40 CFR 63.685 - Standards: Tanks.

Status message

There are 2 Updates appearing in the Federal Register for 40 CFR 63. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
§ 63.685 Standards: Tanks.
(a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from tanks for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of this section for such air emission control.
(b) The owner or operator shall control air emissions from each tank subject to this section in accordance with the following applicable requirements:
(1) For a tank that is part of an existing affected source but the tank is not used to manage off-site material having a maximum HAP vapor pressure kilopascal (kPa) that is equal to or greater than 76.6 kPa nor is the tank used for a waste stabilization process as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart, the owner or operator shall determine whether the tank is required to use either Tank Level 1 controls or Tank Level 2 controls as specified for the tank by Table 3 of this subpart based on the off-site material maximum HAP vapor pressure and the tank's design capacity. The owner or operator shall control air emissions from a tank required by Table 3 to use Tank Level 1 controls in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. The owner or operator shall control air emissions from a tank required by Table 3 to use Tank Level 2 controls in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) For a tank that is part of a new affected source but the tank is not used to manage off-site material having a maximum HAP vapor pressure that is equal to or greater than 76.6 kPa nor is the tank used for a waste stabilization process as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart, the owner or operator shall determine whether the tank is required to use either Tank Level 1 controls or Tank Level 2 controls as specified for the tank by Table 4 of this subpart based on the off-site material maximum HAP vapor pressure and the tank's design capacity. The owner or operator shall control air emissions from a tank required by Table 4 to use Tank Level 1 controls in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. The owner or operator shall control air emissions from a tank required by Table 4 to use Tank Level 2 controls in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.
(3) For a tank that is used for a waste stabilization process, the owner or operator shall control air emissions from the tank by using Tank Level 2 controls in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.
(4) For a tank that manages off-site material having a maximum HAP vapor pressure that is equal to or greater than 76.6 kPa, the owner or operator must control air emissions by using one of the tanks specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) through (b)(4)(iii) of this section.
(i) A tank vented through a closed-vent system to a control device in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (g) of this section;
(ii) A pressure tank designed and operated in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (h) of this section; or
(iii) A tank located inside an enclosure that is vented through a closed-vent system to an enclosed combustion control device in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (i) of this section.
(c) Owners and operators controlling air emissions from a tank using Tank Level 1 controls shall meet the following requirements:
(1) The owner or operator shall determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure for an off-site material to be managed in the tank using Tank Level 1 controls before the first time the off-site material is placed in the tank. The maximum HAP vapor pressure shall be determined using the procedures specified in § 63.694(j) of this subpart. Thereafter, the owner or operator shall perform a new determination whenever changes to the off-site material managed in the tank could potentially cause the maximum HAP vapor pressure to increase to a level that is equal to or greater than the maximum HAP vapor pressure limit for the tank design capacity category specified in Table 3 or Table 4 of this subpart, as applicable to the tank.
(2) The owner or operator must control air emissions from the tank in accordance with the requirements in either paragraph (c)(2)(i), (c)(2)(ii), or (c)(2)(iii) of this section, as applicable to the tank.
(i) The owner or operator controls air emissions from the tank in accordance with the provisions specified in subpart 00 of40 CFR part 63—National Emission Standards for Tanks—Level 1.
(ii) As an alternative to meeting the requirements in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, an owner or operator may control air emissions from the tank in accordance with the provisions for Tank Level 2 controls as specified in paragraph (d) of this section.
(iii) As an alternative to meeting the requirements in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section when a tank is used as an interim transfer point to transfer off-site material from containers to another off-site material management unit, an owner or operator may control air emissions from the tank in accordance with the requirements in paragraphs (c)(2)(iii)(A) and (c)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. An example of such a tank is an in-ground tank into which organic-contaminated debris is dumped from roll-off boxes or dump trucks, and then this debris is promptly transferred from the tank to a macroencapsulation unit by a backhoe.
(A) During those periods of time when the material transfer activity is occurring, the tank may be operated without a cover.
(B) At all other times, air emissions from the tank must be controlled in accordance with the provisions specified in 40 CFR part 67, subpart 00—National Emission Standards for Tanks—Level 1.
(d) Owners and operators controlling air emissions from a tank using Tank Level 2 controls shall use one of the following tanks:
(1) A fixed-roof tank equipped with an internal floating roof in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (e) of this section;
(2) A tank equipped with an external floating roof in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (f) of this section;
(3) A tank vented through a closed-vent system to a control device in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (g) of this section;
(4) A pressure tank designed and operated in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (h) of this section; or
(5) A tank located inside an enclosure that is vented through a closed-vent system to an enclosed combustion control device in accordance with the requirements specified in paragraph (i) of this section.
(e) The owner or operator who elects to control air emissions from a tank using a fixed-roof with an internal floating roof shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(3) of this section.
(1) The tank shall be equipped with a fixed roof and an internal floating roof in accordance with the following requirements:
(i) The internal floating roof shall be designed to float on the liquid surface except when the floating roof must be supported by the leg supports.
(ii) The internal floating roof shall be equipped with a continuous seal between the wall of the tank and the floating roof edge that meets either of the following requirements:
(A) A single continuous seal that is either a liquid-mounted seal or a metallic shoe seal, as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart; or
(B) Two continuous seals mounted one above the other. The lower seal may be a vapor-mounted seal.
(iii) The internal floating roof shall meet the following specifications:
(A) Each opening in a noncontact internal floating roof except for automatic bleeder vents (vacuum breaker vents) and the rim space vents is to provide a projection below the liquid surface.
(B) Each opening in the internal floating roof shall be equipped with a gasketed cover or a gasketed lid except for leg sleeves, automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, column wells, ladder wells, sample wells, and stub drains.
(C) Each penetration of the internal floating roof for the purpose of sampling shall have a slit fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of the opening.
(D) Each automatic bleeder vent and rim space vent shall be gasketed.
(E) Each penetration of the internal floating roof that allows for passage of a ladder shall have a gasketed sliding cover.
(F) Each penetration of the internal floating roof that allows for passage of a column supporting the fixed roof shall have a flexible fabric sleeve seal or a gasketed sliding cover.
(2) The owner or operator shall operate the tank in accordance with the following requirements:
(i) When the floating roof is resting on the leg supports, the process of filling, emptying, or refilling shall be continuous and shall be accomplished as soon as practical.
(ii) Automatic bleeder vents are to be set closed at all times when the roof is floating, except when the roof is being floated off or is being landed on the leg supports.
(iii) Prior to filling the tank, each cover, access hatch, gauge float well or lid on any opening in the internal floating roof shall be bolted or fastened closed (i.e., no visible gaps). Rim spaces vents are to be set to open only when the internal floating roof is not floating or when the pressure beneath the rim exceeds the manufacturer's recommended setting.
(3) The owner or operator shall inspect the internal floating roof in accordance with the procedures specified in § 63.695(b) of this subpart.
(f) The owner or operator who elects to control tank emissions by using an external floating roof shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(3) of this section.
(1) The owner or operator shall design the external floating roof in accordance with the following requirements:
(i) The external floating roof shall be designed to float on the liquid surface except when the floating roof must be supported by the leg supports.
(ii) The floating roof shall be equipped with two continuous seals, one above the other, between the wall of the tank and the roof edge. The lower seal is referred to as the primary seal, and the upper seal is referred to as the secondary seal.
(A) The primary seal shall be a liquid-mounted seal or a metallic shoe seal, as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart. The total area of the gaps between the tank wall and the primary seal shall not exceed 212 square centimeters (cm2) per meter of tank diameter, and the width of any portion of these gaps shall not exceed 3.8 centimeters (cm). If a metallic shoe seal is used for the primary seal, the metallic shoe seal shall be designed so that one end extends into the liquid in the tank and the other end extends a vertical distance of at least 61 centimeters (24 inches) above the liquid surface.
(B) The secondary seal shall be mounted above the primary seal and cover the annular space between the floating roof and the wall of the tank. The total area of the gaps between the tank wall and the secondary seal shall not exceed 21.2 square centimeters (cm2) per meter of tank diameter, and the width of any portion of these gaps shall not exceed 1.3 centimeters (cm).
(iii) The external floating roof shall be meet the following specifications:
(A) Except for automatic bleeder vents (vacuum breaker vents) and rim space vents, each opening in a noncontact external floating roof shall provide a projection below the liquid surface.
(B) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg sleeves, each opening in the roof shall be equipped with a gasketed cover, seal, or lid.
(C) Each access hatch and each gauge float wells shall be equipped with covers designed to be bolted or fastened when the cover is secured in the closed position.
(D) Each automatic bleeder vent and each rim space vents shall be equipped with a gasket.
(E) Each roof drain that empties into the liquid managed in the tank shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of the area of the opening.
(F) Each unslotted and slotted guide pole well shall be equipped with a gasketed sliding cover or a flexible fabric sleeve seal.
(G) Each unslotted guide pole shall be equipped with a gasketed cap on the end of the pole.
(H) Each slotted guide pole shall be equipped with a gasketed float or other device which closes off the surface from the atmosphere.
(I) Each gauge hatch and each sample well shall be equipped with a gasketed cover.
(2) The owner or operator shall operate the tank in accordance with the following requirements:
(i) When the floating roof is resting on the leg supports, the process of filling, emptying, or refilling shall be continuous and shall be accomplished as soon as practical.
(ii) Except for automatic bleeder vents, rim space vents, roof drains, and leg sleeves, each opening in the roof shall be secured and maintained in a closed position at all times except when the closure device must be open for access.
(iii) Covers on each access hatch and each gauge float well shall be bolted or fastened when secured in the closed position.
(iv) Automatic bleeder vents shall be set closed at all times when the roof is floating, except when the roof is being floated off or is being landed on the leg supports.
(v) Rim space vents shall be set to open only at those times that the roof is being floated off the roof leg supports or when the pressure beneath the rim seal exceeds the manufacturer's recommended setting.
(vi) The cap on the end of each unslotted guide pole shall be secured in the closed position at all times except when measuring the level or collecting samples of the liquid in the tank.
(vii) The cover on each gauge hatch or sample well shall be secured in the closed position at all times except when the hatch or well must be opened for access.
(viii) Both the primary seal and the secondary seal shall completely cover the annular space between the external floating roof and the wall of the tank in a continuous fashion except during inspections.
(3) The owner or operator shall inspect the external floating roof in accordance with the procedures specified in § 63.695(b) of this subpart.
(g) The owner or operator who controls tank air emissions by venting to a control device shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(3) of this section.
(1) The tank shall be covered by a fixed roof and vented directly through a closed-vent system to a control device in accordance with the following requirements:
(i) The fixed roof and its closure devices shall be designed to form a continuous barrier over the entire surface area of the liquid in the tank.
(ii) Each opening in the fixed roof not vented to the control device shall be equipped with a closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the fixed roof is less than atmospheric pressure when the control device is operating, the closure devices shall be designed to operate such that when the closure device is secured in the closed position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the cover opening and the closure device. If the pressure in the vapor headspace underneath the fixed roof is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure when the control device is operating, the closure device shall be designed to operate with no detectable organic emissions.
(iii) The fixed roof and its closure devices shall be made of suitable materials that will minimize exposure of the off-site material to the atmosphere, to the extent practical, and will maintain the integrity of the equipment throughout its intended service life. Factors to be considered when selecting the materials for and designing the fixed roof and closure devices shall include: organic vapor permeability, the effects of any contact with the liquid and its vapor managed in the tank; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the operating practices used for the tank on which the fixed roof is installed.
(iv) The closed-vent system and control device shall be designed and operated in accordance with the requirements of § 63.693 of this subpart.
(2) Whenever an off-site material is in the tank, the fixed roof shall be installed with each closure device secured in the closed position and the vapor headspace underneath the fixed roof vented to the control device except as follows:
(i) Venting to the control device is not required, and opening of closure devices or removal of the fixed roof is allowed at the following times:
(A) To provide access to the tank for performing routine inspection, maintenance, or other activities needed for normal operations. Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port to sample liquid in the tank, or when a worker needs to open a hatch to maintain or repair equipment. Following completion of the activity, the owner or operator shall promptly secure the closure device in the closed position or reinstall the cover, as applicable, to the tank.
(B) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom of the tank.
(ii) Opening of a safety device, as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart, is allowed at any time conditions require it to do so to avoid an unsafe condition.
(3) The owner or operator shall inspect and monitor the air emission control equipment in accordance with the procedures specified in § 63.695 of this subpart.
(h) The owner or operator who elects to control tank air emissions by using a pressure tank shall meet the following requirements.
(1) The tank shall be designed not to vent to the atmosphere as a result of compression of the vapor headspace in the tank during filling of the tank to its design capacity.
(2) All tank openings shall be equipped with closure devices designed to operate with no detectable organic emissions as determined using the procedure specified in § 63.694(k) of this subpart.
(3) Whenever an off-site material is in the tank, the tank shall be operated as a closed system that does not vent to the atmosphere except under either of the following conditions as specified in paragraph (h)(3)(i) or (h)(3)(ii) of this section.
(i) At those times when opening of a safety device, as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart, is required to avoid an unsafe condition.
(ii) At those times when purging of inerts from the tank is required and the purge stream is routed to a closed-vent system and control device designed and operated in accordance with the requirements of § 63.693 of this subpart.
(i) The owner or operator who elects to control air emissions by using an enclosure vented through a closed-vent system to an enclosed combustion control device shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (i)(1) through (4) of this section.
(1) The tank shall be located inside an enclosure. The enclosure shall be designed and operated in accordance with the criteria for a permanent total enclosure as specified in “Procedure T—Criteria for and Verification of a Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” under 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or temporary openings to allow worker access; passage of material into or out of the enclosure by conveyor, vehicles, or other mechanical means; entry of permanent mechanical or electrical equipment; or to direct airflow into the enclosure. The owner or operator shall perform the verification procedure for the enclosure as specified in Section 5.0 to “Procedure T—Criteria for and Verification of a Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” initially when the enclosure is first installed and, thereafter, annually.
(2) The enclosure shall be vented through a closed-vent system to an enclosed combustion control device that is designed and operated in accordance with the standards for either a vapor incinerator, boiler, or process heater specified in § 63.693 of this subpart.
(3) Opening of a safety device, as defined in § 63.681 of this subpart, is allowed at any time conditions require it to do so to avoid an unsafe condition.
(4) The owner or operator shall inspect and monitor the closed-vent system and control device as specified in § 63.693.
[61 FR 34158, July 1, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 38968, July 20, 1999; 66 FR 1266, Jan. 8, 2001]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-08-15; vol. 79 # 158 - Friday, August 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 48072 - NESHAP for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; NSPS for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of final decision on reconsideration.
      Effective August 15, 2014. Any petitions for review of the letters announcing the EPA's decision not to propose changes to the regulations in response to the public comments received on the three issues under reconsideration described in this Notice must be filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by October 14, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 63 after this date.

  • 2014-08-15; vol. 79 # 158 - Friday, August 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 48072 - NESHAP for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; NSPS for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of final decision on reconsideration.
      Effective August 15, 2014. Any petitions for review of the letters announcing the EPA's decision not to propose changes to the regulations in response to the public comments received on the three issues under reconsideration described in this Notice must be filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by October 14, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 60 and 63