40 CFR 63.562 - Standards.

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§ 63.562 Standards.
(a) The emissions limitations in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section apply during marine tank vessel loading operations.
(b) MACT standards, except for the VMT source—
(1)
(i) Vapor collection system of the terminal. The owner or operator of a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons and an existing or new source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons shall equip each terminal with a vapor collection system that is designed to collect HAP vapors displaced from marine tank vessels during marine tank vessel loading operations and to prevent HAP vapors collected at one loading berth from passing through another loading berth to the atmosphere, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(ii) Ship-to-shore compatibility. The owner or operator of a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons and an existing or new source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations to those vessels that are equipped with vapor collection equipment that is compatible with the terminal's vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(iii) Vapor tightness of marine vessels. The owner or operator of a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons and an existing or new source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations to those vessels that are vapor tight and to those vessels that are connected to the vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(2) MACT standards for existing sources with emissions of 10 or 25 tons. The owner or operator of an existing source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except offshore loading terminals and the VMT source, shall reduce captured HAP emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations by 97 weight-percent, as determined using methods in § 63.565 (d) and (l).
(3) MACT standards for new sources. The owner or operator of a new source with emissions less than 10 and 25 tons or a new source with emissions of 10 or 25 tons, except offshore loading terminals and the VMT source, shall reduce HAP emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations by 98 weight-percent, as determined using methods in § 63.565 (d) and (l).
(4) MACT standards for new major source offshore loading terminals. The owner or operator of a new major source offshore loading terminal shall reduce HAP emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations by 95 weight-percent, as determined using methods in § 63.565 (d) and (l).
(5) Prevention of carbon adsorber emissions during regeneration. The owner or operator of a source subject to paragraph (b)(2), (3), or (4) shall prevent HAP emissions from escaping to the atmosphere from the regeneration of the carbon bed when using a carbon adsorber to control HAP emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations.
(6) Maintenance allowance for loading berths. The owner or operator of a source subject to paragraph (b)(2), (3) or (4), may apply for approval to the Administrator for a maintenance allowance for loading berths based on a percent of annual throughput or annual marine tank vessel loading operation time for commodities not exempted in § 63.560(d). The owner or operator shall maintain records for all maintenance performed on the air pollution control equipment. The Administrator will consider the following in approving the maintenance allowance:
(i) The owner or operator expects to be in violation of the emissions standards due to maintenance;
(ii) Due to conditions beyond the reasonable control of the owner or operator, compliance with the emissions standards during maintenance would result in unreasonable economic hardship;
(iii) The economic hardship cannot be justified by the resulting air quality benefit;
(iv) The owner or operator has given due consideration to curtailing marine vessel loading operations during maintenance;
(v) During the maintenance allowance, the owner or operator will endeavor to reduce emissions from other loading berths that are controlled as well as from the loading berth the owner or operator is seeking the maintenance allowance; and
(vi) During the maintenance allowance, the owner or operator will monitor and report emissions from the loading berth to which the maintenance allowance applies.
(c) RACT standards, except the VMT source—
(1) Commencement of construction. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels, except the VMT source, with an initial startup date on or before September 21, 1998 shall provide the Agency no later than 2 years after the effective date with proof that it has commenced construction of its vapor collection system and air pollution control device.
(2)
(i) Vapor collection system of the terminal. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels shall equip each terminal with a vapor collection system that is designed to collect VOC vapors displaced from marine tank vessels during loading and to prevent VOC vapors collected at one loading berth from passing through another loading berth to the atmosphere, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(ii) Ship-to-shore compatibility. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations to those vessels that are equipped with vapor collection equipment that is compatible with the terminal's vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(iii) Vapor tightness of marine vessels. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations to those vessels that are vapor-tight and to those vessels that are connected to the vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(3) RACT standard for sources with throughput of 10 M or 200 M barrels, except the VMT source. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels, except the VMT source, shall reduce captured VOC emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations by 98 weight-percent when using a combustion device or reduce captured VOC emissions by 95 weight-percent when using a recovery device, as determined using methods in § 63.565(d) and (l).
(4) The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels, except the VMT source, may meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) by reducing gasoline loading emissions to, at most, 1,000 ppmv outlet VOC concentration.
(5) Prevention of carbon adsorber emissions during regeneration. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels shall prevent HAP emissions from escaping to the atmosphere from the regeneration of the carbon bed when using a carbon adsorber to control HAP emissions from marine tank vessel loading operations.
(6) Maintenance allowance for loading berths. The owner or operator of a source with throughput of 10 M barrels or 200 M barrels may apply for approval to the Administrator for a maintenance allowance for loading berths based on a percent of annual throughput or annual marine tank vessel loading operation time for commodities not exempted in § 63.560(d). The owner or operator shall maintain records for all maintenance performed on the air pollution control equipment. The Administrator will consider the following in approving the maintenance allowance:
(i) The owner or operator expects to be in violation of the emissions standards due to maintenance;
(ii) Due to conditions beyond the reasonable control of the owner or operator, compliance with the emissions standards during maintenance would result in unreasonable economic hardship;
(iii) The economic hardship cannot be justified by the resulting air quality benefit;
(iv) The owner or operator has given due consideration to curtailing marine vessel loading operations during maintenance;
(v) During the maintenance allowance, the owner or operator will endeavor to reduce emissions from other loading berths that are controlled as well as from the loading berth the owner or operator is seeking the maintenance allowance; and
(vi) During the maintenance allowance, the owner or operator will monitor and report emissions from the loading berth to which the maintenance allowance applies.
(d) MACT and RACT standards for the VMT source—
(1)
(i) Vapor collection system of the terminal. The owner or operator of the VMT source shall equip each terminal subject under paragraph (d)(2) with a vapor collection system that is designed to collect HAP vapors displaced from marine tank vessels during marine tank vessel loading operations and to prevent HAP vapors collected at one loading berth from passing through another loading berth to the atmosphere, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(ii) Ship-to-shore compatibility. The owner or operator of the VMT source shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations at berths subject under paragraph (d)(2) of this section to those vessels that are equipped with vapor collection equipment that is compatible with the terminal's vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(iii) Vapor tightness of marine vessels. The owner or operator of the VMT source shall limit marine tank vessel loading operations at berths subject under paragraph (d)(2) of this section to those vessels that are vapor-tight and to those vessels that are connected to the vapor collection system, except for those commodities exempted under § 63.560(d).
(2) The owner or operator of the VMT source shall reduce captured HAP and VOC emissions by 98 weight-percent, as determined using methods in § 63.565(d) and (l) for loading berths subject under this paragraph according to paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv):
(i) The owner or operator of the VMT source shall equip at least two loading berths and any additional berths indicated pursuant to paragraph (d)(2)(iii) with a vapor collection system and air pollution control device and shall load marine tank vessels over loading berths equipped with a vapor collection system and control device to the maximum extent practicable. The owner or operator shall equip all loading berths that will be used for routine loading after March 19, 1998 with a vapor collection system and control device if the annual average daily loading rate for all loading berths exceeds the limits in paragraphs (d)(2)(i)(A), (B), and (C) of this section.
(A) For 1995, 1,630,000 barrels per day; and
(B) For 1996, 1,546,000 barrels per day; and
(C) For 1997, 1,445,000 barrels per day.
(ii) Maximum extent practicable means that the total annual average daily loading over all loading berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device shall not exceed the totals in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii)(A) and (B):
(A) Loading allowances for marine tank vessel loading operations at loading berths not equipped with control devices. The following maximum annual average daily loading rate for routine loading at loading berths not equipped with control devices in any of the following years shall not exceed:
(1) For 1998, 275,000 barrels per day;
(2) For 1999, 205,000 barrels per day;
(3) For 2000, 118,000 barrels per day;
(4) For 2001, 39,000 barrels per day; and
(5) For 2002 and subsequent years, no marine tank vessel loading operations shall be performed at berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device, except as allowed for maintenance under paragraph (B).
(B) Maintenance allowances for loading berths subject under paragraph (d)(2)(i). Beginning in the year 2000, the owner or operator of the VMT source may have a maximum of 40 calendar days per calendar year use of loading berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device, in accordance with the limits in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B)(a), (b), or (c), to allow for maintenance of loading berths subject to paragraph (d)(2)(i). Beginning in the year 2002, the total annual average daily loading of crude oil over all loading berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device shall not exceed the amount stated in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B)(b). The 40 days allowed for maintenance shall be converted into a compliance measure of annual average daily loading over the loading berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device as follows:
(1) If the total annual average daily volume of crude oil loaded at the facility was greater than or equal to 1,100,000 barrels per day in the prior calendar year, the maintenance allowance shall not exceed an annual average daily loading of 60,000 barrels per day.
(2) If the total annual average daily volume of crude oil loaded at the facility was less than 1,100,000 barrels per day and greater than or equal to 550,000 barrels per day in the prior calendar year, the maintenance allowance for the calendar year shall not exceed Qm:
Where:
Qm = maintenance allowance, barrels per day
P = prior calendar year's average daily volume of crude oil loaded at the facility, barrels per day.
(3) If the total annual average daily volume of crude oil loaded at the facility was less than 550,000 barrels per day in the prior calendar year, there shall be no maintenance allowance.
(iii) If the average daily loading rate for the loading berths not equipped with a vapor collection system and control device is greater than the combined amounts in any year listed in paragraphs (d)(2)(i)(A), (B), and (C) and (d)(2)(ii)(A) and (B), then the owner or operator of the VMT source shall equip all loading berths used for routine loading with a vapor collection system and control device within 2 years of the exceedance except that in an emergency situation the Administrator may, instead of requiring controls, approve an alternative plan to reduce loading over the unequipped berth(s) to a level which will ensure compliance with the applicable limit. Beginning in the year 2002, the owner or operator of the VMT source shall equip all uncontrolled loading berths used for marine tank vessel loading operations beyond the maintenance allowance in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) with a vapor collection system and control device.
(iv) The owner or operator of the VMT source shall develop a program to communicate to relevant facility operations and marine transportation personnel and engage their active and consistent participation in honoring the intent and goal of minimizing loaded volumes over the unequipped berths and maximizing the loaded volumes at the berths equipped with a vapor collection system and control device to prevent exceedance of the load volume limits in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii)(A) and (B). This program is to be presented semi-annually during the first year of compliance and annually thereafter until the use of unequipped berths for routine loading is no longer required.
(e) Operation and maintenance requirements for air pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment for affected sources. At all times, owners or operators of affected sources shall operate and maintain a source, including associated air pollution control equipment, in a manner consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions. Determination of whether acceptable operation and maintenance procedures are being used will be based on information available to the Administrator which may include, but is not limited to, monitoring results, review of operation and maintenance procedures, review of operation and maintenance records, and inspection of the source.
(1) The Administrator will determine compliance with design, equipment, work practice, or operational emission standards by evaluating an owner or operator's conformance with operation and maintenance requirements.
(2) The owner or operator of an affected source shall develop a written operation and maintenance plan that describes in detail a program of corrective action for varying (i.e., exceeding baseline parameters) air pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment, based on monitoring requirements in § 63.564, used to comply with these emissions standards. The plan shall also identify all routine or otherwise predictable continuous monitoring system (thermocouples, pressure transducers, continuous emissions monitors (CEMS), etc.) variances.
(i) The plan shall specify procedures (preventive maintenance) to be followed to ensure that pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment functions properly and variances of the control equipment and monitoring equipment are minimal.
(ii) The plan shall identify all operating parameters to be monitored and recorded for the air pollution control device as indicators of proper operation and shall establish the frequency at which the parameters will be monitored (see § 63.564).
(iii) Owners or operators of affected sources shall incorporate a standardized inspection schedule for each component of the control device used to comply with the emissions standards in § 63.562(b), (c), and (d). To satisfy the requirements of this paragraph, the owner or operator may use the inspection schedule recommended by the vendor of the control system or any other technical publication regarding the operation of the control system.
(iv) Owners or operators shall develop and implement a continuous monitoring system (CMS) quality control program. The owner or operator shall develop and submit to the Administrator for approval upon request a site-specific performance evaluation test plan for the CMS performance evaluation required in § 63.8(e) of subpart A of this part. Each quality control program shall include, at a minimum, a written protocol that describes procedures for initial and any subsequent calibration of the CMS; determination and adjustment of the calibration drift of the CMS; preventive maintenance of the CMS, including spare parts inventory; data recording, calculations, and reporting; and accuracy audit procedures, including sampling and analysis methods. The owner or operation shall maintain records of the procedures that are part of the quality control program developed and implemented for CMS.
(3) Based on the results of the determination made under paragraph (e)(2), the Administrator may require that an owner or operator of an affected source make changes to the operation and maintenance plan for that source. Revisions may be required if the plan:
(i) Does not address a variance of the air pollution control equipment or monitoring equipment that has occurred that increases emissions;
(ii) Fails to provide for operation during a variance of the air pollution control equipment or the monitoring equipment in a manner consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices; or
(iii) Does not provide adequate procedures for correcting a variance of the air pollution control equipment or monitoring equipment as soon as reasonable.
(4) If the operation and maintenance plan fails to address or inadequately addresses a variance event at the time the plan was initially developed, the owner or operator shall revise the operation and maintenance plan within 45 working days after such an event occurs. The revised plan shall include procedures for operating and maintaining the air pollution control equipment or monitoring equipment during similar variance events and a program for corrective action for such events.
(5) The operation and maintenance plan shall be developed by the source's compliance date. The owner or operator shall keep the written operation and maintenance plan on record to be made available for inspection, upon request, by the Administrator for the life of the source. In addition, if the operation and maintenance plan is revised, the owner or operator shall keep previous (i.e., superseded) versions of the plan on record to be made available for inspection upon request by the Administrator for a period of 5 years after each revision to the plan.
(6) To satisfy the requirements of the operation and maintenance plan, the owner or operator may use the source's standard operating procedures (SOP) manual, an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plan, or other existing plans provided the alternative plans meet the requirements of this section and are made available for inspection when requested by the Administrator.
(7) In response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in this subpart, you may assert an affirmative defense to a claim for civil penalties for exceedances of such standards that are caused by a malfunction, as defined in § 63.2. Appropriate penalties may be assessed, however, if the respondent fails to meet its burden of proving all the requirements in the affirmative defense. The affirmative defense shall not be available for claims for injunctive relief.
(i) To establish the affirmative defense in any action to enforce such a limit, the owners or operators of a facility must timely meet the notification requirements of paragraph (e)(7)(ii) of this section, and must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:
(A) The excess emissions were caused by a sudden, infrequent, and unavoidable failure of air pollution control and monitoring equipment, or a process to operate in a normal and usual manner; and could not have been prevented through careful planning, proper design or better operation and maintenance practices; and did not stem from any activity or event that could have been foreseen and avoided, or planned for; and were not part of a recurring pattern indicative of inadequate design, operation, or maintenance;
(B) Repairs were made as expeditiously as possible when the applicable emission limitations were being exceeded. Off-shift and overtime labor were used, to the extent practicable to make these repairs;
(C) The frequency, amount and duration of the excess emissions (including any bypass) were minimized to the maximum extent practicable during periods of such emissions;
(D) If the excess emissions resulted from a bypass of control equipment or a process, then the bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage;
(E) All possible steps were taken to minimize the impact of the excess emissions on ambient air quality, the environment, and human health;
(F) All emissions monitoring and control systems were kept in operation if at all possible, consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices;
(G) All of the actions in response to the excess emissions were documented by properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs;
(H) At all times, the affected facility was operated in a manner consistent with good practices for minimizing emissions; and
(I) The owner or operator has prepared a written root cause analysis, the purpose of which is to determine, correct, and eliminate the primary causes of the malfunction and the excess emissions resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using the best monitoring methods and engineering judgment, the amount of excess emissions that were the result of the malfunction.
(ii) Notification. The owner or operator of the facility experiencing an exceedance of its emission limit(s) during a malfunction shall notify the Administrator by telephone or facsimile (FAX) transmission as soon as possible, but no later than 2 business days after the initial occurrence of the malfunction, if it wishes to avail itself of an affirmative defense to civil penalties for that malfunction. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense shall also submit a written report to the Administrator within 45 days of the initial occurrence of the exceedance of the standard in this subpart to demonstrate, with all necessary supporting documentation, that it has met the requirements set forth in paragraph (e)(7)(i) of this section. The owner or operator may seek an extension of this deadline for up to 30 additional days by submitting a written request to the Administrator before the expiration of the 45 day period. Until a request for an extension has been approved by the Administrator, the owner or operator is subject to the requirement to submit such report within 45 days of the initial occurrence of the exceedance.
[61 FR 48399, Sept. 19, 1995, as amended at 68 FR 37350, June 23, 2003; 71 FR 20457, Apr. 20, 2006; 76 FR 22596, Apr. 21, 2011]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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  • 2014-08-15; vol. 79 # 158 - Friday, August 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 48072 - NESHAP for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; NSPS for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of final decision on reconsideration.
      Effective August 15, 2014. Any petitions for review of the letters announcing the EPA's decision not to propose changes to the regulations in response to the public comments received on the three issues under reconsideration described in this Notice must be filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by October 14, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 63 after this date.

  • 2014-08-15; vol. 79 # 158 - Friday, August 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 48072 - NESHAP for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; NSPS for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of final decision on reconsideration.
      Effective August 15, 2014. Any petitions for review of the letters announcing the EPA's decision not to propose changes to the regulations in response to the public comments received on the three issues under reconsideration described in this Notice must be filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by October 14, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63