What definitions apply to this subpart?
Terms used in this subpart are defined in the Clean Air Act (CAA); in 40 CFR 63.2, the General Provisions of this part; and in this section as follows:
Area source means any stationary source of HAP that is not a major source as defined in part 63.
Associated equipment as used in this subpart and as referred to in section 112(n)(4) of the CAA, means equipment associated with an oil or natural gas exploration or production well, and includes all equipment from the well bore to the point of custody transfer, except glycol dehydration units, storage vessels with potential for flash emissions, combustion turbines, and stationary RICE.
Black start engine means an engine whose only purpose is to start up a combustion turbine.
CAA means the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401
et seq., as amended by Public Law 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399).
Commercial emergency stationary RICE means an emergency stationary RICE used in commercial establishments such as office buildings, hotels, stores, telecommunications facilities, restaurants, financial institutions such as banks, doctor's offices, and sports and performing arts facilities.
Compression ignition means relating to a type of stationary internal combustion engine that is not a spark ignition engine.
Custody transfer means the transfer of hydrocarbon liquids or natural gas: After processing and/or treatment in the producing operations, or from storage vessels or automatic transfer facilities or other such equipment, including product loading racks, to pipelines or any other forms of transportation. For the purposes of this subpart, the point at which such liquids or natural gas enters a natural gas processing plant is a point of custody transfer.
Deviation means any instance in which an affected source subject to this subpart, or an owner or operator of such a source:
Fails to meet any requirement or obligation established by this subpart, including but not limited to any emission limitation or operating limitation;
Fails to meet any term or condition that is adopted to implement an applicable requirement in this subpart and that is included in the operating permit for any affected source required to obtain such a permit; or
Fails to meet any emission limitation or operating limitation in this subpart during malfunction, regardless or whether or not such failure is permitted by this subpart.
Fails to satisfy the general duty to minimize emissions established by § 63.6(e)(1)(i).
Diesel engine means any stationary RICE in which a high boiling point liquid fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites when the air charge has been compressed to a temperature sufficiently high for auto-ignition. This process is also known as compression ignition.
Diesel fuel means any liquid obtained from the distillation of petroleum with a boiling point of approximately 150 to 360 degrees Celsius. One commonly used form is fuel oil number 2. Diesel fuel also includes any non-distillate fuel with comparable physical and chemical properties (e.g. biodiesel) that is suitable for use in compression ignition engines.
Digester gas means any gaseous by-product of wastewater treatment typically formed through the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste materials and composed principally of methane and CO2.
Dual-fuel engine means any stationary RICE in which a liquid fuel (typically diesel fuel) is used for compression ignition and gaseous fuel (typically natural gas) is used as the primary fuel.
Emergency stationary RICE means any stationary internal combustion engine whose operation is limited to emergency situations and required testing and maintenance. Examples include stationary RICE used to produce power for critical networks or equipment (including power supplied to portions of a facility) when electric power from the local utility (or the normal power source, if the facility runs on its own power production) is interrupted, or stationary RICE used to pump water in the case of fire or flood, etc. Stationary RICE used for peak shaving are not considered emergency stationary RICE. Stationary RICE used to supply power to an electric grid or that supply non-emergency power as part of a financial arrangement with another entity are not considered to be emergency engines, except as permitted under § 63.6640(f). All emergency stationary RICE must comply with the requirements specified in § 63.6640(f) in order to be considered emergency stationary RICE. If the engine does not comply with the requirements specified in § 63.6640(f), then it is not considered to be an emergency stationary RICE under this subpart.
Engine startup means the time from initial start until applied load and engine and associated equipment reaches steady state or normal operation. For stationary engine with catalytic controls, engine startup means the time from initial start until applied load and engine and associated equipment, including the catalyst, reaches steady state or normal operation.
Four-stroke engine means any type of engine which completes the power cycle in two crankshaft revolutions, with intake and compression strokes in the first revolution and power and exhaust strokes in the second revolution.
Gaseous fuel means a material used for combustion which is in the gaseous state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions.
Gasoline means any fuel sold in any State for use in motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines, or nonroad or stationary engines, and commonly or commercially known or sold as gasoline.
Glycol dehydration unit means a device in which a liquid glycol (including, but not limited to, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, or triethylene glycol) absorbent directly contacts a natural gas stream and absorbs water in a contact tower or absorption column (absorber). The glycol contacts and absorbs water vapor and other gas stream constituents from the natural gas and becomes “rich” glycol. This glycol is then regenerated in the glycol dehydration unit reboiler. The “lean” glycol is then recycled.
Hazardous air pollutants (HAP) means any air pollutants listed in or pursuant to section 112(b) of the CAA.
Institutional emergency stationary RICE means an emergency stationary RICE used in institutional establishments such as medical centers, nursing homes, research centers, institutions of higher education, correctional facilities, elementary and secondary schools, libraries, religious establishments, police stations, and fire stations.
ISO standard day conditions means 288 degrees Kelvin (15 degrees Celsius), 60 percent relative humidity and 101.3 kilopascals pressure.
Landfill gas means a gaseous by-product of the land application of municipal refuse typically formed through the anaerobic decomposition of waste materials and composed principally of methane and CO2.
Lean burn engine means any two-stroke or four-stroke spark ignited engine that does not meet the definition of a rich burn engine.
Limited use stationary RICE means any stationary RICE that operates less than 100 hours per year.
Liquefied petroleum gas means any liquefied hydrocarbon gas obtained as a by-product in petroleum refining of natural gas production.
Liquid fuel means any fuel in liquid form at standard temperature and pressure, including but not limited to diesel, residual/crude oil, kerosene/naphtha (jet fuel), and gasoline.
Major Source, as used in this subpart, shall have the same meaning as in § 63.2, except that:
Emissions from any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment (as defined in this section)) and emissions from any pipeline compressor station or pump station shall not be aggregated with emissions from other similar units, to determine whether such emission points or stations are major sources, even when emission points are in a contiguous area or under common control;
For oil and gas production facilities, emissions from processes, operations, or equipment that are not part of the same oil and gas production facility, as defined in § 63.1271 of subpart HHH of this part, shall not be aggregated;
For production field facilities, only HAP emissions from glycol dehydration units, storage vessel with the potential for flash emissions, combustion turbines and reciprocating internal combustion engines shall be aggregated for a major source determination; and
Emissions from processes, operations, and equipment that are not part of the same natural gas transmission and storage facility, as defined in § 63.1271 of subpart HHH of this part, shall not be aggregated.
Malfunction means any sudden, infrequent, and not reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal or usual manner which causes, or has the potential to cause, the emission limitations in an applicable standard to be exceeded. Failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions.
Natural gas means a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface, of which the principal constituent is methane. Natural gas may be field or pipeline quality.
Non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) means an add-on catalytic nitrogen oxides (NOX) control device for rich burn engines that, in a two-step reaction, promotes the conversion of excess oxygen, NOX, CO, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) into CO2, nitrogen, and water.
Oil and gas production facility as used in this subpart means any grouping of equipment where hydrocarbon liquids are processed, upgraded (i.e., remove impurities or other constituents to meet contract specifications), or stored prior to the point of custody transfer; or where natural gas is processed, upgraded, or stored prior to entering the natural gas transmission and storage source category. For purposes of a major source determination, facility (including a building, structure, or installation) means oil and natural gas production and processing equipment that is located within the boundaries of an individual surface site as defined in this section. Equipment that is part of a facility will typically be located within close proximity to other equipment located at the same facility. Pieces of production equipment or groupings of equipment located on different oil and gas leases, mineral fee tracts, lease tracts, subsurface or surface unit areas, surface fee tracts, surface lease tracts, or separate surface sites, whether or not connected by a road, waterway, power line or pipeline, shall not be considered part of the same facility. Examples of facilities in the oil and natural gas production source category include, but are not limited to, well sites, satellite tank batteries, central tank batteries, a compressor station that transports natural gas to a natural gas processing plant, and natural gas processing plants.
Oxidation catalyst means an add-on catalytic control device that controls CO and VOC by oxidation.
Peaking unit or engine means any standby engine intended for use during periods of high demand that are not emergencies.
Percent load means the fractional power of an engine compared to its maximum manufacturer's design capacity at engine site conditions. Percent load may range between 0 percent to above 100 percent.
Potential to emit means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the stationary source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable. For oil and natural gas production facilities subject to subpart HH of this part, the potential to emit provisions in § 63.760(a) may be used. For natural gas transmission and storage facilities subject to subpart HHH of this part, the maximum annual facility gas throughput for storage facilities may be determined according to § 63.1270(a)(1) and the maximum annual throughput for transmission facilities may be determined according to § 63.1270(a)(2).
Production field facility means those oil and gas production facilities located prior to the point of custody transfer.
Production well means any hole drilled in the earth from which crude oil, condensate, or field natural gas is extracted.
Propane means a colorless gas derived from petroleum and natural gas, with the molecular structure C3 H8.
Residential emergency stationary RICE means an emergency stationary RICE used in residential establishments such as homes or apartment buildings.
Responsible official means responsible official as defined in 40 CFR 70.2.
Rich burn engine means any four-stroke spark ignited engine where the manufacturer's recommended operating air/fuel ratio divided by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio at full load conditions is less than or equal to 1.1. Engines originally manufactured as rich burn engines, but modified prior to December 19, 2002 with passive emission control technology for NOX (such as pre-combustion chambers) will be considered lean burn engines. Also, existing engines where there are no manufacturer's recommendations regarding air/fuel ratio will be considered a rich burn engine if the excess oxygen content of the exhaust at full load conditions is less than or equal to 2 percent.
Site-rated HP means the maximum manufacturer's design capacity at engine site conditions.
Spark ignition means relating to either: A gasoline-fueled engine; or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation. Dual-fuel engines in which a liquid fuel (typically diesel fuel) is used for CI and gaseous fuel (typically natural gas) is used as the primary fuel at an annual average ratio of less than 2 parts diesel fuel to 100 parts total fuel on an energy equivalent basis are spark ignition engines.
Stationary reciprocating internal combustion engine (RICE) means any reciprocating internal combustion engine which uses reciprocating motion to convert heat energy into mechanical work and which is not mobile. Stationary RICE differ from mobile RICE in that a stationary RICE is not a non-road engine as defined at 40 CFR 1068.30, and is not used to propel a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition.
Stationary RICE test cell/stand means an engine test cell/stand, as defined in subpart PPPPP of this part, that tests stationary RICE.
Stoichiometric means the theoretical air-to-fuel ratio required for complete combustion.
Storage vessel with the potential for flash emissions means any storage vessel that contains a hydrocarbon liquid with a stock tank gas-to-oil ratio equal to or greater than 0.31 cubic meters per liter and an American Petroleum Institute gravity equal to or greater than 40 degrees and an actual annual average hydrocarbon liquid throughput equal to or greater than 79,500 liters per day. Flash emissions occur when dissolved hydrocarbons in the fluid evolve from solution when the fluid pressure is reduced.
Subpart means 40 CFR part 63, subpart ZZZZ.
Surface site means any combination of one or more graded pad sites, gravel pad sites, foundations, platforms, or the immediate physical location upon which equipment is physically affixed.
Two-stroke engine means a type of engine which completes the power cycle in single crankshaft revolution by combining the intake and compression operations into one stroke and the power and exhaust operations into a second stroke. This system requires auxiliary scavenging and inherently runs lean of stoichiometric.
[69 FR 33506, June 15, 2004, as amended at 71 FR 20467, Apr. 20, 2006; 73 FR 3607, Jan. 18, 2008; 75 FR 9679, Mar. 3, 2010; 75 FR 51592, Aug. 20, 2010; 76 FR 12867, Mar. 9, 2011]