40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

§ 205.54-1 Low speed sound emission test procedures.
(a) Instrumentation. The following instrumentation shall be used, where applicable.
(1) A sound level meter which meets the Type 1 requirements of ANSI S1.4-1971, Specification for Sound Level Meters, or a sound level meter may be used with a magnetic tape recorder and/or a graphic level recorder or indicating meter, providing the system meets the requirements of § 205.54-2.
(2) A sound level calibrator. The calibrator shall produce a sound pressure level, at the microphone diaphragm, that is known to within an accuracy of ±0.5 dB. The calibrator shall be checked annually to verify that its output has not changed.
(3) An engine-speed tachometer which is accurate within ±2 percent of meter reading.
(4) An anemometer or other device for measurement of ambient wind speed accurate within ±10 percent.
(5) A thermometer for measurement of ambient temperature accurate within ±1 C.
(6) A barometer for measurement of ambient pressure accurate within ±1 percent.
(b)
(1) The test site shall be such that the truck radiates sound into a free field over a reflecting plane. This condition may be considered fulfilled if the test site consists of an open space free of large reflecting surfaces, such as parked vehicles, signboards, buildings or hillsides, located within 100 feet (30.4 meters) of either the vehicle path or the microphone.
(2) The microphone shall be located 50 feet ±4 in. (15.2 ±0.1 meter) from the centerline of truck travel and 4 feet ±4 in. (1.2 ±0.1 meters) above the ground plane. The microphone point is defined as the point of intersection of the vehicle path and the normal to the vehicle path drawn from the microphone. The microphone shall be oriented in a fixed position to minimize the deviation from the flattest system response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 10 kHz for a vehicle traversing from the acceleration point through the end zone.
The microphone shall be oriented with respect to the source so that the sound strikes the diaphragm at the angle for which the microphone was calibrated to have the flattest frequency response characteristic over the frequency range 100 Hz to 10 kHz.
(3) An acceleration point shall be established on the vehicle path 50 feet (15 m) before the microphone point.
(4) An end point shall be established on the vehicle path 100 feet (30 m) from the acceleration point and 50 feet (15 m) from the microphone point.
(5) The end zone is the last 40 feet (12 m) of vehicle path prior to the end point.
(6) The measurement area shall be the triangular paved (concrete or sealed asphalt) area formed by the acceleration point, the end point, and the microphone location.
(7) The reference point on the vehicle, to indicate when the vehicle is at any of the points on the vehicle path, shall be the front of the vehicle except as follows:
(i) If the horizontal distance from the front of the vehicle to the exhaust outlet is more than 200 inches (5.1 meters), tests shall be run using both the front and rear of the vehicle as reference points.
(ii) If the engine is located rearward to the center of the chassis, the rear of the vehicle shall be used as the reference point.
(8) The plane containing the vehicle path and the microphone location (plane ABCDE in Figure 1) shall be flat within ±2 inches (.05 meters).
(9) Measurements shall not be made when the road surface is wet, covered with snow, or during precipitation.
(10) Bystanders have an appreciable influence on sound level meter readings when they are in the vicinity of the vehicle or microphone; therefore not more than one person, other than the observer reading the meter, shall be within 50 feet (15.2 meters) of the vehicle path or instrument and the person shall be directly behind the observer reading the meter, on a line through the microphone and observer. To minimize the effect of the observer and the container of the sound level meter electronics on the measurements, cable should be used between the microphone and the sound level meter. No observer shall be located within 1 m in any direction of the microphone location.
(11) The maximum A-weighted fast response sound level observed at the test site immediately before and after the test shall be at least 10 dB below the regulated level.
(12) The road surface within the test site upon which the vehicle travels, and, at a minimum, the measurements area (BCD in figure 205.1) shall be smooth concrete or smooth sealed asphalt, free of extraneous material such as gravel.
(13) Vehicles with diesel engines shall be tested using Number 1D or Number 2D diesel fuel possessing a cetane rating from 42 to 50 inclusive.
(14) Vehicles with gasoline engines shall use the grade of gasoline recommended by the manufacturer for use by the purchaser.
(15) Vehicles equipped with thermo- statically controlled radiator fans may be tested with the fan not operating.
(c) Procedures—
(1) Vehicle operation for vehicles with standard transmissions. Full throttle acceleration and closed throttle deceleration tests are to be used. A beginning engine speed and proper gear ratio must be determined for use during measurements. Closed throttle deceleration tests are required only for those vehicles equipped with an engine brake.
(i) Select the highest rear axle and/or transmission gear (“highest gear” is used in the usual sense; it is synonymous to the lowest numerical ratio) and an initial vehicle speed such that at wide-open throttle the vehicle will accelerate from the acceleration point.
(a) Starting at no more than two-thirds (66 percent) of maximum rated or of governed engine speed.
(b) Reaching maximum rated or governed engine speed within the end zone.
(c) Without exceeding 35 mph (56 k/h) before reaching the end point.
(1) Should maximum rated or governed rpm be attained before reaching the end zone, decrease the approach rpm in 100 rpm increments until maximum rated or governed rpm is attained within the end zone.
(2) Should maximum rated or governed rpm not be attained until beyond the end zone, select the next lower gear until maximum rated or governed rpm is attained within the end zone.
(3) Should the lowest gear still result in reaching maximum rated or governed rpm beyond the permissible end zone, unload the vehicle and/or increase the approach rpm in 100 rpm increments until the maximum rated or governed rpm is reached within the end zone.
(ii) For the acceleration test, approach the acceleration point using the engine speed and gear ratio selected in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and at the acceleration point rapidly establish wide-open throttle. The vehicle reference shall be as indicated in paragraph (b)(7) of this section. Acceleration shall continue until maximum rated or governed engine speed is reached.
(iii) Wheel slip which affects maximum sound level must be avoided.
(2) Vehicle operation for vehicles with automatic transmissions. Full throttle acceleration and closed throttle deceleration tests are to be used. Closed throttle deceleration tests are required only for those vehicles equipped with an engine brake.
(i) Select the highest gear axle and/or transmission gear (highest gear is used in the usual sense; it is synonymous to the lowest numerical ratio) in which no up or down shifting will occur under any operational conditions of the vehicle during the test run. Also, select an initial vehicle speed such that at wide-open throttle the vehicle will accelerate from the acceleration point.
(a) Starting at two-thirds (66 percent) of maximum rated or of governed engine speed.
(b) Reaching maximum rated or governed engine speed within the end zone.
(c) Without exceeding 35 mph (56 k/h) before reaching the end point.
(1) Should maximum rated or governed rpm be attained before reaching the end zone, decrease the approach rpm in 100 rpm increments until maximum rated or governed rpm is attained within the end zone.
(2) Should maximum rated or governed rpm not be attained until beyond the end zone, select the next lower gear until maximum rated or governed rpm is attained within the end zone.
(3) Should the lowest gear still result in reaching maximum rated or governed rpm beyond the permissible end zone, unload the vehicle and/or increase the approach rpm in 100 rpm increments until the maximum rated or governed rpm is reached within the end zone, notwithstanding that approach engine speed may now exceed two-thirds of maximum rated or of full load governed engine speed.
(4) Should the maximum rated or governed rpm still be attained before entering the end zone, and the engine rpm during approach cannot be further lowered, begin acceleration at a point 10 feet closer to the beginning of the end zone. The approach rpm to be used is to be that rpm used prior to the moving of the acceleration point 10 feet closer to the beginning of the end zone.
(5) Should the maximum rated or governed rpm still be attained before entering the end zone, repeat the instructions in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(c)(4) of this section until maximum rated or governed rpm is attained within the end zone.
(ii) For the acceleration test, approach the acceleration point using the engine speed and gear ratio selected in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section and at the acceleration point rapidly establish wide-open throttle. The vehicle reference shall be as indicated in paragraph (b)(7) of this section. Acceleration shall continue until maximum rated or governed engine speed is reached.
(iii) Wheel slip which affects maximum sound level must be avoided.
(3) Measurements.
(i) The meter shall be set for “fast response” and the A-weighted network.
(ii) The meter shall be observed during the period while the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating. The applicable reading shall be the highest sound level obtained for the run. The observer is cautioned to rerun the test if unrelated peaks should occur due to extraneous ambient noises. Readings shall be taken on both sides of the vehicle.
(iii) The sound level associated with a side shall be the average of the first two pass-by measurements for that side, if they are within 2 dB(A) of each other. Average of measurements on each side shall be computed separately. If the first two measurements for a given side differ by more than 2 dB(A), two additional measurements shall be made on each side, and the average of the two highest measurements on each side, within 2 dB(A) of each other, shall be taken as the measured vehicle sound level for that side. The reported vehicle sound level shall be the higher of the two averages.
(d) General requirements.
(1) Measurements shall be made only when wind velocity is below 12 mph (19 km/hr).
(2) Proper usage of all test instrumentation is essential to obtain valid measurements. Operating manuals or other literature furnished by the instrument manufacturer shall be referred to for both recommended operation of the instrument and precautions to be observed. Specific items to be adequately considered are:
(i) The effects of ambient weather conditions on the performance of the instruments (for example, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure).
(ii) Proper signal levels, terminat-ing impedances, and cable lengths on multi-instrument measurement systems.
(iii) Proper acoustical calibration procedure to include the influence of extension cables, etc. Field calibration shall be made immediately before and after each test sequence. Internal calibration means is acceptable for field use, provided that external calibration is accomplished immediately before or after field use.
(3)
(i) A complete calibration of the instrumentation and external acoustical calibrator over the entire frequency range of interest shall be performed at least annually and as frequently as necessary during the yearly period to insure compliance with the standards cited in American National Standard S1.4-1971 “Specifications for Sound Level Meters” for a Type 1 instrument over the frequency range 50 Hz-10,000 Hz.
(ii) If calibration devices are utilized which are not independent of ambient pressure (e.g., a piston-phone) corrections must be made for barometric or altimetric changes according to the recommendation of the instrument manufacturer.
(4) The truck shall be brought to a temperature within its normal operating temperature range prior to commencement of testing. During testing appropriate caution shall be taken to maintain the engine temperatures within such normal operating range.
[41 FR 15544, Apr. 13, 1976, as amended at 42 FR 11836, Mar. 1, 1977; 42 FR 61456, Dec. 5, 1977]

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