40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

§ 266.102 Permit standards for burners.
(a) Applicability—
(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste and not operating under interim status must comply with the requirements of this section and §§ 270.22 and 270.66 of this chapter, unless exempt under the small quantity burner exemption of § 266.108.
(2) Applicability of part 264 standards. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this chapter, except as provided otherwise by this subpart:
(i) In subpart A (General), 264.4;
(ii) In subpart B (General facility standards), §§ 264.11-264.18;
(iii) In subpart C (Preparedness and prevention), §§ 264.31-264.37;
(iv) In subpart D (Contingency plan and emergency procedures), §§ 264.51-264.56;
(v) In subpart E (Manifest system, recordkeeping, and reporting), the applicable provisions of §§ 264.71-264.77;
(vi) In subpart F (Releases from Solid Waste Management Units), §§ 264.90 and 264.101;
(vii) In subpart G (Closure and post-closure), §§ 264.111-264.115;
(viii) In subpart H (Financial requirements), §§ 264.141, 264.142, 264.143, and 264.147-264.151, except that States and the Federal government are exempt from the requirements of subpart H; and
(ix) Subpart BB (Air emission standards for equipment leaks), except §§ 264.1050(a).
(b) Hazardous waste analysis.
(1) The owner or operator must provide an analysis of the hazardous waste that quantifies the concentration of any constituent identified in appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter that may reasonably be expected to be in the waste. Such constituents must be identified and quantified if present, at levels detectable by using appropriate analytical procedures. The appendix VIII, part 261 constituents excluded from this analysis must be identified and the basis for their exclusion explained. This analysis will be used to provide all information required by this subpart and §§ 270.22 and 270.66 of this chapter and to enable the permit writer to prescribe such permit conditions as necessary to protect human health and the environment. Such analysis must be included as a portion of the part B permit application, or, for facilities operating under the interim status standards of this subpart, as a portion of the trial burn plan that may be submitted before the part B application under provisions of § 270.66(g) of this chapter as well as any other analysis required by the permit authority in preparing the permit. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces not operating under the interim status standards must provide the information required by §§ 270.22 or 270.66(c) of this chapter in the part B application to the greatest extent possible.
(2) Throughout normal operation, the owner or operator must conduct sampling and analysis as necessary to ensure that the hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks fired into the boiler or industrial furnace are within the physical and chemical composition limits specified in the permit.
(c) Emissions standards. Owners and operators must comply with emissions standards provided by §§ 266.104 through 266.107.
(d) Permits.
(1) The owner or operator may burn only hazardous wastes specified in the facility permit and only under the operating conditions specified under paragraph (e) of this section, except in approved trial burns under the conditions specified in § 270.66 of this chapter.
(2) Hazardous wastes not specified in the permit may not be burned until operating conditions have been specified under a new permit or permit modification, as applicable. Operating requirements for new wastes may be based on either trial burn results or alternative data included with part B of a permit application under § 270.22 of this chapter.
(3) Boilers and industrial furnaces operating under the interim status standards of § 266.103 are permitted under procedures provided by § 270.66(g) of this chapter.
(4) A permit for a new boiler or industrial furnace (those boilers and industrial furnaces not operating under the interim status standards) must establish appropriate conditions for each of the applicable requirements of this section, including but not limited to allowable hazardous waste firing rates and operating conditions necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section, in order to comply with the following standards:
(i) For the period beginning with initial introduction of hazardous waste and ending with initiation of the trial burn, and only for the minimum time required to bring the device to a point of operational readiness to conduct a trial burn, not to exceed a duration of 720 hours operating time when burning hazardous waste, the operating requirements must be those most likely to ensure compliance with the emission standards of §§ 266.104 through 266.107, based on the Director's engineering judgment. If the applicant is seeking a waiver from a trial burn to demonstrate conformance with a particular emission standard, the operating requirements during this initial period of operation shall include those specified by the applicable provisions of § 266.104, § 266.105, § 266.106, or § 266.107. The Director may extend the duration of this period for up to 720 additional hours when good cause for the extension is demonstrated by the applicant.
(ii) For the duration of the trial burn, the operating requirements must be sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the emissions standards of §§ 266.104 through 266.107 and must be in accordance with the approved trial burn plan;
(iii) For the period immediately following completion of the trial burn, and only for the minimum period sufficient to allow sample analysis, data computation, submission of the trial burn results by the applicant, review of the trial burn results and modification of the facility permit by the Director to reflect the trial burn results, the operating requirements must be those most likely to ensure compliance with the emission standards §§ 266.104 through 266.107 based on the Director's engineering judgment.
(iv) For the remaining duration of the permit, the operating requirements must be those demonstrated in a trial burn or by alternative data specified in § 270.22 of this chapter, as sufficient to ensure compliance with the emissions standards of §§ 266.104 through 266.107.
(e) Operating requirements—
(1) General. A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste must be operated in accordance with the operating requirements specified in the permit at all times where there is hazardous waste in the unit.
(2) Requirements to ensure compliance with the organic emissions standards—
(i) DRE standard. Operating conditions will be specified either on a case-by-case basis for each hazardous waste burned as those demonstrated (in a trial burn or by alternative data as specified in § 270.22) to be sufficient to comply with the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) performance standard of § 266.104(a) or as those special operating requirements provided by § 266.104(a)(4) for the waiver of the DRE trial burn. When the DRE trial burn is not waived under § 266.104(a)(4), each set of operating requirements will specify the composition of the hazardous waste (including acceptable variations in the physical and chemical properties of the hazardous waste which will not affect compliance with the DRE performance standard) to which the operating requirements apply. For each such hazardous waste, the permit will specify acceptable operating limits including, but not limited to, the following conditions as appropriate:
(A) Feed rate of hazardous waste and other fuels measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(B) Minimum and maximum device production rate when producing normal product expressed in appropriate units, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(C) Appropriate controls of the hazardous waste firing system;
(D) Allowable variation in boiler and industrial furnace system design or operating procedures;
(E) Minimum combustion gas temperature measured at a location indicative of combustion chamber temperature, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(F) An appropriate indicator of combustion gas velocity, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section, unless documentation is provided under § 270.66 of this chapter demonstrating adequate combustion gas residence time; and
(G) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the DRE performance standard of § 266.104(a) is met.
(ii) Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon standards. The permit must incorporate a carbon monoxide (CO) limit and, as appropriate, a hydrocarbon (HC) limit as provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) of § 266.104. The permit limits will be specified as follows:
(A) When complying with the CO standard of § 266.104(b)(1), the permit limit is 100 ppmv;
(B) When complying with the alternative CO standard under § 266.104(c), the permit limit for CO is based on the trial burn and is established as the average over all valid runs of the highest hourly rolling average CO level of each run, and the permit limit for HC is 20 ppmv (as defined in § 266.104(c)(1)), except as provided in § 266.104(f).
(C) When complying with the alternative HC limit for industrial furnaces under § 266.104(f), the permit limit for HC and CO is the baseline level when hazardous waste is not burned as specified by that paragraph.
(iii) Start-up and shut-down. During start-up and shut-down of the boiler or industrial furnace, hazardous waste (except waste fed solely as an ingredient under the Tier I (or adjusted Tier I) feed rate screening limits for metals and chloride/chlorine, and except low risk waste exempt from the trial burn requirements under §§ 266.104(a)(5), 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107) must not be fed into the device unless the device is operating within the conditions of operation specified in the permit.
(3) Requirements to ensure conformance with the particulate standard.
(i) Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(3) (ii) and (iii) of this section, the permit shall specify the following operating requirements to ensure conformance with the particulate standard specified in § 266.105:
(A) Total ash feed rate to the device from hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(B) Maximum device production rate when producing normal product expressed in appropriate units, and measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(C) Appropriate controls on operation and maintenance of the hazardous waste firing system and any air pollution control system;
(D) Allowable variation in boiler and industrial furnace system design including any air pollution control system or operating procedures; and
(E) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the particulate standard in § 266.105(a) is met.
(ii) Permit conditions to ensure conformance with the particulate matter standard shall not be provided for facilities exempt from the particulate matter standard under § 266.105(b);
(iii) For cement kilns and light-weight aggregate kilns, permit conditions to ensure compliance with the particulate standard shall not limit the ash content of hazardous waste or other feed materials.
(4) Requirements to ensure conformance with the metals emissions standard.
(i) For conformance with the Tier I (or adjusted Tier I) metals feed rate screening limits of paragraphs (b) or (e) of § 266.106, the permit shall specify the following operating requirements:
(A) Total feed rate of each metal in hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks measured and specified under provisions of paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(B) Total feed rate of hazardous waste measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(C) A sampling and metals analysis program for the hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks;
(ii) For conformance with the Tier II metals emission rate screening limits under § 266.106(c) and the Tier III metals controls under § 266.106(d), the permit shall specify the following operating requirements:
(A) Maximum emission rate for each metal specified as the average emission rate during the trial burn;
(B) Feed rate of total hazardous waste and pumpable hazardous waste, each measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6)(i) of this section;
(C) Feed rate of each metal in the following feedstreams, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraphs (e)(6) of this section:
(1) Total feedstreams;
(2) Total hazardous waste feed; and
(3) Total pumpable hazardous waste feed;
(D) Total feed rate of chlorine and chloride in total feedstreams measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(E) Maximum combustion gas temperature measured at a location indicative of combustion chamber temperature, and measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(F) Maximum flue gas temperature at the inlet to the particulate matter air pollution control system measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(G) Maximum device production rate when producing normal product expressed in appropriate units and measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(H) Appropriate controls on operation and maintenance of the hazardous waste firing system and any air pollution control system;
(I) Allowable variation in boiler and industrial furnace system design including any air pollution control system or operating procedures; and
(J) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the metals standards under §§ 266.106(c) or 266.106(d) are met.
(iii) For conformance with an alternative implementation approach approved by the Director under § 266.106(f), the permit will specify the following operating requirements:
(A) Maximum emission rate for each metal specified as the average emission rate during the trial burn;
(B) Feed rate of total hazardous waste and pumpable hazardous waste, each measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6)(i) of this section;
(C) Feed rate of each metal in the following feedstreams, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section:
(1) Total hazardous waste feed; and
(2) Total pumpable hazardous waste feed;
(D) Total feed rate of chlorine and chloride in total feedstreams measured and specified prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(E) Maximum combustion gas temperature measured at a location indicative of combustion chamber temperature, and measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(F) Maximum flue gas temperature at the inlet to the particulate matter air pollution control system measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(G) Maximum device production rate when producing normal product expressed in appropriate units and measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(H) Appropriate controls on operation and maintenance of the hazardous waste firing system and any air pollution control system;
(I) Allowable variation in boiler and industrial furnace system design including any air pollution control system or operating procedures; and
(J) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the metals standards under §§ 266.106(c) or 266.106(d) are met.
(5) Requirements to ensure conformance with the hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas standards.
(i) For conformance with the Tier I total chloride and chlorine feed rate screening limits of § 266.107(b)(1), the permit will specify the following operating requirements:
(A) Feed rate of total chloride and chlorine in hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(B) Feed rate of total hazardous waste measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(C) A sampling and analysis program for total chloride and chlorine for the hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks;
(ii) For conformance with the Tier II HCl and Cl2 emission rate screening limits under § 266.107(b)(2) and the Tier III HCl and Cl2 controls under § 266.107(c), the permit will specify the following operating requirements:
(A) Maximum emission rate for HCl and for Cl2 specified as the average emission rate during the trial burn;
(B) Feed rate of total hazardous waste measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(C) Total feed rate of chlorine and chloride in total feedstreams, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(D) Maximum device production rate when producing normal product expressed in appropriate units, measured and specified as prescribed in paragraph (e)(6) of this section;
(E) Appropriate controls on operation and maintenance of the hazardous waste firing system and any air pollution control system;
(F) Allowable variation in boiler and industrial furnace system design including any air pollution control system or operating procedures; and
(G) Such other operating requirements as are necessary to ensure that the HCl and Cl2 standards under § 266.107 (b)(2) or (c) are met.
(6) Measuring parameters and establishing limits based on trial burn data—
(i) General requirements. As specified in paragraphs (e)(2) through (e)(5) of this section, each operating parameter shall be measured, and permit limits on the parameter shall be established, according to either of the following procedures:
(A) Instantaneous limits. A parameter may be measured and recorded on an instantaneous basis (i.e., the value that occurs at any time) and the permit limit specified as the time-weighted average during all valid runs of the trial burn; or
(B) Hourly rolling average. (1) The limit for a parameter may be established and continuously monitored on an hourly rolling average basis defined as follows:
(i) A continuous monitor is one which continuously samples the regulated parameter without interruption, and evaluates the detector response at least once each 15 seconds, and computes and records the average value at least every 60 seconds.
(ii) An hourly rolling average is the arithmetic mean of the 60 most recent 1-minute average values recorded by the continuous monitoring system.
(2) The permit limit for the parameter shall be established based on trial burn data as the average over all valid test runs of the highest hourly rolling average value for each run.
(ii) Rolling average limits for carcinogenic metals and lead. Feed rate limits for the carcinogenic metals (i.e., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and chromium) and lead may be established either on an hourly rolling average basis as prescribed by paragraph (e)(6)(i) of this section or on (up to) a 24 hour rolling average basis. If the owner or operator elects to use an average period from 2 to 24 hours:
(A) The feed rate of each metal shall be limited at any time to ten times the feed rate that would be allowed on an hourly rolling average basis;
(B) The continuous monitor shall meet the following specifications:
(1) A continuous monitor is one which continuously samples the regulated parameter without interruption, and evaluates the detector response at least once each 15 seconds, and computes and records the average value at least every 60 seconds.
(2) The rolling average for the selected averaging period is defined as the arithmetic mean of one hour block averages for the averaging period. A one hour block average is the arithmetic mean of the one minute averages recorded during the 60-minute period beginning at one minute after the beginning of the preceding clock hour; and
(C) The permit limit for the feed rate of each metal shall be established based on trial burn data as the average over all valid test runs of the highest hourly rolling average feed rate for each run.
(iii) Feed rate limits for metals, total chloride and chlorine, and ash. Feed rate limits for metals, total chlorine and chloride, and ash are established and monitored by knowing the concentration of the substance (i.e., metals, chloride/chlorine, and ash) in each feedstream and the flow rate of the feedstream. To monitor the feed rate of these substances, the flow rate of each feedstream must be monitored under the continuous monitoring requirements of paragraphs (e)(6) (i) and (ii) of this section.
(iv) Conduct of trial burn testing.
(A) If compliance with all applicable emissions standards of §§ 266.104 through 266.107 is not demonstrated simultaneously during a set of test runs, the operating conditions of additional test runs required to demonstrate compliance with remaining emissions standards must be as close as possible to the original operating conditions.
(B) Prior to obtaining test data for purposes of demonstrating compliance with the emissions standards of §§ 266.104 through 266.107 or establishing limits on operating parameters under this section, the facility must operate under trial burn conditions for a sufficient period to reach steady-state operations. The Director may determine, however, that industrial furnaces that recycle collected particulate matter back into the furnace and that comply with an alternative implementation approach for metals under § 266.106(f) need not reach steady state conditions with respect to the flow of metals in the system prior to beginning compliance testing for metals emissions.
(C) Trial burn data on the level of an operating parameter for which a limit must be established in the permit must be obtained during emissions sampling for the pollutant(s) (i.e., metals, PM, HCl/Cl2, organic compounds) for which the parameter must be established as specified by paragraph (e) of this section.
(7) General requirements—
(i) Fugitive emissions. Fugitive emissions must be controlled by:
(A) Keeping the combustion zone totally sealed against fugitive emissions; or
(B) Maintaining the combustion zone pressure lower than atmospheric pressure; or
(C) An alternate means of control demonstrated (with part B of the permit application) to provide fugitive emissions control equivalent to maintenance of combustion zone pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.
(ii) Automatic waste feed cutoff. A boiler or industrial furnace must be operated with a functioning system that automatically cuts off the hazardous waste feed when operating conditions deviate from those established under this section. The Director may limit the number of cutoffs per an operating period on a case-by-case basis. In -addition:
(A) The permit limit for (the indicator of) minimum combustion chamber temperature must be maintained while hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues remain in the combustion chamber,
(B) Exhaust gases must be ducted to the air pollution control system operated in accordance with the permit requirements while hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues remain in the combustion chamber; and
(C) Operating parameters for which permit limits are established must continue to be monitored during the cutoff, and the hazardous waste feed shall not be restarted until the levels of those parameters comply with the permit limits. For parameters that may be monitored on an instantaneous basis, the Director will establish a minimum period of time after a waste feed cutoff during which the parameter must not exceed the permit limit before the hazardous waste feed may be restarted.
(iii) Changes. A boiler or industrial furnace must cease burning hazardous waste when changes in combustion properties, or feed rates of the hazardous waste, other fuels, or industrial furnace feedstocks, or changes in the boiler or industrial furnace design or operating conditions deviate from the limits as specified in the permit.
(8) Monitoring and Inspections.
(i) The owner or operator must monitor and record the following, at a minimum, while burning hazardous waste:
(A) If specified by the permit, feed rates and composition of hazardous waste, other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks, and feed rates of ash, metals, and total chloride and chlorine;
(B) If specified by the permit, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and oxygen on a continuous basis at a common point in the boiler or industrial furnace downstream of the combustion zone and prior to release of stack gases to the atmosphere in accordance with operating requirements specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. CO, HC, and oxygen monitors must be installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with methods specified in appendix IX of this part.
(C) Upon the request of the Director, sampling and analysis of the hazardous waste (and other fuels and industrial furnace feedstocks as appropriate), residues, and exhaust emissions must be conducted to verify that the operating requirements established in the permit achieve the applicable standards of §§ 266.104, 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107.
(ii) All monitors shall record data in units corresponding to the permit limit unless otherwise specified in the -permit.
(iii) The boiler or industrial furnace and associated equipment (pumps, valves, pipes, fuel storage tanks, etc.) must be subjected to thorough visual inspection when it contains hazardous waste, at least daily for leaks, spills, fugitive emissions, and signs of tampering.
(iv) The automatic hazardous waste feed cutoff system and associated alarms must be tested at least once every 7 days when hazardous waste is burned to verify operability, unless the applicant demonstrates to the Director that weekly inspections will unduly restrict or upset operations and that less frequent inspections will be adequate. At a minimum, operational testing must be conducted at least once every 30 days.
(v) These monitoring and inspection data must be recorded and the records must be placed in the operating record required by § 264.73 of this chapter.
(9) Direct transfer to the burner. If hazardous waste is directly transferred from a transport vehicle to a boiler or industrial furnace without the use of a storage unit, the owner and operator must comply with § 266.111.
(10) Recordkeeping. The owner or operator must maintain in the operating record of the facility all information and data required by this section for five years.
(11) Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the boiler or industrial furnace.
[56 FR 7208, Feb. 21, 1991; 56 FR 32688, July 17, 1991, as amended at 56 FR 42512, 42514, Aug. 27, 1991; 70 FR 34588, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 16913, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40277, July 14, 2006]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.