treatment process. Either the State or a party approved by the State must conduct the on-site inspection. The inspection must be conducted by competent individuals such as sanitary and civil engineers, sanitarians, or technicians who have experience and knowledge about the operation and maintenance of a public water system, and who have a sound understanding of public health principles and waterborne diseases. A report of the on-site inspection summarizing all findings must be prepared every year. The on-site inspection must indicate to the State's satisfaction that the watershed control program and disinfection treatment process are adequately designed and maintained. The on-site inspection must include:
(i) A review of the effectiveness of the watershed control program;
(ii) A review of the physical condition of the source intake and how well it is protected;
(iii) A review of the system's equipment maintenance program to ensure there is low probability for failure of the disinfection process;
(iv) An inspection of the disinfection equipment for physical deterioration;
(v) A review of operating procedures;
(vi) A review of data records to ensure that all required tests are being conducted and recorded and disinfection is effectively practiced; and
(vii) Identification of any improvements which are needed in the equipment, system maintenance and operation, or data collection.
(4) The public water system must not have been identified as a source of a waterborne disease outbreak, or if it has been so identified, the system must have been modified sufficiently to prevent another such occurrence, as determined by the State.
(5) The public water system must comply with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total coliforms in § 141.63 at least 11 months of the 12 previous months that the system served water to the public, on an ongoing basis, unless the State determines that failure to meet this requirement was not caused by a deficiency in treatment of the source water.
(6) The public water system must comply with the requirements for trihalomethanes in §§ 141.12 and 141.30 until December 31, 2001. After December 31, 2001, the system must comply with the requirements for total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids (five), bromate, chlorite, chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide in subpart L of this part.
(c) Treatment technique violations.
(1) A system that (i) fails to meet any one of the criteria in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and/or which the State has determined that filtration is required, in writing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), and (ii) fails to install filtration by the date specified in the introductory paragraph of this section is in violation of a treatment technique requirement.
(2) A system that has not installed filtration is in violation of a treatment technique requirement if:
(i) The turbidity level (measured as specified in § 141.74(a)(1) and (b)(2)) in a representative sample of the source water immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfection application exceeds 5 NTU; or
(ii) The system is identified as a source of a waterborne disease outbreak.
[54 FR 27527, June 29, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 69516, Dec. 16, 1998; 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001; 69 FR 38855, June 29, 2004]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-06-27; vol. 79 # 124 - Friday, June 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 36429 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures
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      40 CFR Part 141

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-06-27; vol. 79 # 124 - Friday, June 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 36429 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      40 CFR Part 141