40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

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§ 60.48b Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section, the owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the opacity standard under § 60.43b shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous opacity monitoring systems (COMS) for measuring the opacity of emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system. The owner or operator of an affected facility subject to an opacity standard under § 60.43b and meeting the conditions under paragraphs (j)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of this section who elects not to use a COMS shall conduct a performance test using Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part and the procedures in § 60.11 to demonstrate compliance with the applicable limit in § 60.43b by April 29, 2011, within 45 days of stopping use of an existing COMS, or within 180 days after initial startup of the facility, whichever is later, and shall comply with either paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section. The observation period for Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance tests may be reduced from 3 hours to 60 minutes if all 6-minute averages are less than 10 percent and all individual 15-second observations are less than or equal to 20 percent during the initial 60 minutes of observation.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section, the owner or operator shall conduct subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance tests using the procedures in paragraph (a) of this section according to the applicable schedule in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section, as determined by the most recent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test results.
(i) If no visible emissions are observed, a subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test must be completed within 12 calendar months from the date that the most recent performance test was conducted or within 45 days of the next day that fuel with an opacity standard is combusted, whichever is later;
(ii) If visible emissions are observed but the maximum 6-minute average opacity is less than or equal to 5 percent, a subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test must be completed within 6 calendar months from the date that the most recent performance test was conducted or within 45 days of the next day that fuel with an opacity standard is combusted, whichever is later;
(iii) If the maximum 6-minute average opacity is greater than 5 percent but less than or equal to 10 percent, a subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test must be completed within 3 calendar months from the date that the most recent performance test was conducted or within 45 days of the next day that fuel with an opacity standard is combusted, whichever is later; or
(iv) If the maximum 6-minute average opacity is greater than 10 percent, a subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test must be completed within 45 calendar days from the date that the most recent performance test was conducted.
(2) If the maximum 6-minute opacity is less than 10 percent during the most recent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test, the owner or operator may, as an alternative to performing subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance tests, elect to perform subsequent monitoring using Method 22 of appendix A-7 of this part according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.
(i) The owner or operator shall conduct 10 minute observations (during normal operation) each operating day the affected facility fires fuel for which an opacity standard is applicable using Method 22 of appendix A-7 of this part and demonstrate that the sum of the occurrences of any visible emissions is not in excess of 5 percent of the observation period (i.e., 30 seconds per 10 minute period). If the sum of the occurrence of any visible emissions is greater than 30 seconds during the initial 10 minute observation, immediately conduct a 30 minute observation. If the sum of the occurrence of visible emissions is greater than 5 percent of the observation period (i.e., 90 seconds per 30 minute period), the owner or operator shall either document and adjust the operation of the facility and demonstrate within 24 hours that the sum of the occurrence of visible emissions is equal to or less than 5 percent during a 30 minute observation (i.e., 90 seconds) or conduct a new Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test using the procedures in paragraph (a) of this section within 45 calendar days according to the requirements in § 60.46d(d)(7).
(ii) If no visible emissions are observed for 10 operating days during which an opacity standard is applicable, observations can be reduced to once every 7 operating days during which an opacity standard is applicable. If any visible emissions are observed, daily observations shall be resumed.
(3) If the maximum 6-minute opacity is less than 10 percent during the most recent Method 9 of appendix A-4 of this part performance test, the owner or operator may, as an alternative to performing subsequent Method 9 of appendix A-4 performance tests, elect to perform subsequent monitoring using a digital opacity compliance system according to a site-specific monitoring plan approved by the Administrator. The observations shall be similar, but not necessarily identical, to the requirements in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. For reference purposes in preparing the monitoring plan, see OAQPS “Determination of Visible Emission Opacity from Stationary Sources Using Computer-Based Photographic Analysis Systems.” This document is available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA); Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards; Sector Policies and Programs Division; Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This document is also available on the Technology Transfer Network (TTN) under Emission Measurement Center Preliminary Methods.
(b) Except as provided under paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of this section, the owner or operator of an affected facility subject to a NOX standard under § 60.44b shall comply with either paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.
(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate CEMS for measuring NOX and O2 (or CO2) emissions discharged to the atmosphere, and shall record the output of the system; or
(2) If the owner or operator has installed a NOX emission rate CEMS to meet the requirements of part 75 of this chapter and is continuing to meet the ongoing requirements of part 75 of this chapter, that CEMS may be used to meet the requirements of this section, except that the owner or operator shall also meet the requirements of § 60.49b. Data reported to meet the requirements of § 60.49b shall not include data substituted using the missing data procedures in subpart D of part 75 of this chapter, nor shall the data have been bias adjusted according to the procedures of part 75 of this chapter.
(c) The CEMS required under paragraph (b) of this section shall be operated and data recorded during all periods of operation of the affected facility except for CEMS breakdowns and repairs. Data is recorded during calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments.
(d) The 1-hour average NOX emission rates measured by the continuous NOX monitor required by paragraph (b) of this section and required under § 60.13(h) shall be expressed in ng/J or lb/MMBtu heat input and shall be used to calculate the average emission rates under § 60.44b. The 1-hour averages shall be calculated using the data points required under § 60.13(h)(2).
(e) The procedures under § 60.13 shall be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the continuous monitoring systems.
(1) For affected facilities combusting coal, wood or municipal-type solid waste, the span value for a COMS shall be between 60 and 80 percent.
(2) For affected facilities combusting coal, oil, or natural gas, the span value for NOX is determined using one of the following procedures:
(i) Except as provided under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, NOX span values shall be determined as follows:
Fuel Span values for NOX (ppm)
Natural gas 500.
Oil 500.
Coal 1,000.
Mixtures 500 (x y) 1,000z.
Where:
x = Fraction of total heat input derived from natural gas;
y = Fraction of total heat input derived from oil; and
z = Fraction of total heat input derived from coal.
(ii) As an alternative to meeting the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, the owner or operator of an affected facility may elect to use the NOX span values determined according to section 2.1.2 in appendix A to part 75 of this chapter.
(3) All span values computed under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section for combusting mixtures of regulated fuels are rounded to the nearest 500 ppm. Span values computed under paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section shall be rounded off according to section 2.1.2 in appendix A to part 75 of this chapter.
(f) When NOX emission data are not obtained because of CEMS breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks and zero and span adjustments, emission data will be obtained by using standby monitoring systems, Method 7 of appendix A of this part, Method 7A of appendix A of this part, or other approved reference methods to provide emission data for a minimum of 75 percent of the operating hours in each steam generating unit operating day, in at least 22 out of 30 successive steam generating unit operating days.
(g) The owner or operator of an affected facility that has a heat input capacity of 73 MW (250 MMBtu/hr) or less, and that has an annual capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any mixture of these fuels, greater than 10 percent (0.10) shall:
(1) Comply with the provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e)(2), (e)(3), and (f) of this section; or
(2) Monitor steam generating unit operating conditions and predict NOX emission rates as specified in a plan submitted pursuant to § 60.49b(c).
(h) The owner or operator of a duct burner, as described in § 60.41b, that is subject to the NOX standards in § 60.44b(a)(4), § 60.44b(e), or § 60.44b(l) is not required to install or operate a continuous emissions monitoring system to measure NOX emissions.
(i) The owner or operator of an affected facility described in § 60.44b(j) or § 60.44b(k) is not required to install or operate a CEMS for measuring NOX emissions.
(j) The owner or operator of an affected facility that meets the conditions in either paragraph (j)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of this section is not required to install or operate a COMS if:
(1) The affected facility uses a PM CEMS to monitor PM emissions; or
(2) The affected facility burns only liquid (excluding residual oil) or gaseous fuels with potential SO2 emissions rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) or less and does not use a post-combustion technology to reduce SO2 or PM emissions. The owner or operator must maintain fuel records of the sulfur content of the fuels burned, as described under § 60.49b(r); or
(3) The affected facility burns coke oven gas alone or in combination with fuels meeting the criteria in paragraph (j)(2) of this section and does not use a post-combustion technology to reduce SO2 or PM emissions; or
(4) The affected facility does not use post-combustion technology (except a wet scrubber) for reducing PM, SO2, or carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, burns only gaseous fuels or fuel oils that contain less than or equal to 0.30 weight percent sulfur, and is operated such that emissions of CO to the atmosphere from the affected facility are maintained at levels less than or equal to 0.15 lb/MMBtu on a steam generating unit operating day average basis. Owners and operators of affected facilities electing to comply with this paragraph must demonstrate compliance according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (j)(4)(i) through (iv) of this section; or
(i) You must monitor CO emissions using a CEMS according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (j)(4)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.
(A) The CO CEMS must be installed, certified, maintained, and operated according to the provisions in § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part.
(B) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using the data points generated by the CO CEMS expressed in parts per million by volume corrected to 3 percent oxygen (dry basis).
(C) At a minimum, valid 1-hour CO emissions averages must be obtained for at least 90 percent of the operating hours on a 30-day rolling average basis. The 1-hour averages are calculated using the data points required in § 60.13(h)(2).
(D) Quarterly accuracy determinations and daily calibration drift tests for the CO CEMS must be performed in accordance with procedure 1 in appendix F of this part.
(ii) You must calculate the 1-hour average CO emissions levels for each steam generating unit operating day by multiplying the average hourly CO output concentration measured by the CO CEMS times the corresponding average hourly flue gas flow rate and divided by the corresponding average hourly heat input to the affected source. The 24-hour average CO emission level is determined by calculating the arithmetic average of the hourly CO emission levels computed for each steam generating unit operating day.
(iii) You must evaluate the preceding 24-hour average CO emission level each steam generating unit operating day excluding periods of affected source startup, shutdown, or malfunction. If the 24-hour average CO emission level is greater than 0.15 lb/MMBtu, you must initiate investigation of the relevant equipment and control systems within 24 hours of the first discovery of the high emission incident and, take the appropriate corrective action as soon as practicable to adjust control settings or repair equipment to reduce the 24-hour average CO emission level to 0.15 lb/MMBtu or less.
(iv) You must record the CO measurements and calculations performed according to paragraph (j)(4) of this section and any corrective actions taken. The record of corrective action taken must include the date and time during which the 24-hour average CO emission level was greater than 0.15 lb/MMBtu, and the date, time, and description of the corrective action.
(5) The affected facility uses a bag leak detection system to monitor the performance of a fabric filter (baghouse) according to the most current requirements in section § 60.48Da of this part; or
(6) The affected facility uses an ESP as the primary PM control device and uses an ESP predictive model to monitor the performance of the ESP developed in accordance and operated according to the most current requirements in section § 60.48Da of this part; or
(7) The affected facility burns only gaseous fuels or fuel oils that contain less than or equal to 0.30 weight percent sulfur and operates according to a written site-specific monitoring plan approved by the permitting authority. This monitoring plan must include procedures and criteria for establishing and monitoring specific parameters for the affected facility indicative of compliance with the opacity standard.
(k) Owners or operators complying with the PM emission limit by using a PM CEMS must calibrate, maintain, operate, and record the output of the system for PM emissions discharged to the atmosphere as specified in § 60.46b(j). The CEMS specified in paragraph § 60.46b(j) shall be operated and data recorded during all periods of operation of the affected facility except for CEMS breakdowns and repairs. Data is recorded during calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments.
(l) An owner or operator of an affected facility that is subject to an opacity standard under § 60.43b(f) is not required to operate a COMS provided that the unit burns only gaseous fuels and/or liquid fuels (excluding residue oil) with a potential SO2 emissions rate no greater than 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu), and the unit operates according to a written site-specific monitoring plan approved by the permitting authority is not required to operate a COMS. This monitoring plan must include procedures and criteria for establishing and monitoring specific parameters for the affected facility indicative of compliance with the opacity standard. For testing performed as part of this site-specific monitoring plan, the permitting authority may require as an alternative to the notification and reporting requirements specified in §§ 60.8 and 60.11 that the owner or operator submit any deviations with the excess emissions report required under § 60.49b(h).
[72 FR 32742, June 13, 2007, as amended at 74 FR 5087, Jan. 28, 2009; 76 FR 3523, Jan. 20, 2011; 77 FR 9460, Feb. 16, 2012]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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  • 2014-11-19; vol. 79 # 223 - Wednesday, November 19, 2014
    1. 79 FR 68777 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule; notice of final action on reconsideration.
      The effective date of the rule is November 19, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 60 after this date.

  • 2014-12-12; vol. 79 # 239 - Friday, December 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 73872 - Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing and Phosphate Fertilizer Production RTR and Standards of Performance for Phosphate Processing; Extension of Comment Period
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of public comment period.
      Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on November 7, 2014, (79 FR 66512) is being extended for 30 days to January 21, 2015.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63