§ 53.57Test for filter temperature control during sampling and post-sampling periods.
(a)Overview. This test is intended to measure the candidate sampler's ability to prevent excessive overheating of the PM sample collection filter (or filters) under conditions of elevated solar insolation. The test evaluates radiative effects on filter temperature during a 4-hour period of active sampling as well as during a subsequent 4-hour non-sampling time period prior to filter retrieval. Tests shall be conducted in an environmental chamber which provides the proper radiant wavelengths and energies to adequately simulate the sun's radiant effects under clear conditions at sea level. For additional guidance on conducting solar radiative tests under controlled conditions, consult military standard specification 810-E (reference 6 in appendix A of this subpart). The performance parameters tested under this procedure, the corresponding minimum performance specifications, and the applicable test conditions are summarized in table E-1 of this subpart. Each performance parameter tested, as described or determined in the test procedure, must meet or exceed the associated performance specification to successfully pass this test.
(b)Technical definition. Filter temperature control during sampling is the ability of a sampler to maintain the temperature of the particulate matter sample filter within the specified deviation (5 °C) from ambient temperature during any active sampling period. Post-sampling temperature control is the ability of a sampler to maintain the temperature of the particulate matter sample filter within the specified deviation from ambient temperature during the period from the end of active sample collection by the sampler until the filter is retrieved from the sampler for laboratory analysis.
(c)Required test equipment.
(1) Environmental chamber providing the means, such as a bank of solar-spectrum lamps, for generating or simulating thermal radiation in approximate spectral content and intensity equivalent to solar insulation of 1000 ±50 W/m2 inside the environmental chamber. To properly simulate the sun's radiative effects on the sampler, the solar bank must provide the spectral energy distribution and permitted tolerances specified in table E-2 of this subpart. The solar radiation source area shall be such that the width of the candidate sampler shall not exceed one-half the dimensions of the solar bank. The solar bank shall be located a minimum of 76 cm (30 inches) from any surface of the candidate sampler. To meet requirements of the solar radiation tests, the chamber's internal volume shall be a minimum of 10 times that of the volume of the candidate sampler. Air velocity in the region of the sampler must be maintained continuously during the radiative tests at 2.0 ±0.5 m/sec.
(2) Ambient air temperature recorder, range −30 °C to =50 °C, with a resolution of 0.1 °C and certified accurate to within 0.5 °C. Ambient air temperature measurements must be made using continuous (analog) recording capability or digital recording at intervals not to exceed 5 minutes.
(3) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to facilitate measurement of sampler flow rate at the sampler downtube.
(4) Miniature temperature sensor(s), capable of being installed in the sampler without introducing air leakage and capable of measuring the sample air temperature within 1 cm of the center of the filter, downstream of the filter; with a resolution of 0.1 °C, certified accurate to within 0.5 °C, NIST-traceable, with continuous (analog) recording capability or digital recording at intervals of not more than 5 minutes.
(5) Solar radiometer, to measure the intensity of the simulated solar radiation in the test environment, range of 0 to approximately 1500 W/m2. Optional capability for continuous (analog) recording or digital recording at intervals not to exceed 5 minutes is recommended.
(6) Sample filter or filters, as specified in section 6 of40 CFR part 50, appendix L.
(d)Calibration of test measurement instruments. Submit documentation showing evidence of appropriately recent calibration, certification of calibration accuracy, and NIST-traceability (if required) of all measurement instruments used in the tests. The accuracy of flow rate meters shall be verified at the highest and lowest pressures and temperatures used in the tests and shall be checked at zero and at least one flow rate within ±3 percent of 16.7 L/min within 7 days prior to use for this test. Where an instrument's measurements are to be recorded with an analog recording device, the accuracy of the entire instrument-recorder system shall be calibrated or verified.
(1) Setup of the sampler shall be performed as required in this paragraph (e) and otherwise as described in the sampler's operation or instruction manual referred to in § 53.4(b)(3). The sampler shall be installed upright and set up in the solar radiation environmental chamber in its normal configuration for collecting PM samples (with the inlet installed). The sampler's ambient and filter temperature measurement systems shall be calibrated per the sampler's operating manual within 7 days prior to this test. A sample filter shall be installed for the duration of this test. For sequential samplers, a sample filter shall also be installed in each available sequential channel or station intended for collection of a sequential sample (or at least five additional filters for magazine-type sequential samplers) as directed by the sampler's operation or instruction manual.
(2) The miniature temperature sensor shall be temporarily installed in the test sampler such that it accurately measures the air temperature 1 cm from the center of the filter on the downstream side of the filter. The sensor shall be installed such that no external or internal air leakage is created by the sensor installation. The sensor's dimensions and installation shall be selected to minimize temperature measurement uncertainties due to thermal conduction along the sensor mounting structure or sensor conductors. For sequential samplers, similar temperature sensors shall also be temporarily installed in the test sampler to monitor the temperature 1 cm from the center of each filter stored in the sampler for sequential sample operation.
(3) The solar radiant energy source shall be installed in the test chamber such that the entire test sampler is irradiated in a manner similar to the way it would be irradiated by solar radiation if it were located outdoors in an open area on a sunny day, with the radiation arriving at an angle of between 30° and 45° from vertical. The intensity of the radiation received by all sampler surfaces that receive direct radiation shall average 1000 ±50 W/m2, measured in a plane perpendicular to the incident radiation. The incident radiation shall be oriented with respect to the sampler such that the area of the sampler's ambient temperature sensor (or temperature shield) receives full, direct radiation as it would or could during normal outdoor installation. Also, the temperature sensor must not be shielded or shaded from the radiation by a sampler part in a way that would not occur at other normal insulation angles or directions.
(4) The solar radiometer shall be installed in a location where it measures thermal radiation that is generally representative of the average thermal radiation intensity that the upper portion of the sampler and sampler inlet receive. The solar radiometer shall be oriented so that it measures the radiation in a plane perpendicular to its angle of incidence.
(5) The ambient air temperature recorder shall be installed in the test chamber such that it will accurately measure the temperature of the air in the chamber without being unduly affected by the chamber's air temperature control system or by the radiant energy from the solar radiation source that may be present inside the test chamber.
(1) Set up the sampler as specified in paragraph (e) of this section and otherwise prepare the sampler for normal sample collection operation as directed in the sampler's operation or instruction manual.
(2) Remove the inlet of the candidate test sampler and install the flow measurement adaptor on the sampler's downtube. Conduct a leak check as described in the sampler's operation or instruction manual. The leak test must be properly passed before other tests are carried out.
(3) Remove the flow measurement adaptor from the downtube and re-install the sampling inlet.
(4) Activate the solar radiation source and verify that the resulting energy distribution prescribed in table E-2 of this subpart is achieved.
(5) Program the test sampler to conduct a single sampling run of 4 continuous hours. During the 4-hour sampling run, measure and record the radiant flux, ambient temperature, and filter temperature (all filter temperatures for sequential samplers) at intervals not to exceed 5 minutes.
(6) At the completion of the 4-hour sampling phase, terminate the sample period, if not terminated automatically by the sampler. Continue to measure and record the radiant flux, ambient temperature, and filter temperature or temperatures for 4 additional hours at intervals not to exceed 5 minutes. At the completion of the 4-hour post-sampling period, discontinue the measurements and turn off the solar source.
(7) Download all archived sampler data from the test run.
(g)Test results. Chamber radiant flux control. Examine the continuous record of the chamber radiant flux and verify that the flux met the requirements specified in table E-2 of this subpart at all times during the test. If not, the entire test is not valid and must be repeated.
(1)Filter temperature measurement accuracy.
(i) For each 4-hour test period, calculate the absolute value of the difference between the mean filter temperature indicated by the sampler (active filter) and the mean filter temperature measured by the reference temperature sensor installed within 1 cm downstream of the (active) filter as:
Tind,filter = mean filter temperature indicated by the test sampler, °C; and
Tref,filter = mean filter temperature measured by the reference temperature sensor, °C.
(ii) To successfully pass the indicated filter temperature accuracy test, the calculated difference between the measured means (Tdiff,filter) must not exceed 2 °C for each 4-hour test period.
(2)Ambient temperature measurement accuracy.
(i) For each 4-hour test period, calculate the absolute value of the difference between the mean ambient air temperature indicated by the test sampler and the mean ambient air temperature measured by the reference ambient air temperature recorder as:
Tind,ambient = mean ambient air temperature indicated by the test sampler, °C; and
Tref,ambient = mean ambient air temperature measured by the reference ambient air temperature recorder, °C.
(ii) To successfully pass the indicated ambient temperature accuracy test, the calculated difference between the measured means (Tdiff,ambient) must not exceed 2 °C for each 4-hour test period.
(3)Filter temperature control accuracy.
(i) For each temperature measurement interval over each 4-hour test period, calculate the difference between the filter temperature indicated by the reference temperature sensor and the ambient temperature indicated by the test sampler as:
(ii) Tabulate and inspect the calculated differences as a function of time. To successfully pass the indicated filter temperature control test, the calculated difference between the measured values must not exceed 5 °C for any consecutive intervals covering more than a 30-minute time period.
(iii) For sequential samplers, repeat the test calculations for each of the stored sequential sample filters. All stored filters must also meet the 5 °C temperature control test.