40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

§ 2.301 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.
(a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section:
(1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.
(2)
(i) Emission data means, with reference to any source of emission of any substance into the air—
(A) Information necessary to determine the identity, amount, frequency, concentration, or other characteristics (to the extent related to air quality) of any emission which has been emitted by the source (or of any pollutant resulting from any emission by the source), or any combination of the foregoing;
(B) Information necessary to determine the identity, amount, frequency, concentration, or other characteristics (to the extent related to air quality) of the emissions which, under an applicable standard or limitation, the source was authorized to emit (including, to the extent necessary for such purposes, a description of the manner or rate of operation of the source); and
(C) A general description of the location and/or nature of the source to the extent necessary to identify the source and to distinguish it from other sources (including, to the extent necessary for such purposes, a description of the device, installation, or operation constituting the source).
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, the following information shall be considered to be emission data only to the extent necessary to allow EPA to disclose publicly that a source is (or is not) in compliance with an applicable standard or limitation, or to allow EPA to demonstrate the feasibility, practicability, or attainability (or lack thereof) of an existing or proposed standard or limitation:
(A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on any project, method, device or installation (or any component thereof) which was produced, developed, installed, and used only for research purposes; and
(B) Information concerning any product, method, device, or installation (or any component thereof) designed and intended to be marketed or used commercially but not yet so marketed or used.
(3) Standard or limitation means any emission standard or limitation established or publicly proposed pursuant to the Act or pursuant to any regulation under the Act.
(4) Proceeding means any rulemaking, adjudication, or licensing conducted by EPA under the Act or under regulations which implement the Act, except for determinations under this subpart.
(5) Manufacturer has the meaning given it in section 216(1) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7550(1).
(b) Applicability.
(1) This section applies to business information which was—
(i) Provided or obtained under section 114 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7414, by the owner or operator of any stationary source, for the purpose (A) of developing or assisting in the development of any implementation plan under section 110 or 111(d) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7410, 7411(d), any standard of performance under section 111 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7411, or any emission standard under section 112 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7412, (B) of determining whether any person is in violation of any such standard or any requirement of such a plan, or (C) of carrying out any provision of the Act (except a provision of Part II of the Act with respect to a manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines);
(ii) Provided or obtained under section 208 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7542, for the purpose of enabling the Administrator to determine whether a manufacturer has acted or is acting in compliance with the Act and regulations under the Act, or provided or obtained under section 206(c) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7525(c); or
(iii) Provided in response to a subpoena for the production of papers, books, or documents issued under the authority of section 307(a) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7607(a).
(2) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 114 of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA made for any of the purposes stated in section 114, or if its submission could have been required under section 114, regardless of whether section 114 was cited as the authority for any request for the information, whether an order to provide the information was issued under section 113(a) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(a), whether an action was brought under section 113(b) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), or whether the information was provided directly to EPA or through some third person.
(3) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 208 of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA made for any of the purposes stated in section 208, or if its submission could have been required under section 208, regardless of whether section 208 was cited as the authority for any request for the information, whether an action was brought under section 204 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7523, or whether the information was provided directly to EPA or through some third person.
(4) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 206(c) of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA made for any of the purposes stated in section 206(c), or if its submission could have been required under section 206(c) regardless of whether section 206(c) was cited as authority for any request for the information, whether an action was brought under section 204 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7523, or whether the information was provided directly to EPA or through some third person.
(5) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 307(a) of the Act if it was provided in response to a subpoena issued under section 307(a), or if its production could have been required by subpoena under section 307(a), regardless of whether section 307(a) was cited as the authority for any request for the information, whether a subpoena was issued by EPA, whether a court issued an order under section 307(a), or whether the information was provided directly to EPA or through some third person.
(c) Basic rules that apply without change. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.207, § 2.209, and §§ 2.211 through 2.215 apply without change to information to which this section applies.
(d) Data submitted under 40 CFR part 98.
(1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part 98 that EPA has determined, pursuant to sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act, to be either of the following:
(i) Emission data.
(ii) Data not otherwise entitled to confidential treatment pursuant to section 114(c) of the Clean Air Act.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part 98 data that EPA has determined, pursuant to sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act, to be entitled to confidential treatment. EPA shall treat that information as confidential in accordance with the provisions of § 2.211, subject to paragraph (d)(4) of this section and § 2.209.
(3) Upon receiving a request under 5 U.S.C. 552 for data submitted under 40 CFR part 98 that EPA has determined, pursuant to sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act, to be entitled to confidential treatment, the EPA office shall furnish the requestor a notice that the information has been determined to be entitled to confidential treatment and that the request is therefore denied. The notice shall include or cite to the appropriate EPA determination.
(4) Modification of prior confidentiality determination. A determination made pursuant to sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled to confidential treatment shall continue in effect unless, subsequent to the confidentiality determination, EPA takes one of the following actions:
(i) EPA determines, pursuant to sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act, that the information is emission data or data not otherwise entitled to confidential treatment under section 114(c) of the Clean Air Act.
(ii) The Office of General Counsel issues a final determination, based on the criteria in § 2.208, stating that the information is no longer entitled to confidential treatment because of change in the applicable law or newly-discovered or changed facts. Prior to making such final determination, EPA shall afford the business an opportunity to submit comments on pertinent issues in the manner described by §§ 2.204(e) and 2.205(b). If, after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the Office of General Counsel makes a revised final determination that the information is not entitled to confidential treatment under section 114(c) of the Clean Air Act, EPA will notify the business in accordance with the procedures described in § 2.205(f)(2).
(e) Substantive criteria for use in confidentiality determinations. Section 2.208 applies to information to which this section applies, except that information which is emission data, a standard or limitation, or is collected pursuant to section 211(b)(2)(A) of the Act is not eligible for confidential treatment. No information to which this section applies is voluntarily submitted information.
(f) Availability of information not entitled to confidential treatment. Section 2.210 does not apply to information to which this section applies. Emission data, standards or limitations, and any other information provided under section 114 or 208 of the Act which is determined under this subpart not to be entitled to confidential treatment, shall be available to the public notwithstanding any other provision of this part. Emission data and standards or limitations provided in response to a subpoena issued under section 307(a) of the Act shall be available to the public notwithstanding any other provision of this part. Information (other than emission data and standards or limitations) provided in response to a subpoena issued under section 307(a) of the Act, which is determined under this subpart not to be entitled to confidential treatment, shall be available to the public, unless EPA determines that the information is exempt from mandatory disclosure under 5 U.S.C. 552(b) for reasons other than reasons of business confidentiality and cannot or should not be made available to the public.
(g) Disclosure of information relevant to a proceeding.
(1) Under sections 114, 208 and 307 of the Act, any information to which this section applies may be released by EPA because of the relevance of the information to a proceeding, notwithstanding the fact that the information otherwise might be entitled to confidential treatment under this subpart. Release of information because of its relevance to a proceeding shall be made only in accordance with this paragraph (g).
(2) In connection with any proceeding other than a proceeding involving a decision by a presiding officer after an evidentiary or adjudicatory hearing, information to which this section applies which may be entitled to confidential treatment may be made available to the public under this paragraph (g)(2). No information shall be made available to the public under this paragraph (g)(2) until any affected business has been informed that EPA is considering making the information available to the public under this paragraph (g)(2) in connection with an identified proceeding, and has afforded the business a reasonable period for comment (such notice and opportunity to comment may be afforded in connection with the notice prescribed by § 2.204(d)(1) and § 2.204(e)). Information may be made available to the public under this paragraph (g)(2) only if, after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the General Counsel determines that the information is relevant to the subject of the proceeding and the EPA office conducting the proceeding determines that the public interest would be served by making the information available to the public. Any affected business shall be given at least 5 days' notice by the General Counsel prior to making the information available to the public.
(3) In connection with any proceeding involving a decision by a presiding officer after an evidentiary or adjudicatory hearing, information to which this section applies which may be entitled to confidential treatment may be made available to the public, or to one or more parties of record to the proceeding, upon EPA's initiative, under this paragraph (g)(3). An EPA office proposing disclosure of information under this paragraph (g)(3), shall so notify the presiding officer in writing. Upon receipt of such a notification, the presiding officer shall notify each affected business that disclosure under this paragraph (g)(3) has been proposed, and shall afford each such business a period for comment found by the presiding officer to be reasonable under the circumstances. Information may be disclosed under this paragraph (g)(3) only if, after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the EPA office determines in writing that, for reasons directly associated with the conduct of the proceeding, the contemplated disclosure would serve the public interest, and the presiding officer determines in writing that the information is relevant to a matter in controversy in the proceeding. The presiding officer may condition disclosure of the information to a party of record on the making of such protective arrangements and commitments as he finds to be warranted. Disclosure to one or more parties of record, under protective arrangements or commitments, shall not, of itself, affect the eligibility of information for confidential treatment under the other provisions of this subpart. Any affected business shall be given at least 5 days notice by the presiding officer prior to making the information available to the public or to one or more of the parties of record to the proceeding.
(4) In connection with any proceeding involving a decision by a presiding officer after an evidentiary or adjudicatory hearing, information to which this section applies may be made available to one or more parties of record to the proceeding, upon request of a party, under this paragraph (g)(4). A party of record seeking disclosure of information shall direct his request to the presiding officer. Upon receipt of such a request, the presiding officer shall notify each affected business that disclosure under this paragraph (g)(4) has been requested, and shall afford each such business a period for comment found by the presiding officer to be reasonable under the circumstances. Information may be disclosed to a party of record under this paragraph (g)(4) only if, after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the presiding officer determines in writing that (i) the party of record has satisfactorily shown that with respect to a significant matter which is in controversy in the proceeding, the party's ability to participate effectively in the proceeding will be significantly impaired unless the information is disclosed to him, and (ii) any harm to an affected business that would result from the disclosure is likely to be outweighed by the benefit to the proceeding and to the public interest that would result from the disclosure. The presiding officer may condition disclosure of the information to a party of record on the making of such protective arrangements and commitments as he finds to be warranted. Disclosure to one or more parties of record, under protective arrangements or commitments, shall not, of itself, affect the eligibility of information to confidential treatment under the other provisions of this subpart. Any affected business shall be given at least 5 days notice by the presiding officer prior to making the information available to one or more of the parties of record to the proceeding.
(h) Disclosure to authorized representatives.
(1) Under sections 114, 208 and 307(a) of the Act, EPA possesses authority to disclose to any authorized representative of the United States any information to which this section applies, notwithstanding the fact that the information might otherwise be entitled to confidential treatment under this subpart. Such authority may be exercised only in accordance with paragraph (h) (2) or (3) of this section.
(2)
(i) A person under contract or subcontract to the United States government to perform work in support of EPA in connection with the Act or regulations which implement the Act may be considered an authorized representative of the United States for purposes of this paragraph (h). For purposes of this section, the term “contract” includes grants and cooperative agreements under the Environmental Programs Assistance Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-313), and the term “contractor” includes grantees and cooperators under the Environmental Programs Assistance Act of 1984. Subject to the limitations in this paragraph (h)(2), information to which this section applies may be disclosed:
(A) To a contractor or subcontractor with EPA, if the EPA program office managing the contract first determines in writing that such disclosure is necessary in order that the contractor or subcontractor may carry out the work required by the contract or subcontract; or
(B) To a contractor or subcontractor with an agency other than EPA, if the EPA program office which provides the information to that agency, contractor, or subcontractor first determines in writing, in consultation with the General Counsel, that such disclosure is necessary in order that the contractor or subcontractor may carry out the work required by the contract or subcontract.
(ii) No information shall be disclosed under this paragraph (h)(2), unless this contract or subcontract in question provides:
(A) That the contractor or subcontractor and the contractor's or subcontractor's employees shall use the information only for the purpose of carrying out the work required by the contract or subcontract, shall refrain from disclosing the information to anyone other than EPA without the prior written approval of each affected business or of an EPA legal office and shall return to EPA all copies of the information (and any abstracts or extracts therefrom) upon request by the EPA program office, whenever the information is no longer required by the contractor or subcontractor for the performance of the work required under the contract or subcontract, or upon completion of the contract or subcontract (where the information was provided to the contractor or subcontractor by an agency other than EPA, the contractor may disclose or return the information to that agency);
(B) That the contractor or subcontractor shall obtain a written agreement to honor such terms of the contract or subcontract from each of the contractor's or subcontractor's employees who will have access to the information, before such employee is allowed such access; and
(C) That the contractor or subcontractor acknowledges and agrees that the contract or subcontract provisions concerning the use and disclosure of business information are included for the benefit of, and shall be enforceable by, both the United States government and any affected business having an interest in information concerning it supplied to the contractor or subcontractor by the United States government under the contract or subcontract.
(iii) No information shall be disclosed under this paragraph (h)(2) until each affected business has been furnished notice of the contemplated disclosure by the EPA program office and has been afforded a period found reasonable by that office (not less than 5 working days) to submit its comments. Such notice shall include a description of the information to be disclosed, the identity of the contractor or subcontractor, the contract or subcontract number, if any, and the purposes to be served by the disclosure.
(iv) The EPA program office shall prepare a record of each disclosure under this paragraph (h)(2), showing the contractor or subcontractor, the contract or subcontract number, the information disclosed, the date(s) of disclosure, and each affected business. The EPA program office shall maintain the record of disclosure and the determination of necessity prepared under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section for a period of not less than 36 months after the date of the disclosure.
(3) A State or local governmental agency which has duties or responsibilities under the Act, or under regulations which implement the Act, may be considered an authorized representative of the United States for purposes of this paragraph (h). Information to which this section applies may be furnished to such an agency at the agency's written request, but only if—
(i) The agency has first furnished to the EPA office having custody of the information a written opinion from the agency's chief legal officer or counsel stating that under applicable State or local law the agency has the authority to compel a business which possesses such information to disclose it to the agency, or
(ii) Each affected business is informed of those disclosures under this paragraph (h)(3) which pertain to it, and the agency has shown to the satisfaction of an EPA legal office that the agency's use and disclosure of such information will be governed by State or local law and procedures which will provide adequate protection to the interests of affected businesses.
[41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 40002, Sept. 8, 1978; 43 FR 42251, Sept. 20, 1978; 50 FR 51662, Dec. 18, 1985; 58 FR 461, Jan. 5, 1993; 58 FR 5061, Jan 19, 1993; 58 FR 7189, Feb. 5, 1993; 76 FR 30817, May 26, 2011; 76 FR 64015, Oct. 17, 2011]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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