40 CFR 61.348 - Standards: Treatment processes.

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§ 61.348 Standards: Treatment processes.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, the owner or operator shall treat the waste stream in accordance with the following requirements:
(1) The owner or operator shall design, install, operate, and maintain a treatment process that either:
(i) Removes benzene from the waste stream to a level less than 10 parts per million by weight (ppmw) on a flow-weighted annual average basis,
(ii) Removes benzene from the waste stream by 99 percent or more on a mass basis, or
(iii) Destroys benzene in the waste stream by incinerating the waste in a combustion unit that achieves a destruction efficiency of 99 percent or greater for benzene.
(2) Each treatment process complying with paragraphs (a)(1)(i) or (a)(1)(ii) of this section shall be designed and operated in accordance with the appropriate waste management unit standards specified in §§ 61.343 through 61.347 of this subpart. For example, if a treatment process is a tank, then the owner or operator shall comply with § 61.343 of this subpart.
(3) For the purpose of complying with the requirements specified in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, the intentional or unintentional reduction in the benzene concentration of a waste stream by dilution of the waste stream with other wastes or materials is not allowed.
(4) An owner or operator may aggregate or mix together individual waste streams to create a combined waste stream for the purpose of facilitating treatment of waste to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section except as provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section.
(5) If an owner or operator aggregates or mixes any combination of process wastewater, product tank drawdown, or landfill leachate subject to § 61.342(c)(1) of this subpart together with other waste streams to create a combined waste stream for the purpose of facilitating management or treatment of waste in a wastewater treatment system, then the wastewater treatment system shall be operated in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. These provisions apply to above-ground wastewater treatment systems as well as those that are at or below ground level.
(b) Except for facilities complying with § 61.342(e), the owner or operator that aggregates or mixes individual waste streams as defined in paragraph (a)(5) of this section for management and treatment in a wastewater treatment system shall comply with the following requirements:
(1) The owner or operator shall design and operate each waste management unit that comprises the wastewater treatment system in accordance with the appropriate standards specified in §§ 61.343 through 61.347 of this subpart.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section do not apply to any waste management unit that the owner or operator demonstrates to meet the following conditions initially and, thereafter, at least once per year:
(i) The benzene content of each waste stream entering the waste management unit is less than 10 ppmw on a flow-weighted annual average basis as determined by the procedures specified in § 61.355(c) of this subpart; and
(ii) The total annual benzene quantity contained in all waste streams managed or treated in exempt waste management units comprising the facility wastewater treatment systems is less than 1 Mg/yr (1.1 ton/yr). For this determination, total annual benzene quantity shall be calculated as follows:
(A) The total annual benzene quantity shall be calculated as the sum of the individual benzene quantities determined at each location where a waste stream first enters an exempt waste management unit. The benzene quantity discharged from an exempt waste management unit shall not be included in this calculation.
(B) The annual benzene quantity in a waste stream managed or treated in an enhanced biodegradation unit shall not be included in the calculation of the total annual benzene quantity, if the enhanced biodegradation unit is the first exempt unit in which the waste is managed or treated. A unit shall be considered enhanced biodegradation if it is a suspended-growth process that generates biomass, uses recycled biomass, and periodically removes biomass from the process. An enhanced biodegradation unit typically operates at a food-to-microorganism ratio in the range of 0.05 to 1.0 kg of biological oxygen demand per kg of biomass per day, a mixed liquor suspended solids ratio in the range of 1 to 8 grams per liter (0.008 to 0.7 pounds per liter), and a residence time in the range of 3 to 36 hours.
(c) The owner and operator shall demonstrate that each treatment process or wastewater treatment system unit, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, achieves the appropriate conditions specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section in accordance with the following requirements:
(1) Engineering calculations in accordance with requirements specified in § 61.356(e) of this subpart; or
(2) Performance tests conducted using the test methods and procedures that meet the requirements specified in § 61.355 of this subpart.
(d) A treatment process or waste stream is in compliance with the requirements of this subpart and exempt from the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section provided that the owner or operator documents that the treatment process or waste stream is in compliance with other regulatory requirements as follows:
(1) The treatment process is a hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O;
(2) The treatment process is an industrial furnace or boiler burning hazardous waste for energy recovery for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart D;
(3) The waste stream is treated by a means or to a level that meets benzene-specific treatment standards in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions under 40 CFR part 268, and the treatment process is designed and operated with a closed-vent system and control device meeting the requirements of § 61.349 of this subpart;
(4) The waste stream is treated by a means or to a level that meets benzene-specific effluent limitations or performance standards in accordance with the Effluent Guidelines and Standards under 40 CFR parts 401-464, and the treatment process is designed and operated with a closed-vent system and control device meeting the requirements of § 61.349 of this subpart; or
(5) The waste stream is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 122.
(e) Except as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, if the treatment process or wastewater treatment system unit has any openings (e.g., access doors, hatches, etc.), all such openings shall be sealed (e.g., gasketed, latched, etc.) and kept closed at all times when waste is being treated, except during inspection and maintenance.
(1) Each seal, access door, and all other openings shall be checked by visual inspections initially and quarterly thereafter to ensure that no cracks or gaps occur and that openings are closed and gasketed properly.
(2) Except as provided in § 61.350 of this subpart, when a broken seal or gasket or other problem is identified, first efforts at repair shall be made as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after identification.
(3) If the cover and closed-vent system operate such that the treatment process and wastewater treatment system unit are maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator may operate the system with an opening that is not sealed and kept closed at all times if the following conditions are met:
(i) The purpose of the opening is to provide dilution air to reduce the explosion hazard;
(ii) The opening is designed to operate with no detectable emissions as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppmv above background, as determined initially and thereafter at least once per year by the methods specified in § 61.355(h); and
(iii) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the treatment process and wastewater treatment system unit remain below atmospheric pressure.
(f) Except for treatment processes complying with paragraph (d) of this section, the Administrator may request at any time an owner or operator demonstrate that a treatment process or wastewater treatment system unit meets the applicable requirements specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section by conducting a performance test using the test methods and procedures as required in § 61.355 of this subpart.
(g) The owner or operator of a treatment process or wastewater treatment system unit that is used to comply with the provisions of this section shall monitor the unit in accordance with the applicable requirements in § 61.354 of this subpart.
[55 FR 8346, Mar. 7, 1990, as amended at 55 FR 37231, Sept. 10, 1990; 58 FR 3098, Jan. 7, 1993; 65 FR 62160, Oct. 17, 2000]

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  • 2014-02-27; vol. 79 # 39 - Thursday, February 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 11228 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations
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Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-07-21; vol. 79 # 139 - Monday, July 21, 2014
    1. 79 FR 42275 - Revisions to National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings
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