40 CFR 60.562-1 - Standards: Process emissions.

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§ 60.562-1 Standards: Process emissions.
(a) Polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene. Each owner or operator of a polypropylene, low density polyethylene, or high density polyethylene process line containing a process section subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the provisions in this section on and after the date on which the initial performance test required by § 60.8 is completed, but not later than 60 days after achieving the maximum production rate at which the affected facility will be operated, or 180 days after initial startup whichever comes first.
(1) Continuous emissions. For each vent stream that emits continuous emissions from an affected facility as defined in § 60.560(a)(1), the owner or operator shall use the procedures identified in paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section for determining which continuous emissions are to be controlled and which level of control listed in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is to be met. The owner or operator shall use the procedures identified in paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section each time a process section is constructed, modified, or reconstructed at the plant site.
(i) Level of control Continuous emission streams determined to be subject to control pursuant to the procedures identified in paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section, as applicable, shall meet one of the control levels identified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) (A) through (D) of this section. The procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section identify which level of control may be met. The level of control identified in paragraph (a)(1)(i)(D) of this section is limited to certain continuous emission streams, which are identified through the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section.
(A) Reduce emissions of total organic compounds (minus methane and ethane) (TOC) by 98 weight percent, or to a concentration of 20 parts per million by volume (ppmv) on a dry basis, whichever is less stringent. The TOC is expressed as the sum of the actual compounds, not carbon equivalents. If an owner or operator elects to comply with the 20 ppmv standard, the concentration shall include a correction to 3 percent oxygen only when supplemental combustion air is used to combust the vent stream.
(B) Combust the emissions in a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 150 million Btu/hour or greater by introducing the vent stream into the flame zone of the boiler or process heater. (Note: A boiler or process heater of lesser design heat capacity may be used, but must demonstrate compliance with paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section.)
(C) Combust the emissions in a flare that meets the conditions specified in § 60.18. If the flare is used to control both continuous and intermittent emissions, the flare shall meet the conditions specified in § 60.18 at all times (i.e., which controlling continuous emissions alone or when controlling both continuous and intermittent emissions).
(D) Vent the emissions to a control device located on the plant site.
(ii) Uncontrolled Continuous Emissions. For each vent stream that emits continuous emissions from an affected facility as defined in § 60.560(a)(1) and that is not controlled in an existing control device, the owner or operator shall use the procedures identified in table 3 to identify those continuous emissions from each constructed, modified, or reconstructed affected facility that are to be controlled. The owner shall include in the procedure all uncontrolled continuous vent streams from previously constructed, modified, or reconstructed affected facilities at the plant site each time a process section is constructed, modified, or reconstructed at the plant site. In applying the procedures shown in table 3, the stream characteristics may be either measured or calculated as specified in § 60.564(d). For modified or reconstructed affected facilities, these stream characteristics are to be determined after a modification or reconstruction determination has been made by the Administrator, but before any actual changes have been undertaken, and then again after the actual changes have been made. Figure 1 provides a summary overview of the control determination procedure described in table 3.
Table 3—Procedure for Determining Control and Applicable Standard for Continuous Emission Streams From New, Modified, or Reconstructed Polypropylene and Polyethylene Affected Facilities
Procedure /a/ Applicable TOC weight percent range Control/no control criteria Applicable standard
a Individual streams excluded under § 60.560(g) from the requirements of § 60.562-1 are to be excluded from all calculations in this table. This paragraph exempts all individual emission streams with individual uncontrolled annual emission rates of less than 1.6 Mg/yr and all individual emission streams with individual TOC concentrations of less than 0.10 percent TOC by weight.
b For the 0.10 to less than 5.5 weight percent range, the following equations are used:
1. Sum all uncontrolled streams with TOC weight percent within the applicable weight percent range from all affected facilities at a plant site 0.10 < 5.5 1. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are equal to or greater than the calculated threshold emissions (CTE) /b/, control 1. § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C).
2. Calculate total uncontrolled annual emissions for each weight percent range. For modified or affected facilities, use the total uncontrolled emissions after modification or reconstruction 2. If total combined uncontrolled emission are less than the CTE /b/, control only individual streams with volume flow rates of 8 scfm or less 2. § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A) through (D).
3. Calculate composite TOC concentration (weight percent) for streams in the 0.10 to less than 5.5 weight percent range and for streams in the 5.5 to less than 20 weight percent range. For modified or reconstructed affected facilities, calculate the composite VOC concentration before and after modification and reconstruction 5.5 < 20 1. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are equal to or greater than CTE /b/, control 1. § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C) 2. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are less than the CTE /b/, control only individual streams with volume flow rates of 8 scfm or less.
4. Select the higher of the two TOC concentrations for each weight percent range for vent streams from a modified or reconstructed affected facility 20 to 100 1. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are equal to or greater than 18.2 Mg/yr, control 1. § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C).
5. Calculate the threshold emissions for the 0.10 to less than 5.5 weight percent range and for the 5.5 to less than 20 weight percent range using the respective composite TOC concentration selected above 2. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are less than 18.2 Mg/yr, control 2. § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A) through (D).
If the percent composite TOC concentration is Use this equation to calculate threshold emissions
0.10<0.12 (a×7.5×106) 226
0.12<0.2 (b×58.3) 116.8
0.2<0.3 (c×3020) 71.8
0.3<0.4 (d×547) 54.5
0.4<0.6 48.3 31 (0.6−weight percent TOC)
0.6<5.5 48.3
where: a=(0.12−weight percent TOC).2,5
c=(0.3−weight percent TOC)2
d=(0.4−weight percent TOC).1,5
For the 5.5 to less than 20 weight percent range, the following equations are used.
If the percent composite TOC concentration is Use this equation to calculate threshold emissions
5.5<7.0 (e×740) 31
7.0<9.0 (f×324) 25.0
9.0<20 (g×125) 18.2
where
(iii) Controlled Continuous Emissions. For each vent stream that emits continuous emissions from an affected facility as defined in § 60.560(a)(1) and that is controlled in an existing control device, each owner or operator shall determine whether the emissions entering the control device are greater than or equal to the calculated threshold emissions (CTE) level, which is to be calculated using the TOC concentration of the inlet vent stream and the equations in footnote b of table 3. If the inlet stream's TOC concentration is equal to or greater than 20 weight percent, the calculated threshold emissions level is 18.2 Mg/yr (20.1 ton/yr). If multiple emission streams are vented to the control device, the individual streams are not to be separated into individual weight percent ranges for calculation purposes as would be done for uncontrolled emission streams. Emissions vented to an existing control device are required to be controlled as described in paragraphs (a)(1)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section. Figure 2 illustrates the control determination procedure for controlled continuous emissions.
(A) If the annual emissions of the stream entering the control device are equal to or greater than the CTE levels, then compliance with one of the requirements identified in § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C) is required at such time the control device is reconstructed or replaced or has its operating conditions modified as a result of State or local regulations (including changes in the operating permit) including those instances where the control device is reconstructed, replaced, or modified in its operation at the same time the existing process section is modified or reconstructed and becomes an affected facility. If the existing control device already complies with one of the requirements identified in § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C), no further control is required.
(B) If the annual emissions of the stream entering the control device are less than the CTE level, then the requirements of § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C) are not applicable at that time. However, if the control device is replaced, reconstructed, or modified at a later date, each owner or operator shall reevaluate the applicability of these standards. This is done by combining with the vent stream entering the control device any uncontrolled vent streams in the same weight percent range as the controlled vent stream and determining whether the annual emissions of the stream entering the control device plus the applicable uncontrolled vent streams are greater than or equal to the CTE level, which is based on the weighted TOC concentration of the controlled vent stream and the uncontrolled vent streams. If the annual emissions entering the control device (including the applicable uncontrolled vent streams) are greater than or equal to the CTE level, then compliance with one of the requirements identified in § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C) is required at that time for both the controlled and uncontrolled vent streams. If the annual emissions are less than the CTE level, compliance with these standards is again not required at such time. However, if the control device is again replaced, reconstructed, or modified, each owner or operator shall repeat this determination procedure.
(2) Intermittent emissions. The owner or operator shall control each vent stream that emits intermittent emissions from an affected facility as defined in § 60.560-1(a)(1) by meeting one of the control requirements specified in paragraphs (a)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section. If a vent stream that emits intermittent emissions is controlled in an existing flare, incinerator, boiler, or process heater, the requirements of this paragraph are waived until such time the control device is reconstructed or replaced or is modified in its operating conditions as a result of State or local regulation, including changes in the operating permit. This paragraph does not apply to emergency vent streams exempted by § 60.560(h) and as defined in § 60.561.
(i) Combust the emissions in a flare that is:
(A) Designed for and operated with no visible emissions, except for periods not to exceed a total of 5 minutes during any 2 consecutive hours,
(B) Operated with a flame present at all times, and
(C) Designed to maintain a stable flame.
(ii) Combust the emissions in an incinerator, boiler, or process heater. Such emissions shall be introduced into the flame zone of a boiler or process heater.
(b) Polystyrene. Each owner or operator of a polystyrene process line containing process sections subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the provisions in this section on and after the date on which the initial performance test required by § 60.8 is completed, but not later than 60 days after achieving the maximum production rate at which the affected facility will be operated, or 180 days after initial startup, whichever comes first. Each owner or operator of a polystyrene process line using a continuous process shall:
(1) Limit the continuous TOC emissions from the material recovery section by complying with one of the following:
(i) Not allow continuous TOC emissions to be greater than 0.0036 kg TOC/Mg (0.0072 lb TOC/ton) product; or
(ii) Not allow the outlet gas stream temperature from each final condenser in the material recovery section to exceed −25 °C (−13 °F). For purposes of this standard, temperature excursions above this limit shall not be considered a violation when such excursions occur during periods of startup, shutdown, or malfunction; or
(iii) Comply with § 60.562-1(a)(1)(i) (A), (B), or (C).
(2) If continuous TOC emissions from the material recovery section are routed through an existing emergency vapor recovery system, then compliance with these standards is required when the emergency vapor recovery system undergoes modification, reconstruction, or replacement. In such instances, compliance with these standards shall be achieved no later than 180 days after completion of the modification, reconstruction, or replacement.
(c) Poly(ethylene terephthalate). Each owner or operator of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) process line containing process sections subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the provisions in this section on and after the date on which the initial performance test required by § 60.8 is completed, but not later than 60 days after achieving the maximum production rate at which the affected facility will be operated, or 180 days after initial startup, whichever comes first.
(1) Each owner or operator of a PET process line using a dimethyl terephthalate process shall:
(i) Limit the continuous TOC emissions from the material recovery section (i.e., methanol recovery) by complying with one of the following:
(A) Not allow the continuous TOC emissions to be greater than 0.018 kg TOC/Mg (0.036 lb TOC/ton) product; or
(B) Not allow the outlet gas stream temperature from each final condenser in the material recovery section (i.e., methanol recovery) to exceed 3 °C ( 37 °F). For purposes of this standard, temperature excursions above this limit shall not be considered a violation when such excursions occur during periods of startup, shutdown, or malfunction.
(ii) Limit the continuous TOC emissions and, if steam-jet ejectors are used to provide vacuum to the polymerization reactors, the ethylene glycol concentration from the polymerization reaction section by complying with the appropriate standard set forth below. The ethylene glycol concentration limits specified in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) (B) and (C) of this section shall be determined by the procedures specified in § 60.564(j).
(A) Not allow continuous TOC emissions from the polymerization reaction section (including emissions from any equipment used to further recover the ethylene glycol, but excluding those emissions from the cooling tower) to be greater than 0.02 kg TOC/Mg (0.04 lb TOC/ton) product; and
(B) If steam-jet ejectors are used as vacuum producers and a low viscosity product is being produced using single or multiple end finishers or a high viscosity product is being produced using a single end finisher, maintain the concentration of ethylene glycol in the liquid effluent exiting the vacuum system servicing the polymerization reaction section at or below 0.35 percent by weight, averaged on a daily basis over a rolling 14-day period of operating days; or
(C) If steam-jet ejectors are used as vacuum producers and a high viscosity product is being produced using multiple end finishers, maintain an ethylene glycol concentration in the cooling tower at or below 6.0 percent by weight, averaged on a daily basis over a rolling 14-day period of operating days.
(2) Each owner or operator of a PET process line using a terephthalic acid process shall:
(i) Not allow the continuous TOC emissions from the esterification vessels in the raw materials preparation section to be greater than 0.04 kg TOC/Mg (0.08 lb TOC/ton) product.
(ii) Limit the continuous TOC emissions and, if steam-jet ejectors are used to provide vaccum to the polymerization reactors, the ethylene glycol concentration from the polymerization reaction section by complying with the appropriate standard set forth below. The ethylene glycol concentration limits specified in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) (B) and (C) of this section shall be determined by the procedures specified in § 60.564(j).
(A) Not allow continuous TOC emissions from the polymerization reaction section (including emissions from any equipment used to further recover the ethylene glycol, but excluding those emissions from the cooling tower) to be greater than 0.02 kg TOC/Mg (0.04 lb TOC/ton) product; and
(B) If steam-jet ejectors are used as vacuum producers and a low viscosity product is being produced using single or multiple end finishers or a high viscosity product is being produced using a single end finisher, maintain the concentration of ethylene glycol in the liquid effluent exiting the vacuum system servicing the polymerization reaction section at or below 0.35 percent by weight, averaged on a daily basis over a rolling 14-day period of operating days; or
(C) If steam-jet ejectors are used as vacuum producers and a high viscosity product is being produced using multiple end finishers, maintain an ethylene glycol concentration in the cooling tower at or below 6.0 percent by weight, averaged on a daily basis over a rolling 14-day period of operating days.
(d) Closed vent systems and control devices used to comply with this subpart shall be operated at all times when emissions may be vented to them.
(e) Vent systems that contain valves that could divert a vent stream from a control device shall have car-sealed opened all valves in the vent system from the emission source to the control device and car-sealed closed all valves in vent system that would lead the vent stream to the atmosphere, either directly or indirectly, bypassing the control device.
[55 FR 51035, Dec. 11, 1990; 56 FR 9178, Mar. 5, 1991, as amended at 56 FR 12299, Mar. 22, 1991; 65 FR 61767, Oct. 17, 2000]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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  • 2014-11-19; vol. 79 # 223 - Wednesday, November 19, 2014
    1. 79 FR 68777 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units
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Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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  • 2014-12-12; vol. 79 # 239 - Friday, December 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 73872 - Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing and Phosphate Fertilizer Production RTR and Standards of Performance for Phosphate Processing; Extension of Comment Period
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      Notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of public comment period.
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      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63