40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed major sources.

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§ 63.43 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed major sources.
(a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to an owner or operator who constructs or reconstructs a major source of HAP subject to a case-by-case determination of maximum achievable control technology pursuant to § 63.42(c).
(b) Requirements for constructed and reconstructed major sources. When a case-by-case determination of MACT is required by § 63.42(c), the owner and operator shall obtain from the permitting authority an approved MACT determination according to one of the review options contained in paragraph (c) of this section.
(c) Review options.
(1) When the permitting authority requires the owner or operator to obtain, or revise, a permit issued pursuant to title V of the Act before construction or reconstruction of the major source, or when the permitting authority allows the owner or operator at its discretion to obtain or revise such a permit before construction or reconstruction, and the owner or operator elects that option, the owner or operator shall follow the administrative procedures in the program approved under title V of the Act (or in other regulations issued pursuant to title V of the Act, where applicable).
(2) When an owner or operator is not required to obtain or revise a title V permit (or other permit issued pursuant to title V of the Act) before construction or reconstruction, the owner or operator (unless the owner or operator voluntarily follows the process to obtain a title V permit) shall either, at the discretion of the permitting authority:
(i) Apply for and obtain a Notice of MACT Approval according to the procedures outlined in paragraphs (f) through (h) of this section; or
(ii) Apply for a MACT determination under any other administrative procedures for preconstruction review and approval established by the permitting authority for a State or local jurisdiction which provide for public participation in the determination, and ensure that no person may begin actual construction or reconstruction of a major source in that State or local jurisdiction unless the permitting authority determines that the MACT emission limitation for new sources will be met.
(3) When applying for a permit pursuant to title V of the Act, an owner or operator may request approval of case-by-case MACT determinations for alternative operating scenarios. Approval of such determinations satisfies the requirements of section 112(g) of each such scenario.
(4) Regardless of the review process, the MACT emission limitation and requirements established shall be effective as required by paragraph (j) of this section, consistent with the principles established in paragraph (d) of this section, and supported by the information listed in paragraph (e) of this section. The owner or operator shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (k) and (l) of this section, and with all applicable requirements in subpart A of this part.
(d) Principles of MACT determinations. The following general principles shall govern preparation by the owner or operator of each permit application or other application requiring a case-by-case MACT determination concerning construction or reconstruction of a major source, and all subsequent review of and actions taken concerning such an application by the permitting authority:
(1) The MACT emission limitation or MACT requirements recommended by the applicant and approved by the permitting authority shall not be less stringent than the emission control which is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, as determined by the permitting authority.
(2) Based upon available information, as defined in this subpart, the MACT emission limitation and control technology (including any requirements under paragraph (d)(3) of this section) recommended by the applicant and approved by the permitting authority shall achieve the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of HAP which can be achieved by utilizing those control technologies that can be identified from the available information, taking into consideration the costs of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements associated with the emission reduction.
(3) The applicant may recommend a specific design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or a combination thereof, and the permitting authority may approve such a standard if the permitting authority specifically determines that it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission limitation under the criteria set forth in section 112(h)(2) of the Act.
(4) If the Administrator has either proposed a relevant emission standard pursuant to section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or adopted a presumptive MACT determination for the source category which includes the constructed or reconstructed major source, then the MACT requirements applied to the constructed or reconstructed major source shall have considered those MACT emission limitations and requirements of the proposed standard or presumptive MACT determination.
(e) Application requirements for a case-by-case MACT determination.
(1) An application for a MACT determination (whether a permit application under title V of the Act, an application for a Notice of MACT Approval, or other document specified by the permitting authority under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) shall specify a control technology selected by the owner or operator that, if properly operated and maintained, will meet the MACT emission limitation or standard as determined according to the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) In each instance where a constructed or reconstructed major source would require additional control technology or a change in control technology, the application for a MACT determination shall contain the following information:
(i) The name and address (physical location) of the major source to be constructed or reconstructed;
(ii) A brief description of the major source to be constructed or reconstructed and identification of any listed source category or categories in which it is included;
(iii) The expected commencement date for the construction or reconstruction of the major source;
(iv) The expected completion date for construction or reconstruction of the major source;
(v) the anticipated date of start-up for the constructed or reconstructed major source;
(vi) The HAP emitted by the constructed or reconstructed major source, and the estimated emission rate for each such HAP, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;
(vii) Any federally enforceable emission limitations applicable to the constructed or reconstructed major source;
(viii) The maximum and expected utilization of capacity of the constructed or reconstructed major source, and the associated uncontrolled emission rates for that source, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;
(ix) The controlled emissions for the constructed or reconstructed major source in tons/yr at expected and maximum utilization of capacity, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;
(x) A recommended emission limitation for the constructed or reconstructed major source consistent with the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section;
(xi) The selected control technology to meet the recommended MACT emission limitation, including technical information on the design, operation, size, estimated control efficiency of the control technology (and the manufacturer's name, address, telephone number, and relevant specifications and drawings, if requested by the permitting authority);
(xii) Supporting documentation including identification of alternative control technologies considered by the applicant to meet the emission limitation, and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for the selected control technology; and
(xiii) Any other relevant information required pursuant to subpart A.
(3) In each instance where the owner or operator contends that a constructed or reconstructed major source will be in compliance, upon startup, with case-by-case MACT under this subpart without a change in control technology, the application for a MACT determination shall contain the following information:
(i) The information described in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) through (e)(2)(x) of this section; and
(ii) Documentation of the control technology in place.
(f) Administrative procedures for review of the Notice of MACT Approval.
(1) The permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing, within 45 days from the date the application is first received, as to whether the application for a MACT determination is complete or whether additional information is required.
(2) The permitting authority will initially approve the recommended MACT emission limitation and other terms set forth in the application, or the permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing of its intent to disapprove the application, within 30 calendar days after the owner or operator is notified in writing that the application is complete.
(3) The owner or operator may present, in writing, within 60 calendar days after receipt of notice of the permitting authority's intent to disapprove the application, additional information or arguments pertaining to, or amendments to, the application for consideration by the permitting authority before it decides whether to finally disapprove the application.
(4) The permitting authority will either initially approve or issue a final disapproval of the application within 90 days after it notifies the owner or operator of an intent to disapprove or within 30 days after the date additional information is received from the owner or operator; whichever is earlier.
(5) A final determination by the permitting authority to disapprove any application will be in writing and will specify the grounds on which the disapproval is based. If any application is finally disapproved, the owner or operator may submit a subsequent application concerning construction or reconstruction of the same major source, provided that the subsequent application has been amended in response to the stated grounds for the prior disapproval.
(6) An initial decision to approve an application for a MACT determination will be set forth in the Notice of MACT Approval as described in paragraph (g) of this section.
(g) Notice of MACT Approval.
(1) The Notice of MACT Approval will contain a MACT emission limitation (or a MACT work practice standard if the permitting authority determines it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission standard) to control the emissions of HAP. The MACT emission limitation or standard will be determined by the permitting authority and will conform to the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) The Notice of MACT Approval will specify any notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, reporting and record keeping requirements. The Notice of MACT Approval shall include:
(i) In addition to the MACT emission limitation or MACT work practice standard established under this subpart, additional emission limits, production limits, operational limits or other terms and conditions necessary to ensure Federal enforceability of the MACT emission limitation;
(ii) Compliance certifications, testing, monitoring, reporting and record keeping requirements that are consistent with the requirements of § 70.6(c) of this chapter;
(iii) In accordance with section 114(a)(3) of the Act, monitoring shall be capable of demonstrating continuous compliance during the applicable reporting period. Such monitoring data shall be of sufficient quality to be used as a basis for enforcing all applicable requirements established under this subpart, including emission limitations;
(iv) A statement requiring the owner or operator to comply with all applicable requirements contained in subpart A of this part;
(3) All provisions contained in the Notice of MACT Approval shall be federally enforceable upon the effective date of issuance of such notice, as provided by paragraph (j) of this section.
(4) The Notice of MACT Approval shall expire if construction or reconstruction has not commenced within 18 months of issuance, unless the permitting authority has granted an extension which shall not exceed an additional 12 months.
(h) Opportunity for public comment on the Notice of MACT Approval.
(1) The permitting authority will provide opportunity for public comment on the Notice of MACT Approval, including, at a minimum:
(i) Availability for public inspection in at least one location in the area affected of the information submitted by the owner or operator and of the permitting authority's initial decision to approve the application;
(ii) A 30-day period for submittal of public comment; and
(iii) A notice by prominent advertisement in the area affected of the location of the source information and initial decision specified in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section.
(2) At the discretion of the permitting authority, the Notice of MACT Approval setting forth the initial decision to approve the application may become final automatically at the end of the comment period if no adverse comments are received. If adverse comments are received, the permitting authority shall have 30 days after the end of the comment period to make any necessary revisions in its analysis and decide whether to finally approve the application.
(i) EPA notification. The permitting authority shall send a copy of the final Notice of MACT Approval, notice of approval of a title V permit application incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or other notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to the Administrator through the appropriate Regional Office, and to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected States.
(j) Effective date. The effective date of a MACT determination shall be the date the Notice of MACT Approval becomes final, the date of issuance of a title V permit incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or the date any other notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section becomes final.
(k) Compliance date. On and after the date of start-up, a constructed or reconstructed major source which is subject to the requirements of this subpart shall be in compliance with all applicable requirements specified in the MACT determination.
(l) Compliance with MACT determinations.
(1) An owner or operator of a constructed or reconstructed major source that is subject to a MACT determination shall comply with all requirements in the final Notice of MACT Approval, the title V permit (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, including but not limited to any MACT emission limitation or MACT work practice standard, and any notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.
(2) An owner or operator of a constructed or reconstructed major source which has obtained a MACT determination shall be deemed to be in compliance with section 112(g)(2)(B) of the Act only to the extent that the constructed or reconstructed major source is in compliance with all requirements set forth in the final Notice of MACT Approval, the title V permit (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. Any violation of such requirements by the owner or operator shall be deemed by the permitting authority and by EPA to be a violation of the prohibition on construction or reconstruction in section 112(g)(2)(B) for whatever period the owner or operator is determined to be in violation of such requirements, and shall subject the owner or operator to appropriate enforcement action under the Act.
(m) Reporting to the Administrator. Within 60 days of the issuance of a final Notice of MACT Approval, a title V permit incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the permitting authority shall provide a copy of such notice to the Administrator, and shall provide a summary in a compatible electronic format for inclusion in the MACT data base.
[20 FR 68401, Dec. 27, 1996]

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