40 CFR 312.20 - All appropriate inquiries.

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§ 312.20 All appropriate inquiries.
(a) “All appropriate inquiries” pursuant to CERCLA section 101(35)(B) must be conducted within one year prior to the date of acquisition of the subject property and must include:
(1) An inquiry by an environmental professional (as defined in § 312.10), as provided in § 312.21;
(2) The collection of information pursuant to § 312.22 by persons identified under § 312.1(b); and
(3) Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens, as required in § 312.25.
(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, the following components of the all appropriate inquiries must be conducted or updated within 180 days of and prior to the date of acquisition of the subject property:
(1) Interviews with past and present owners, operators, and occupants (see § 312.23);
(2) Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens (see § 312.25);
(3) Reviews of federal, tribal, state, and local government records (see § 312.26);
(4) Visual inspections of the facility and of adjoining properties (see § 312.27); and
(5) The declaration by the environmental professional (see § 312.21(d)).
(c) All appropriate inquiries may include the results of and information contained in an inquiry previously conducted by, or on the behalf of, persons identified under § 312.1(b) and who are responsible for the inquiries for the subject property, provided:
(1) Such information was collected during the conduct of all appropriate inquiries in compliance with the requirements of CERCLA sections 101(35)(B), 101(40)(B) and 107(q)(A)(viii);
(2) Such information was collected or updated within one year prior to the date of acquisition of the subject property;
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the following components of the inquiries were conducted or updated within 180 days of and prior to the date of acquisition of the subject property:
(i) Interviews with past and present owners, operators, and occupants (see § 312.23);
(ii) Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens (see § 312.25);
(iii) Reviews of federal, tribal, state, and local government records (see § 312.26);
(iv) Visual inspections of the facility and of adjoining properties (see § 312.27); and
(v) The declaration by the environmental professional (see § 312.21(d)).
(4) Previously collected information is updated to include relevant changes in the conditions of the property and specialized knowledge, as outlined in § 312.28, of the persons conducting the all appropriate inquiries for the subject property, including persons identified in § 312.1(b) and the environmental professional, defined in § 312.10.
(d) All appropriate inquiries can include the results of report(s) specified in § 312.21(c), that have been prepared by or for other persons, provided that:
(1) The report(s) meets the objectives and performance factors of this regulation, as specified in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section; and
(2) The person specified in § 312.1(b) and seeking to use the previously collected information reviews the information and conducts the additional inquiries pursuant to §§ 312.28, 312.29 and 312.30 and the all appropriate inquiries are updated in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, as necessary.
(e) Objectives. The standards and practices set forth in this part for All Appropriate Inquiries are intended to result in the identification of conditions indicative of releases and threatened releases of hazardous substances on, at, in, or to the subject property.
(1) In performing the all appropriate inquiries, as defined in this section and provided in the standards and practices set forth this subpart, the persons identified under § 312.1(b)(1) and the environmental professional, as defined in § 312.10, must seek to identify through the conduct of the standards and practices set forth in this subpart, the following types of information about the subject property:
(i) Current and past property uses and occupancies;
(ii) Current and past uses of hazardous substances;
(iii) Waste management and disposal activities that could have caused releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances;
(iv) Current and past corrective actions and response activities undertaken to address past and on-going releases of hazardous substances;
(v) Engineering controls;
(vi) Institutional controls; and
(vii) Properties adjoining or located nearby the subject property that have environmental conditions that could have resulted in conditions indicative of releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances to the subject property.
(2) In the case of persons identified in § 312.1(b)(2), the standards and practices for All Appropriate Inquiries set forth in this part are intended to result in the identification of conditions indicative of releases and threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802) on, at, in, or to the subject property. In performing the all appropriate inquiries, as defined in this section and provided in the standards and practices set forth in this subpart, the persons identified under § 312.1(b) and the environmental professional, as defined in § 312.10, must seek to identify through the conduct of the standards and practices set forth in this subpart, the following types of information about the subject property:
(i) Current and past property uses and occupancies;
(ii) Current and past uses of hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802);
(iii) Waste management and disposal activities;
(iv) Current and past corrective actions and response activities undertaken to address past and on-going releases of hazardous substances pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802);
(v) Engineering controls;
(vi) Institutional controls; and
(vii) Properties adjoining or located nearby the subject property that have environmental conditions that could have resulted in conditions indicative of releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802) to the subject property.
(f) Performance factors. In performing each of the standards and practices set forth in this subpart and to meet the objectives stated in paragraph (e) of this section, the persons identified under § 312.1(b) or the environmental professional as defined in § 312.10 (as appropriate to the particular standard and practice) must seek to:
(1) Gather the information that is required for each standard and practice listed in this subpart that is publicly available, obtainable from its source within reasonable time and cost constraints, and which can practicably be reviewed; and
(2) Review and evaluate the thoroughness and reliability of the information gathered in complying with each standard and practice listed in this subpart taking into account information gathered in the course of complying with the other standards and practices of this subpart.
(g) To the extent there are data gaps (as defined in § 312.10) in the information developed as part of the inquiries in paragraph (e) of this section that affect the ability of persons (including the environmental professional) conducting the all appropriate inquiries to identify conditions indicative of releases or threatened releases in each area of inquiry under each standard and practice such persons should identify such data gaps, identify the sources of information consulted to address such data gaps, and comment upon the significance of such data gaps with regard to the ability to identify conditions indicative of releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances [and in the case of persons identified in § 312.1(b)(2), hazardous substances, pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802)] on, at, in, or to the subject property. Sampling and analysis may be conducted to develop information to address data gaps.
(h) Releases and threatened releases identified as part of the all appropriate inquiries should be noted in the report of the inquiries. These standards and practices however are not intended to require the identification in the written report prepared pursuant to § 312.21(c) of quantities or amounts, either individually or in the aggregate, of hazardous substances pollutants, contaminants, petroleum and petroleum products, and controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802) that because of said quantities and amounts, generally would not pose a threat to human health or the environment.

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE