40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

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§ 600.510-93 Calculation of average fuel economy.
(a) Average fuel economy will be calculated to the nearest 0.1 mpg for the classes of automobiles identified in this section, and the results of such calculations will be reported to the Secretary of Transportation for use in determining compliance with the applicable fuel economy standards.
(1) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of passenger automobiles that is domestically manufactured as defined in § 600.511(d)(1).
(2) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of passenger automobiles that is not domestically manufactured as defined in § 600.511(d)(2).
(3) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of light trucks that is domestically manufactured as defined in § 600.511(e)(1).
(4) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of light trucks that is not domestically manufactured as defined in § 600.511(e)(2).
(b) For the purpose of calculating average fuel economy under paragraph (c), of this section:
(1) All fuel economy data submitted in accordance with § 600.006(e) or § 600.502(c) shall be used.
(2) The combined city/highway fuel economy will be calculated for each model type in accordance with § 600.207 of this section except that:
(i) Separate fuel economy values will be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines that are:
(A) Domestically produced; and
(B) Nondomestically produced and imported;
(ii) Total model year production data, as required by this subpart, will be used instead of sales projections;
(iii) The fuel economy value of diesel-powered model types will be multiplied by the factor 1.0 to correct gallons of diesel fuel to equivalent gallons of gasoline;
(iv) The fuel economy value will be rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg; and
(v) At the manufacturer's option, those vehicle configurations that are selfcompensating to altitude changes may be separated by sales into high-altitude sales categories and low-altitude sales categories. These separate sales categories may then be treated (only for the purpose of this section) as separate configurations in accordance with the procedure of paragraph § 600.207(a)(4)(ii).
(3) The fuel economy value for each vehicle configuration is the combined fuel economy calculated according to § 600.206 except that:
(i) Separate fuel economy values will be calculated for vehicle configurations associated with car lines that are:
(A) Domestically produced; and
(B) Nondomestically produced and imported;
(ii) Total model year production data, as required by this subpart will be used instead of sales projections; and
(iii) The fuel economy value of diesel-powered model types will be multiplied by the factor 1.0 to convert gallons of diesel fuel to equivalent gallons of gasoline.
(c) Except as permitted in paragraph (d) of this section, the average fuel economy will be calculated individually for each category identified in paragraph (a) of this section as follows:
(1) Divide the total production volume of that category of automobiles; by
(2) A sum of terms, each of which corresponds to a model type within that category of automobiles and is a fraction determined by dividing:
(i) The number of automobiles of that model type produced by the manufacturer in the model year; by
(ii) For gasoline-fueled and diesel-fueled model types, the fuel economy calculated for that model type in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section; or
(iii) For alcohol-fueled model types, the fuel economy value calculated for that model type in accordance with (b)(2) of this section divided by 0.15 and rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg; or
(iv) For natural gas-fueled model types, the fuel economy value calculated for that model type in accordance with (b)(2) of this section divided by 0.15 and rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg; or
(v) For alcohol dual fuel model types, for model years 1993 through 2004, the harmonic average of the following two terms; the result rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg:
(A) The combined model type fuel economy value for operation on gasoline or diesel fuel as determined in § 600.207(b)(5)(i); and
(B) The combined model type fuel economy value for operation on alcohol fuel as determined in § 600.207(b)(5)(ii) divided by 0.15 provided the requirements of § 600.510 (g) are met; or
(vi) For natural gas dual fuel model types, for model years 1993 through 2004, the harmonic average of the following two terms; the result rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg:
(A) The combined model type fuel economy value for operation on gasoline or diesel as determined in § 600.207(b)(5)(i); and
(B) The combined model type fuel economy value for operation on natural gas as determined in § 600.207(b)(5)(ii) divided by 0.15 provided the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section are met.
(d) The Administrator may approve alternative calculation methods if they are part of an approved credit plan under the provisions of 15 U.S.C. 2003.
(e) For passenger categories identified in paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section, the average fuel economy calculated in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section shall be adjusted using the following equation:
AFEadj = AFE[((0.55×a×c) (0.45×c) (0.5556×a) 0.4487) / ((0.55×a) 0.45)] IW
Where:
AFEadj = Adjusted average combined fuel economy, rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg.
AFE = Average combined fuel economy as calculated in paragraph (c) of this section, rounded to the nearest 0.0001 mpg.
a = Sales-weight average (rounded to the nearest 0.0001 mpg) of all model type highway fuel economy values (rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg) divided by the sales-weighted average (rounded to the nearest 0.0001 mpg) of all model type city fuel economy values (rounded to the nearest 0.1 mpg). The quotient shall be rounded to 4 decimal places. These average fuel economies shall be determined using the methodology of paragraph (c) of this section.
c = 0.0022 for the 1986 model year.
c = A constant value, fixed by model year. For 1987, the Administrator will specify the c value after the necessary laboratory humidity and test fuel data become available. For 1988 and later model years, the Administrator will specify the c value after the necessary laboratory humidity and test fuel data become available.
IW=(9.2917×10−3 × SF3 IWC × FE3 IWC) − (3.5123×10−3 × SF4 ETW × FE4 IWC)
Note:
Any calculated value of IW less than zero shall be set equal to zero.
SF3 IWC = The 3000 lb. inertia weight class sales divided by total sales. The quotient shall be rounded to 4 decimal places.
SF4 ETW = The 4000 lb. equivalent test weight category sales divided by total sales. The quotient shall be rounded to 4 decimal places.
FE4 IWC = The sales-weighted average combined fuel economy of all 3000 lb. inertia weight class base levels in the compliance category. Round the result to the nearest 0.0001 mpg.
FE4 IWC = The sales-weighted average combined fuel economy of all 4000 lb. inertia weight class base levels in the compliance category. Round the result to the nearest 0.0001 mpg.
(f) The Administrator shall calculate and apply additional average fuel economy adjustments if, after notice and opportunity for comment, the Administrator determines that, as a result of test procedure changes not previously considered, such correction is necessary to yield fuel economy test results that are comparable to those obtained under the 1975 test procedures. In making such determinations, the Administrator must find that:
(1) A directional change in measured fuel economy of an average vehicle can be predicted from a revision to the test procedures;
(2) The magnitude of the change in measured fuel economy for any vehicle or fleet of vehicles caused by a revision to the test procedures is quantifiable from theoretical calculations or best available test data;
(3) The impact of a change on average fuel economy is not due to eliminating the ability of manufacturers to take advantage of flexibility within the existing test procedures to gain measured improvements in fuel economy which are not the result of actual improvements in the fuel economy of production vehicles;
(4) The impact of a change on average fuel economy is not solely due to a greater ability of manufacturers to reflect in average fuel economy those design changes expected to have comparable effects on in-use fuel economy;
(5) The test procedure change is required by EPA or is a change initiated by EPA in its laboratory and is not a change implemented solely by a manufacturer in its own laboratory.
(g)
(1) Alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual fuel automobiles must provide equal or greater energy efficiency while operating on alcohol or natural gas as while operating on gasoline or diesel fuel to obtain the CAFE credit determined in paragraphs (c)(2)(v) and (vi) of this section. The following equation must hold true:
Ealt/Epet > or = 1
Where:
Ealt = [FEalt/(NHValt×Dalt)]×106 = energy efficiency while operating on alternative fuel rounded to the nearest 0.01 miles/million BTU.
Epet = [FEpet/(NHVpet×Dpet)]×106 = energy efficiency while operating on gasoline or diesel (petroleum) fuel rounded to the nearest 0.01 miles/million BTU.
FEalt is the fuel economy [miles/gallon for liquid fuels or miles/100 standard cubic feet for gaseous fuels] while operated on the alternative fuel as determined in § 600.113;
FEpet is the fuel economy [miles/gallon] while operated on petroleum fuel (gasoline or diesel) as determined in § 600.113;
NHValt is the net (lower) heating value [BTU/lb] of the alternative fuel;
NHVpet is the net (lower) heating value [BTU/lb] of the petroleum fuel;
Dalt is the density [lb/gallon for liquid fuels or lb/100 standard cubic feet for gaseous fuels] of the alternative fuel;
Dpet is the density [lb/gallon] of the petroleum fuel.
(i) The equation must hold true for both the city and highway fuel economy values for each test of each test vehicle.
(ii)
(A) The net heating value for alcohol fuels shall be determined per ASTM D 240 (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 600.011-93).
(B) The density for alcohol fuels shall be determined per ASTM D 1298 (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 600.011-93).
(iii) The net heating value and density of gasoline are to be determined by the manufacturer in accordance with § 600.113(c).
(2) For model years 1993 through 1995, alcohol dual fuel automobiles designed to operate on mixtures of alcohol and gasoline must, in addition to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, to obtain the CAFE credit determined in paragraphs (c)(2)(v) and (vi) of this section, provide equal or superior energy efficiency while operating on a mixture of 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline by volume, as while operating on gasoline fuel. The following equation must hold true:
E5./Eg>or=1
Where:
E5.=[FE5./(NHV5.×D5.)]×106=energy efficiency while operating on 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline rounded to the nearest 0.01 miles/million BTU.
Eg=[FEg/(NHVg×Dg)]×106=energy efficiency while operating on gasoline fuel rounded to the nearest 0.01 miles/million BTU.
FE5. is the fuel economy [miles/gallon] while operated on 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline as determined in § 600.113;
FEg is the fuel economy [miles/gallon] while operated on gasoline as determined in § 600.113;
NHV5. is the net (lower) heating value [BTU/lb] of the 50/50 blend;
NHVg is the net (lower) heating value [BTU/lb] of gasoline;
D5. is the density [lb/gallon] of the 50/50 blend;
Dg is the density [lb/gallon] of the gasoline.
(i) To demonstrate that the equation holds true for each engine family, the manufacturer will:
(A) Test one test vehicle in each engine family on both the city and highway cycles; or
(B) In lieu of testing, provide a written statement attesting that equal or superior energy efficiency is attained while using a 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline mixture compared to using 100% gasoline.
(ii)
(A) The net heating value for the 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline mixture shall be determined by ASTM D 240 (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 600.011-93).
(B) The density for the 50% alcohol, 50% gasoline mixture shall be determined per ASTM D 1298 (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 600.011-93).
(iii) The net heating value and density of gasoline are to be determined by the manufacturer in accordance with § 600.113(c).
(3) Alcohol dual fuel passenger automobiles and natural gas dual fuel passenger automobiles manufactured during model years 1993 through 2004 must meet the minimum driving range requirements established by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR part 538) to obtain the CAFE credit determined in paragraphs (c)(2)(v) and (vi) of this section.
(h) For each of the model years 1993 through 2004, and for each category of automobile identified in paragraph (a) of this section, the maximum increase in average fuel economy determined in paragraph (c) of this section attributable to alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual fuel automobiles shall be 1.2 miles per gallon or as provided for in paragraph (i) of this section.
(1) The Administrator shall calculate the increase in average fuel economy to determine if the maximum increase provided in paragraph (h) of this section has been reached. The Administrator shall calculate the average fuel economy for each category of automobiles specified in paragraph (a) of this section by subtracting the average fuel economy values calculated in accordance with this section by assuming all alcohol dual fuel and natural gas dual fuel automobiles are operated exclusively on gasoline (or diesel) fuel from the average fuel economy values determined in paragraphs (b)(2)(vi), (b)(2)(vii), and (c) of this section. The difference is limited to the maximum increase specified in paragraph (h) of this section.
(2) [Reserved]
(i) In the event that the Secretary of Transportation lowers the corporate average fuel economy standard applicable to passenger automobiles below 27.5 miles per gallon for any model year during 1993 through 2004, the maximum increase of 1.2 mpg per year specified in paragraph (h) of this section shall be reduced by the amount the standard was lowered, but not reduced below 0.7 mpg per year.
[59 FR 39659, Aug. 3, 1994]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-06-30; vol. 79 # 125 - Monday, June 30, 2014
    1. 79 FR 36658 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
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      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066

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Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 600 after this date.

  • 2014-06-30; vol. 79 # 125 - Monday, June 30, 2014
    1. 79 FR 36658 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066