(a) Except as provided in § 60.752(b)(2)(i)(B), the specified methods in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section shall be used to determine whether the gas collection system is in compliance with § 60.752(b)(2)(ii).
(1) For the purposes of calculating the maximum expected gas generation flow rate from the landfill to determine compliance with § 60.752(b)(2)(ii)(A)(1), one of the following equations shall be used. The k and Lo kinetic factors should be those published in the most recent Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) or other site specific values demonstrated to be appropriate and approved by the Administrator. If k has been determined as specified in § 60.754(a)(4), the value of k determined from the test shall be used. A value of no more than 15 years shall be used for the intended use period of the gas mover equipment. The active life of the landfill is the age of the landfill plus the estimated number of years until closure.
(i) For sites with unknown year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate:
Qm = 2Lo R (e−kc − e−kt)
Qm = maximum expected gas generation flow rate, cubic meters per year
Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste
R = average annual acceptance rate, megagrams per year
k = methane generation rate constant, year−1
t = age of the landfill at equipment installation plus the time the owner or operator intends to use the gas mover equipment or active life of the landfill, whichever is less. If the equipment is installed after closure, t is the age of the landfill at installation, years
c = time since closure, years (for an active landfill c = O and e−kc = 1)
(ii) For sites with known year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate:
QM=maximum expected gas generation flow rate, cubic meters per year
k=methane generation rate constant, year−1
Lo=methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste
Mi=mass of solid waste in the ith section, megagrams
ti=age of the ith section, years
(iii) If a collection and control system has been installed, actual flow data may be used to project the maximum expected gas generation flow rate instead of, or in conjunction with, the equations in paragraphs (a)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section. If the landfill is still accepting waste, the actual measured flow data will not equal the maximum expected gas generation rate, so calculations using the equations in paragraphs (a)(1) (i) or (ii) or other methods shall be used to predict the maximum expected gas generation rate over the intended period of use of the gas control system equipment.
(2) For the purposes of determining sufficient density of gas collectors for compliance with § 60.752(b)(2)(ii)(A)(2), the owner or operator shall design a system of vertical wells, horizontal collectors, or other collection devices, satisfactory to the Administrator, capable of controlling and extracting gas from all portions of the landfill sufficient to meet all operational and performance standards.
(3) For the purpose of demonstrating whether the gas collection system flow rate is sufficient to determine compliance with § 60.752(b)(2)(ii)(A)(3), the owner or operator shall measure gauge pressure in the gas collection header at each individual well, monthly. If a positive pressure exists, action shall be initiated to correct the exceedance within 5 calendar days, except for the three conditions allowed under § 60.753(b). If negative pressure cannot be achieved without excess air infiltration within 15 calendar days of the first measurement, the gas collection system shall be expanded to correct the exceedance within 120 days of the initial measurement of positive pressure. Any attempted corrective measure shall not cause exceedances of other operational or performance standards. An alternative timeline for correcting the exceedance may be submitted to the Administrator for approval.
(4) Owners or operators are not required to expand the system as required in paragraph (a)(3) of this section during the first 180 days after gas collection system startup.
(5) For the purpose of identifying whether excess air infiltration into the landfill is occurring, the owner or operator shall monitor each well monthly for temperature and nitrogen or oxygen as provided in § 60.753(c). If a well exceeds one of these operating parameters, action shall be initiated to correct the exceedance within 5 calendar days. If correction of the exceedance cannot be achieved within 15 calendar days of the first measurement, the gas collection system shall be expanded to correct the exceedance within 120 days of the initial exceedance. Any attempted corrective measure shall not cause exceedances of other operational or performance standards. An alternative timeline for correcting the exceedance may be submitted to the Administrator for approval.
(6) An owner or operator seeking to demonstrate compliance with § 60.752(b)(2)(ii)(A)(4) through the use of a collection system not conforming to the specifications provided in § 60.759 shall provide information satisfactory to the Administrator as specified in § 60.752(b)(2)(i)(C) demonstrating that off-site migration is being controlled.
(b) For purposes of compliance with § 60.753(a), each owner or operator of a controlled landfill shall place each well or design component as specified in the approved design plan as provided in § 60.752(b)(2)(i). Each well shall be installed no later than 60 days after the date on which the initial solid waste has been in place for a period of:
(1) 5 years or more if active; or
(2) 2 years or more if closed or at final grade.
(c) The following procedures shall be used for compliance with the surface methane operational standard as provided in § 60.753(d).
(1) After installation of the collection system, the owner or operator shall monitor surface concentrations of methane along the entire perimeter of the collection area and along a pattern that traverses the landfill at 30 meter intervals (or a site-specific established spacing) for each collection area on a quarterly basis using an organic vapor analyzer, flame ionization detector, or other portable monitor meeting the specifications provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) The background concentration shall be determined by moving the probe inlet upwind and downwind outside the boundary of the landfill at a distance of at least 30 meters from the perimeter wells.
(3) Surface emission monitoring shall be performed in accordance with section 4.3.1 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part, except that the probe inlet shall be placed within 5 to 10 centimeters of the ground. Monitoring shall be performed during typical meteorological conditions.
(4) Any reading of 500 parts per million or more above background at any location shall be recorded as a monitored exceedance and the actions specified in paragraphs (c)(4) (i) through (v) of this section shall be taken. As long as the specified actions are taken, the exceedance is not a violation of the operational requirements of § 60.753(d).
(i) The location of each monitored exceedance shall be marked and the location recorded.
(ii) Cover maintenance or adjustments to the vacuum of the adjacent wells to increase the gas collection in the vicinity of each exceedance shall be made and the location shall be re-monitored within 10 calendar days of detecting the exceedance.
(iii) If the re-monitoring of the location shows a second exceedance, additional corrective action shall be taken and the location shall be monitored again within 10 days of the second exceedance. If the re-monitoring shows a third exceedance for the same location, the action specified in paragraph (c)(4)(v) of this section shall be taken, and no further monitoring of that location is required until the action specified in paragraph (c)(4)(v) has been taken.
(iv) Any location that initially showed an exceedance but has a methane concentration less than 500 ppm methane above background at the 10-day re-monitoring specified in paragraph (c)(4) (ii) or (iii) of this section shall be re-monitored 1 month from the initial exceedance. If the 1-month remonitoring shows a concentration less than 500 parts per million above background, no further monitoring of that location is required until the next quarterly monitoring period. If the 1-month remonitoring shows an exceedance, the actions specified in paragraph (c)(4) (iii) or (v) shall be taken.
(v) For any location where monitored methane concentration equals or exceeds 500 parts per million above background three times within a quarterly period, a new well or other collection device shall be installed within 120 calendar days of the initial exceedance. An alternative remedy to the exceedance, such as upgrading the blower, header pipes or control device, and a corresponding timeline for installation may be submitted to the Administrator for approval.
(5) The owner or operator shall implement a program to monitor for cover integrity and implement cover repairs as necessary on a monthly basis.
(d) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with the provisions in paragraph (c) of this section shall comply with the following instrumentation specifications and procedures for surface emission monitoring devices:
(1) The portable analyzer shall meet the instrument specifications provided in section 3 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part, except that “methane” shall replace all references to VOC.
(2) The calibration gas shall be methane, diluted to a nominal concentration of 500 parts per million in air.
(3) To meet the performance evaluation requirements in section 3.1.3 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part, the instrument evaluation procedures of section 4.4 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part shall be used.
(4) The calibration procedures provided in section 4.2 of Method 21 of appendix A of this part shall be followed immediately before commencing a surface monitoring survey.
(e) The provisions of this subpart apply at all times, except during periods of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction, provided that the duration of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction shall not exceed 5 days for collection systems and shall not exceed 1 hour for treatment or control devices.
[61 FR 9919, Mar. 12, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 32752, June 16, 1998]
Title 40 published on 2012-07-01
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