40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions

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§ 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams.
(a) General requirements. This section specifies the performance standards for treating Group 1 wastewater streams. The owner or operator shall comply with the requirements as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section. Where multiple compliance options are provided, the options may be used in combination for different wastewater streams and/or for different compounds (e.g., Table 8 versus Table 9 compounds) in the same wastewater streams, except where otherwise provided in this section. Once a Group 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream has been treated in accordance with this subpart, it is no longer subject to the requirements of this subpart.
(1) Existing source. If the wastewater stream, at an existing source, is Group 1 for Table 9 compounds, comply with § 63.138(b).
(2) New source. If the wastewater stream, at a new source, is Group 1 for Table 8 compounds, comply with § 63.138(c). If the wastewater stream, at a new source, is Group 1 for Table 9 compounds, comply with § 63.138(b). If the wastewater stream, at a new source, is Group 1 for Table 8 and Table 9 compounds, comply with both § 63.138(b) and § 63.138(c).
Note to paragraph (a)(2):
The requirements for Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds are similar and often identical.
(3) Biological treatment processes. Biological treatment processes in compliance with this section may be either open or closed biological treatment processes as defined in § 63.111. An open biological treatment process in compliance with this section need not be covered and vented to a control device as required in § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart. An open or a closed biological treatment process in compliance with this section and using § 63.145(f) or § 63.145(g) of this subpart to demonstrate compliance is not subject to the requirements of § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart. A closed biological treatment process in compliance with this section and using § 63.145(e) of this subpart to demonstrate compliance shall comply with the requirements of § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart. Waste management units upstream of an open or closed biological treatment process shall meet the requirements of § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart, as applicable.
(4) Performance tests and design evaluations. If design steam stripper option (§ 63.138(d)) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) option (§ 63.138(h)) is selected to comply with this section, neither a design evaluation nor a performance test is required. For any other non-biological treatment process, and for closed biological treatment processes as defined in § 63.111 of this subpart, the owner or operator shall conduct either a design evaluation as specified in § 63.138(j), or a performance test as specified in § 63.145, of this subpart. For each open biological treatment process as defined in § 63.111 of this subpart, the owner or operator shall conduct a performance test as specified in § 63.145 of this subpart.
Note to paragraph (a)(4):
Some open biological treatment processes may not require a performance test. Refer to § 63.145(h) and table 36 of this subpart to determine whether the biological treatment process meets the criteria that exempt the owner or operator from conducting a performance test.
(5) Control device requirements. When gases are vented from the treatment process, the owner or operator shall comply with the applicable control device requirements specified in § 63.139 and § 63.145 (i) and (j), and the applicable leak inspection provisions specified in § 63.148, of this subpart. This requirement does not apply to any open biological treatment process that meets the mass removal requirements. Vents from anaerobic biological treatment processes may be routed through hard-piping to a fuel gas system.
(6) Residuals: general. When residuals result from treating Group 1 wastewater streams, the owner or operator shall comply with the requirements for residuals specified in § 63.138(k) of this subpart.
(7) Treatment using a series of treatment processes. In all cases where the wastewater provisions in this subpart allow or require the use of a treatment process or control device to comply with emissions limitations, the owner or operator may use multiple treatment processes or control devices, respectively. For combinations of treatment processes where the wastewater stream is conveyed by hard-piping, the owner or operator shall comply with either the requirements of paragraph (a)(7)(i) or (a)(7)(ii) of this section. For combinations of treatment processes where the wastewater stream is not conveyed by hard-piping, the owner or operator shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of this section. For combinations of control devices, the owner or operator shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(7)(i) of this section.
(i)
(A) For combinations of treatment processes, the wastewater stream shall be conveyed by hard-piping between the treatment processes. For combinations of control devices, the vented gas stream shall be conveyed by hard-piping between the control devices.
(B) For combinations of treatment processes, each treatment process shall meet the applicable requirements of § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
(C) The owner or operator shall identify, and keep a record of, the combination of treatment processes or of control devices, including identification of the first and last treatment process or control device. The owner or operator shall include this information as part of the treatment process description reported in the Notification of Compliance Status.
(D) The performance test or design evaluation shall determine compliance across the combination of treatment processes or control devices. If a performance test is conducted, the “inlet” shall be the point at which the wastewater stream or residual enters the first treatment process, or the vented gas stream enters the first control device. The “outlet” shall be the point at which the treated wastewater stream exits the last treatment process, or the vented gas stream exits the last control device.
(ii)
(A) For combinations of treatment processes, each treatment process shall meet the applicable requirements of § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
(B) The owner or operator shall identify, and keep a record of, the combination of treatment processes, including identification of the first and last treatment process. The owner or operator shall include this information as part of the treatment process description reported in the Notification of Compliance Status.
(C) The owner or operator shall determine the mass removed or destroyed by each treatment process. The performance test or design evaluation shall determine compliance for the combination of treatment processes by adding together the mass removed or destroyed by each treatment process.
(b) Control options: Group 1 wastewater streams for Table 9 compounds. The owner or operator shall comply with either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section for the control of Table 9 compounds at new or existing sources.
(1) 50 ppmw concentration option. The owner or operator shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (b)(1)(ii) of this section.
(i) Reduce, by removal or destruction, the total concentration of Table 9 compounds to a level less than 50 parts per million by weight as determined by the procedures specified in § 63.145(b) of this subpart.
(ii) This option shall not be used when the treatment process is a biological treatment process. This option shall not be used when the wastewater stream is designated as a Group 1 wastewater stream as specified in § 63.132(e). Dilution shall not be used to achieve compliance with this option.
(2) Other compliance options. Comply with the requirements specified in any one of paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.
(c) Control options: Group 1 wastewater streams for Table 8 compounds. The owner or operator shall comply with either paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section for the control of Table 8 compounds at new sources.
(1) 10 ppmw concentration option. The owner or operator shall comply with paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (c)(1)(ii) of this section.
(i) Reduce, by removal or destruction, the concentration of the individual Table 8 compounds to a level less than 10 parts per million by weight as determined in the procedures specified in § 63.145(b) of this subpart.
(ii) This option shall not be used when the treatment process is a biological treatment process. This option shall not be used when the wastewater stream is designated as a Group 1 wastewater stream as specified in § 63.132(e). Dilution shall not be used to achieve compliance with this option.
(2) Other compliance options. Comply with the requirements specified in any one of paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.
(d) Design steam stripper option. The owner or operator shall operate and maintain a steam stripper that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(6) of this section.
(1) Minimum active column height of 5 meters,
(2) Countercurrent flow configuration with a minimum of 10 actual trays,
(3) Minimum steam flow rate of 0.04 kilograms of steam per liter of wastewater feed within the column,
(4) Minimum wastewater feed temperature to the steam stripper of 95 °C, or minimum column operating temperature of 95 °C,
(5) Maximum liquid loading of 67,100 liters per hour per square meter, and
(6) Operate at nominal atmospheric pressure.
(e) Percent mass removal/destruction option. The owner or operator of a new or existing source shall comply with paragraph (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section for control of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds for Group 1 wastewater streams. This option shall not be used for biological treatment processes.
(1) Reduce mass flow rate of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds by 99 percent. For wastewater streams that are Group 1, the owner or operator shall reduce, by removal or destruction, the mass flow rate of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds by 99 percent or more. The removal/destruction efficiency shall be determined by the procedures specified in § 63.145(c), for noncombustion processes, or § 63.145(d), for combustion processes.
(2) Reduce mass flow rate of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds by Fr value. For wastewater streams that are Group 1 for Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds, the owner or operator shall reduce, by removal or destruction, the mass flow rate by at least the fraction removal (Fr) values specified in Table 9 of this subpart. (The Fr values for Table 8 compounds are all 0.99.) The removal/destruction efficiency shall be determined by the procedures specified in § 63.145(c), for noncombustion treatment processes, or § 63.145(d), for combustion treatment processes.
(f) Required mass removal (RMR) option. The owner or operator shall achieve the required mass removal (RMR) of Table 8 compounds at a new source for a wastewater stream that is Group 1 for Table 8 compounds and/or of Table 9 compounds at a new or existing source for a wastewater stream that is Group 1 for Table 9 compounds. For nonbiological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145(e) of this subpart. For aerobic biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145 (e) or (f) of this subpart. For closed anaerobic biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145(e) of this subpart. For open biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145(f) of this subpart.
(g) 95-percent RMR option, for biological treatment processes. The owner or operator of a new or existing source using biological treatment for at least one wastewater stream that is Group 1 for Table 9 compounds shall achieve a RMR of at least 95 percent for all Table 9 compounds. The owner or operator of a new source using biological treatment for at least one wastewater stream that is Group 1 for Table 8 compounds shall achieve a RMR of at least 95 percent for all Table 8 compounds. All Group 1 and Group 2 wastewater streams entering a biological treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units subject to subpart F shall be included in the demonstration of the 95-percent mass removal. The owner or operator shall comply with paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(4) of this section.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(4) of this section, the owner or operator shall ensure that all Group 1 and Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process units subject to this rule entering a biological treatment unit are treated to destroy at least 95-percent total mass of all Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds.
(2) For open biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145(g) of this subpart. For closed aerobic biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145 (e) or (g) of this subpart. For closed anaerobic biological treatment processes compliance shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.145(e) of this subpart.
(3) For each treatment process or waste management unit that receives, manages, or treats wastewater streams subject to this paragraph, from the point of determination of each Group 1 or Group 2 wastewater stream to the biological treatment unit, the owner or operator shall comply with §§ 63.133through § 63.137 of this subpart for control of air emissions. When complying with this paragraph, the term Group 1, whether used alone or in combination with other terms, in § 63.133 through § 63.137 of this subpart shall mean both Group 1 and Group 2.
(4) If a wastewater stream is in compliance with the requirements in paragraph (b)(1), (c)(1), (d), (e), (f), or (h) of this section before entering the biological treatment unit, the hazardous air pollutants mass of that wastewater is not required to be included in the total mass flow rate entering the biological treatment unit for the purpose of demonstrating compliance.
(h) Treatment in a RCRA unit option. The owner or operator shall treat the wastewater stream or residual in a unit identified in, and complying with, paragraph (h)(1), (h)(2), or (h)(3) of this section. These units are exempt from the design evaluation or performance tests requirements specified in § 63.138(a)(3) and § 63.138(j) of this subpart, and from the monitoring requirements specified in § 63.132(a)(2)(iii) and § 63.132(b)(3)(iii) of this subpart, as well as recordkeeping and reporting requirements associated with monitoring and performance tests.
(1) The wastewater stream or residual is discharged to a hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O, or has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O;
(2) The wastewater stream or residual is discharged to a process heater or boiler burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator:
(i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or
(ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H.
(3) The wastewater stream or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 or 40 CFR part 144 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 122. The owner or operator shall comply with all applicable requirements of this subpart prior to the point where the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well.
(i) One megagram total source mass flow rate option. A wastewater stream is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section if the owner or operator elects to comply with either paragraph (i)(1) or (2) of this section, and complies with paragraph (i)(3) of this section.
(1) All Group 1 wastewater streams at the source. The owner or operator shall demonstrate that the total source mass flow rate for Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds is less than 1 megagram per year using the procedures in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) and (i)(1)(ii) of this section. The owner or operator shall include all Group 1 wastewater streams at the source in the total source mass flow rate. The total source mass flow rate shall be based on the mass as calculated before the wastewater stream is treated. The owner or operator who meets the requirements of this paragraph (i)(1) is exempt from the requirements of §§ 63.133 through 63.137.
(i) Calculate the annual average mass flow rate for each Group 1 wastewater stream by multiplying the annual average flow rate of the wastewater stream, as determined by procedures specified in § 63.144(c), times the total annual average concentration of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds, as determined by procedures specified in § 63.144(b) of this subpart. (The mass flow rate of compounds in a wastewater stream that is Group 1 for both Table 8 and Table 9 compounds should be included in the annual average mass flow rate only once.)
(ii) Calculate the total source mass flow rate from all Group 1 wastewater streams by adding together the annual average mass flow rate calculated for each Group 1 wastewater stream.
(2) Untreated and partially treated Group 1 wastewater streams. The owner or operator shall demonstrate that the total source mass flow rate for untreated Group 1 wastewater streams and Group 1 wastewater streams treated to levels less stringent than required in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section is less than 1 megagram per year using the procedures in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) and (i)(2)(ii) of this section. The owner or operator shall manage these wastewater streams in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, and shall comply with paragraph (i)(3) of this section.
(i) Calculate the annual average mass flow rate in each wastewater stream by multiplying the annual average flow rate of the wastewater stream, as determined by procedures specified in § 63.144(c), times the total annual average concentration of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds, as determined by procedures specified in § 63.144(b). (The mass flow rate of compounds in a wastewater stream that are Group 1 for both Table 8 and Table 9 compounds should be included in the annual average mass flow rate only once.) When determining the total source mass flow rate for the purposes of paragraph (i)(2)(i)(B) of this section, the concentration and flow rate shall be determined at the location specified in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(B) of this section and not at the location specified in § 63.144(b) and (c).
(A) For each untreated Group 1 wastewater stream, the annual average flow rate and the total annual average concentration shall be determined for that stream's point of determination.
(B) For each Group 1 wastewater stream that is treated to levels less stringent than those required by paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, the annual average flow rate and total annual average concentration shall be determined at the discharge from the treatment process or series of treatment processes.
(C) The annual average mass flow rate for Group 1 wastewater streams treated to the levels required by paragraph (b) or (c) of this section is not included in the calculation of the total source mass flow rate.
(ii) The total source mass flow rate shall be calculated by summing the annual average mass flow rates from all Group 1 wastewater streams, except those excluded by paragraph (i)(2)(i)(C) of this section.
(iii) The owner or operator of each waste management unit that receives, manages, or treats a partially treated wastewater stream prior to or during treatment shall comply with the requirements of §§ 63.133 through 63.137, as applicable. For a partially treated wastewater stream that is stored, conveyed, treated, or managed in a waste management unit meeting the requirements of §§ 63.133 through 63.137, the owner or operator shall follow the procedures in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(B) of this section to calculate mass flow rate. A wastewater stream, either untreated or partially treated, where the mass flow rate has been calculated following the procedures in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, is exempt from the requirements of §§ 63.133 through 63.137.
(3) Wastewater streams included in this option shall be identified in the Notification of Compliance Status required by § 63.152(b).
(j) Design evaluations or performance tests for treatment processes. Except as provided in paragraph (j)(3) or (h) of this section, the owner or operator shall demonstrate by the procedures in either paragraph (j)(1) or (j)(2) of this section that each nonbiological treatment process used to comply with paragraphs (b)(1), (c)(1), (e), and/or (f) of this section achieves the conditions specified for compliance. The owner or operator shall demonstrate by the procedures in either paragraph (j)(1) or (j)(2) of this section that each closed biological treatment process used to comply with paragraphs (f) or (g) of this section achieves the conditions specified for compliance. If an open biological treatment unit is used to comply with paragraph (f) or (g) of this section, the owner or operator shall comply with § 63.145(f) or § 63.145(g), respectively, of this subpart. Some biological treatment processes may not require a performance test. Refer to § 63.145(h) and table 36 of this subpart to determine whether the open biological treatment process meets the criteria that exempt the owner or operator from conducting a performance test.
(1) A design evaluation and supporting documentation that addresses the operating characteristics of the treatment process and that is based on operation at a representative wastewater stream flow rate and a concentration under which it would be most difficult to demonstrate compliance. For closed biological treatment processes, the actual mass removal shall be determined by a mass balance over the unit. The mass flow rate of Table 8 or Table 9 compounds exiting the treatment process shall be the sum of the mass flow rate of Table 8 or Table 9 compounds in the wastewater stream exiting the biological treatment process and the mass flow rate of the vented gas stream exiting the control device. The mass flow rate entering the treatment process minus the mass flow rate exiting the process determines the actual mass removal.
(2) Performance tests conducted using test methods and procedures that meet the applicable requirements specified in § 63.145 of this subpart.
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section do not apply to design stream strippers which meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.
(k) Residuals. For each residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall control for air emissions by complying with §§ 63.133-137 of this subpart and by complying with one of the provisions in paragraphs (k)(1) through (k)(4) of this section.
(1) Recycle the residual to a production process or sell the residual for the purpose of recycling. Once a residual is returned to a production process, the residual is no longer subject to this section.
(2) Return the residual to the treatment process.
(3) Treat the residual to destroy the total combined mass flow rate of Table 8 and/or Table 9 compounds by 99 percent or more, as determined by the procedures specified in § 63.145(c) or (d) of this subpart.
(4) Comply with the requirements for RCRA treatment options specified in § 63.138(h) of this subpart.
[62 FR 2757, Jan. 17, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 6933, Jan. 22, 2001]

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  • 2014-03-27; vol. 79 # 59 - Thursday, March 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 17340 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production
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    1. 79 FR 37850 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations
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