40 CFR 63.750 - Test methods and procedures.

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§ 63.750 Test methods and procedures.
(a) Composition determination. Compliance with the hand-wipe cleaning solvent approved composition list specified in § 63.744(b)(1) for hand-wipe cleaning solvents shall be demonstrated using data supplied by the manufacturer of the cleaning solvent. The data shall identify all components of the cleaning solvent and shall demonstrate that one of the approved composition definitions is met.
(b) Vapor pressure determination. The composite vapor pressure of hand-wipe cleaning solvents used in a cleaning operation subject to this subpart shall be determined as follows:
(1) For single-component hand-wipe cleaning solvents, the vapor pressure shall be determined using MSDS or other manufacturer's data, standard engineering reference texts, or other equivalent methods.
(2) The composite vapor pressure of a blended hand-wipe solvent shall be determined by quantifying the amount of each organic compound in the blend using manufacturer's supplied data or a gas chromatographic analysis in accordance with ASTM E 260-91 or 96 (incorporated by reference—see § 63.14 of subpart A of this part) and by calculating the composite vapor pressure of the solvent by summing the partial pressures of each component. The vapor pressure of each component shall be determined using manufacturer's data, standard engineering reference texts, or other equivalent methods. The following equation shall be used to determine the composite vapor pressure:
where:
Wi=Weight of the “i”th VOC compound, grams.
Ww=Weight of water, grams.
We=Weight of non-HAP, nonVOC compound, grams.
MWi=Molecular weight of the “i”th VOC compound, g/g-mole.
MWw=Molecular weight of water, g/g-mole.
MWe=Molecular weight of exempt compound, g/g-mole.
PPc=VOC composite partial pressure at 20 °C, mm Hg.
VPi=Vapor pressure of the “i”th VOC compound at 20 °C, mm Hg.
(c) Organic HAP content level determination—compliant primers and topcoats. For those uncontrolled primers and topcoats complying with the primer and topcoat organic HAP content limits specified in § 63.745(c) without being averaged, the following procedures shall be used to determine the mass of organic HAP emitted per volume of coating (less water) as applied.
(1) For coatings that contain no exempt solvents, determine the total organic HAP content using manufacturer's supplied data or Method 24 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, to determine the VOC content. The VOC content shall be used as a surrogate for total HAP content for coatings that contain no exempt solvent. If there is a discrepancy between the manufacturer's formulation data and the results of the Method 24 analysis, compliance shall be based on the results from the Method 24 analysis.
When Method 24 is used to determine the VOC content of water-reducible coatings, the precision adjustment factors in Reference Method 24 shall be used. If the adjusted analytical VOC content is less than the formulation solvent content, then the analytical VOC content should be set equal to the formulation solvent content.
(2) For each coating formulation as applied, determine the organic HAP weight fraction, water weight fraction (if applicable), and density from manufacturer's data. If these values cannot be determined using the manufacturer's data, the owner or operator shall submit an alternative procedure for determining their values for approval by the Administrator. Recalculation is required only when a change occurs in the coating formulation.
(3) For each coating as applied, calculate the mass of organic HAP emitted per volume of coating (lb/gal) less water as applied using equations 1, 2, and 3:
where:
Vwi=volume (gal) of water in one gal of coating i.
Dci=density (lb of coating per gal of coating) of coating i.
Wwi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of water in coating i.
Dw=density of water, 8.33 lb/gal.
where:
MHi=mass (lb) of organic HAP in one gal of coating i.
Dci=density (lb of coating per gal of coating) of coating i.
WHi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of organic HAP in coating i.
where:
Hi=mass of organic HAP emitted per volume of coating i (lb/gal) less water as applied.
MHi=mass (lb) of organic HAP in one gal of coating i.
Vwi=volume (gal) of water in one gal of coating i.
(d) Organic HAP content level determination—averaged primers and topcoats. For those uncontrolled primers and topcoats that are averaged together in order to comply with the primer and topcoat organic HAP content limits specified in § 63.745(c), the following procedure shall be used to determine the monthly volume-weighted average mass of organic HAP emitted per volume of coating (less water) as applied, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter averaging period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(1)
(i) Determine the total organic HAP weight fraction as applied of each coating. If any ingredients, including diluent solvent, are added to a coating prior to its application, the organic HAP weight fraction of the coating shall be determined at a time and location in the process after all ingredients have been added.
(ii) Determine the total organic HAP weight fraction of each coating as applied each month.
(A) If no changes have been made to a coating, either as supplied or as applied, or if a change has been made that has a minimal effect on the organic HAP content of the coating, the value previously determined may continue to be used until a change in formulation has been made by either the manufacturer or the user.
(B) If a change in formulation or a change in the ingredients added to the coating takes place, including the ratio of coating to diluent solvent, prior to its application, either of which results in a more than minimal effect on the organic HAP content of the coating, the total organic HAP weight fraction of the coating shall be redetermined.
(iii) Manufacturer's formulation data may be used to determine the total organic HAP content of each coating and any ingredients added to the coating prior to its application. If the total organic HAP content cannot be determined using the manufacturer's data, the owner or operator shall submit an alternative procedure for determining the total organic HAP weight fraction for approval by the Administrator.
(2)
(i) Determine the volume both in total gallons as applied and in total gallons (less water) as applied of each coating. If any ingredients, including diluent solvents, are added prior to its application, the volume of each coating shall be determined at a time and location in the process after all ingredients (including any diluent solvent) have been added.
(ii) Determine the volume of each coating (less water) as applied each month, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(iii) The volume applied may be determined from company records.
(3)
(i) Determine the density of each coating as applied. If any ingredients, including diluent solvent, are added to a coating prior to its application, the density of the coating shall be determined at a time and location in the process after all ingredients have been added.
(ii) Determine the density of each coating as applied each month, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(A) If no changes have been made to a coating, either as supplied or as applied, or if a change has been made that has a minimal effect on the density of the coating, then the value previously determined may continue to be used until a change in formulation has been made by either the manufacturer or the user.
(B) If a change in formulation or a change in the ingredients added to the coating takes place, including the ratio of coating to diluent solvent, prior to its application, either of which results in a more than minimal effect on the density of the coating, then the density of the coating shall be redetermined.
(iii) The density may be determined from company records, including manufacturer's data sheets. If the density of the coating cannot be determined using the company's records, including the manufacturer's data, then the owner or operator shall submit an alternative procedure for determining the density for approval by the Administrator.
(4) Calculate the total volume in gallons as applied (less water) by summing the individual volumes of each coating (less water) as applied, which were determined under paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
(5) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of organic HAP in coatings emitted per unit volume (lb/gal) of coating (less water) as applied during each 30-day period using equation 4:
where:
Ha=volume-weighted average mass of organic HAP emitted per unit volume of coating (lb/gal) (less water) as applied during each 30-day period for those coatings being averaged.
n=number of coatings being averaged.
WHi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of organic HAP in coating i as applied that is being averaged during each 30-day period.
Dci=density (lb of coating per gal of coating) of coating i as applied that is being averaged during each 30-day period.
Vci=volume (gal) of coating i as applied that is being averaged during the 30-day period.
Clw=total volume (gal) of all coatings (less water) as applied that are being averaged during each 30-day period.
(e) VOC content level determination—compliant primers and topcoats. For those uncontrolled primers and topcoats complying with the primer and topcoat VOC content levels specified in § 63.745(c) without being averaged, the following procedure shall be used to determine the mass of VOC emitted per volume of coating (less water and exempt solvents) as applied.
(1) Determine the VOC content of each formulation (less water and exempt solvents) as applied using manufacturer's supplied data or Method 24 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, to determine the VOC content. The VOC content shall be used as a surrogate for total HAP content for coatings that contain no exempt solvent. If there is a discrepancy between the manufacturer's formulation data and the results of the Method 24 analysis, compliance shall be based on the results from the Method 24 analysis.
When Method 24 is used to determine the VOC content of water-reducible coatings, the precision adjustment factors in Reference Method 24 shall be used. If the adjusted analytical VOC content is less than the formulation solvent content, then the analytical VOC content should be set equal to the formulation solvent content.
(2) For each coating applied, calculate the mass of VOC emitted per volume of coating (lb/gal) (less water and exempt solvents) as applied using equations 5, 6, and 7:
where:
Vwi=volume (gal) of water in one gal of coating i.
Dci=density (lb of coating per gal of coating) of coating i.
Wwi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of water in coating i.
Dw=density of water, 8.33 lb/gal.
where:
MVi=mass (lb) of VOC in one gal of coating i.
Dci=density (lb of coating per gal of coating) of coating i.
WVi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of VOC in coating i.
where:
Gi=mass of VOC emitted per volume of coating i (lb/gal) (less water and exempt solvents) as applied.
MVi=mass (lb) of VOC in one gal of coating i.
Vwi=volume (gal) of water in one gal of coating i.
VXi=volume (gal) of exempt solvents in one gal of coating i.
(3)
(i) If the VOC content is found to be different when EPA Method 24 is used during an enforcement inspection from that used by the owner or operator in calculating Ga, compliance shall be based, except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, upon the VOC content obtained using EPA Method 24.
(ii) If the VOC content of a coating obtained using Method 24 would indicate noncompliance as determined under either § 63.749 (d)(3)(i) or (d)(4)(i), an owner or operator may elect to average the coating with other uncontrolled coatings and (re)calculate Gi (using the procedure specified in paragraph (f) of this section), provided appropriate and sufficient records were maintained for all coatings included in the average (re)calculation. The (re)calculated value of Gi (Ga in paragraph (f)) for the averaged coatings shall then be used to determine compliance.
(f) VOC content level determination—averaged primers and topcoats. For those uncontrolled primers and topcoats that are averaged within their respective coating category in order to comply with the primer and topcoat VOC content limits specified in § 63.745 (c)(2) and (c)(4), the following procedure shall be used to determine the monthly volume-weighted average mass of VOC emitted per volume of coating (less water and exempt solvents) as applied, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter averaging period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(1)
(i) Determine the VOC content (lb/gal) as applied of each coating. If any ingredients, including diluent solvent, are added to a coating prior to its application, the VOC content of the coating shall be determined at a time and location in the process after all ingredients have been added.
(ii) Determine the VOC content of each coating as applied each month, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(A) If no changes have been made to a coating, either as supplied or as applied, or if a change has been made that has a minimal effect on the VOC content of the coating, the value previously determined may continue to be used until a change in formulation has been made by either the manufacturer or the user.
(B) If a change in formulation or a change in the ingredients added to the coating takes place, including the ratio of coating to diluent solvent, prior to its application, either of which results in a more than minimal effect on the VOC content of the coating, the VOC content of the coating shall be redetermined.
(iii) Determine the VOC content of each primer and topcoat formulation (less water and exempt solvents) as applied using EPA Method 24 or from manufacturer's data.
(2)
(i) Determine the volume both in total gallons as applied and in total gallons (less water and exempt solvents) as applied of each coating. If any ingredients, including diluent solvents, are added prior to its application, the volume of each coating shall be determined at a time and location in the process after all ingredients (including any diluent solvent) have been added.
(ii) Determine the volume of each coating (less water and exempt solvents) as applied each day.
(iii) The volume applied may be determined from company records.
(3) Calculate the total volume in gallons (less water and exempt solvents) as applied by summing the individual volumes of each coating (less water and exempt solvents) as applied, which were determined under paragraph (f)(2) of this section.
(4) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of VOC emitted per unit volume (lb/gal) of coating (less water and exempt solvents) as applied for each coating category during each 30-day period using equation 8:
where:
Ga=volume weighted average mass of VOC per unit volume of coating (lb/gal) (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during each 30-day period for those coatings being averaged.
n=number of coatings being averaged.
(VOC)ci=VOC content (lb/gal) of coating i (less water and exempt solvents) as applied (as determined using the procedures specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section) that is being averaged during the 30-day period.
Vci=volume (gal) of coating i (less water and exempt solvents) as applied that is being averaged during the 30-day period.
Clwes=total volume (gal) of all coatings (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during each 30-day period for those coatings being averaged.
(5)
(i) If the VOC content is found to be different when EPA Method 24 is used during an enforcement inspection from that used by the owner or operator in calculating Ga, recalculation of Ga is required using the new value. If more than one coating is involved, the recalculation shall be made once using all of the new values.
(ii) If recalculation is required, an owner or operator may elect to include in the recalculation of Ga uncontrolled coatings that were not previously included provided appropriate and sufficient records were maintained for these other coatings to allow daily recalculations.
(iii) The recalculated value of Ga under either paragraph (f)(5)(i) or (f)(5)(ii) of this section shall be used to determine compliance.
(g) Overall VOC and/or organic HAP control efficiency—carbon adsorber. Each owner or operator subject to the requirements of § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) shall demonstrate initial compliance with the requirements of this subpart by following the procedures of paragraph (g)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) as applicable and paragraphs (6), (7), and (8) of this section. When an initial compliance demonstration is required by this subpart, the procedures in paragraphs (g)(9) through (g)(14) of this section shall be used in determining initial compliance with the provisions of this subpart.
(1) To demonstrate initial and continuous compliance with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) when emissions are controlled by a dedicated solvent recovery device, each owner or operator of the affected operation may perform a liquid-liquid HAP or VOC material balance over rolling 7- to 30-day periods in lieu of demonstrating compliance through the methods in paragraph (g)(2), (g)(3), or (g)(4) of this section. Results of the material balance calculations performed to demonstrate initial compliance shall be submitted to the Administrator with the notification of compliance status required by § 63.9(h) and by § 63.753 (c)(1)(iv), (d)(3)(i), and (e)(3). When demonstrating compliance by this procedure, § 63.7(e)(3) of subpart A does not apply. The amount of liquid HAP or VOC applied and recovered shall be determined as discussed in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. The overall HAP or VOC emission reduction (R) is calculated using equation 9:
(i) The value of RSi is zero unless the owner or operator submits the following information to the Administrator for approval of a measured RSi value that is greater than zero:
(A) Measurement techniques; and
(B) Documentation that the measured value of RSi exceeds zero.
(ii) The measurement techniques of paragraph (g)(1)(i)(A) of this section shall be submitted to the Administrator for approval with the notification of performance test required under § 63.7(b).
(iii) Each owner or operator demonstrating compliance by the test method described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section shall:
(A) Measure the amount of coating or stripper as applied;
(B) Determine the VOC or HAP content of all coating and stripper applied using the test method specified in § 63.750(c) (1) through (3) or (e) (1) and (2) of this section;
(C) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate, according to the manufacturer's specifications, a device that indicates the amount of HAP or VOC recovered by the solvent recovery device over rolling 7- to 30-day periods; the device shall be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate to within ±2.0 percent, and this certification shall be kept on record;
(D) Measure the amount of HAP or VOC recovered; and
(E) Calculate the overall HAP or VOC emission reduction (R) for rolling 7- to 30-day periods using equation 9.
(F) Compliance is demonstrated if the value of R is equal to or greater than the overall HAP control efficiencies required by § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(2) To demonstrate initial compliance with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) when affected HAP emission points are controlled by an emission control device other than a fixed-bed carbon adsorption system with individual exhaust stacks for each carbon adsorber vessel, each owner or operator of an affected source shall perform a gaseous emission test using the following procedures.
(i) Construct the overall HAP emission reduction system so that all volumetric flow rates and total HAP or VOC emissions can be accurately determined by the applicable test methods and procedures specified in § 63.750(g) (9) through (14).
(ii) Determine capture efficiency from the HAP emission points by capturing, venting, and measuring all HAP emissions from the HAP emission points. During a performance test, the owner or operator of affected HAP emission points located in an area with other gaseous emission sources not affected by this subpart shall isolate the affected HAP emission points from all other gaseous emission points by one of the following methods:
(A) Build a temporary total enclosure around the affected HAP emission point(s); or
(B) Shut down all gaseous emission points not affected by this subpart and continue to exhaust fugitive emissions from the affected HAP emission points through any building ventilation system and other room exhausts such as drying ovens. All ventilation air must be vented through stacks suitable for testing.
(iii) Operate the emission control device with all affected HAP emission points connected and operating.
(iv) Determine the efficiency (E) of the control device using equation 10:
(v) Determine the efficiency (F) of the capture system using equation 11:
(vi) For each HAP emission point subject to § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d), compliance is demonstrated if the product of (E) × (F) is equal to or greater than the overall HAP control efficiencies required under § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(3) To demonstrate compliance with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) when affected HAP emission points are controlled by a fixed-bed carbon adsorption system with individual exhaust stacks for each carbon adsorber vessel, each owner or operator of an affected source shall perform a gaseous emission test using the following procedures:
(i) Construct the overall HAP emission reduction system so that each volumetric flow rate and the total HAP emissions can be accurately determined by the applicable test methods and procedures specified in § 63.750(g) (9) through (14);
(ii) Assure that all HAP emissions from the affected HAP emission point(s) are segregated from gaseous emission points not affected by this subpart and that the emissions can be captured for measurement, as described in paragraphs (g)(2)(ii) (A) and (B) of this section;
(iii) Operate the emission control device with all affected HAP emission points connected and operating;
(iv) Determine the efficiency (Hv) of each individual carbon adsorber vessel (v) using equation 12:
(v) Determine the efficiency of the carbon adsorption system (Hsys) by computing the average efficiency of the individual carbon adsorber vessels as weighted by the volumetric flow rate (Qhv) of each individual carbon adsorber vessel (v) using equation 13:
(vi) Determine the efficiency (F) of the capture system using equation 11.
(vii) For each HAP emission point subject to § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d), compliance is demonstrated if the product of (Hsys) × (F) is equal to or greater than the overall HAP control efficiency required by § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(4) An alternative method of demonstrating compliance with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) is the installation of a total enclosure around the affected HAP emission point(s) and the ventilation of all HAP emissions from the total enclosure to a control device with the efficiency specified in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section. If this method is selected, the compliance test methods described in paragraphs (g)(1), (g)(2), and (g)(3) of this section are not required. Instead, each owner or operator of an affected source shall:
(i) Demonstrate that a total enclosure is installed. An enclosure that meets the requirements in paragraphs (g)(4)(i) (A) through (D) of this section shall be considered a total enclosure. The owner or operator of an enclosure that does not meet these requirements may apply to the Administrator for approval of the enclosure as a total enclosure on a case-by-case basis. The enclosure shall be considered a total enclosure if it is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that all HAP emissions from the affected HAP emission point(s) are contained and vented to the control device. The requirements for automatic approval are as follows:
(A) The total area of all natural draft openings shall not exceed 5% of the total surface area of the total enclosure's walls, floor, and ceiling;
(B) All sources of emissions within the enclosure shall be a minimum of four equivalent diameters away from each natural draft opening;
(C) The average inward face velocity (FV) across all natural draft openings shall be a minimum of 3,600 meters per hour as determined by the following procedures:
(1) All forced makeup air ducts and all exhaust ducts are constructed so that the volumetric flow rate in each can be accurately determined by the test methods and procedures specified in § 63.750(g) (10) and (11); volumetric flow rates shall be calculated without the adjustment normally made for moisture content; and
(2) Determine FV by equation 14:
(D) The air passing through all natural draft openings shall flow into the enclosure continuously. If FV is less than or equal to 9,000 meters per hour, the continuous inward flow of air shall be verified by continuous observation using smoke tubes, streamers, tracer gases, or other means approved by the Administrator over the period that the volumetric flow rate tests required to determine FV are carried out. If FV is greater than 9,000 meters per hour, the direction of airflow through the natural draft openings shall be presumed to be inward at all times without verification.
(ii) Determine the control device efficiency using equation 10 or equations 12 and 13, as applicable, and the test methods and procedures specified in § 63.750(g) (9) through (14).
(iii) Compliance shall be achieved if the installation of a total enclosure is demonstrated and the value of E determined from equation 10 (or the value of Hsys determined from equations 12 and 13, as applicable) is equal to or greater than the overall HAP control efficiencies required under § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(5) When nonregenerative carbon adsorbers are used to comply with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d), the owner or operator may conduct a design evaluation to demonstrate initial compliance in lieu of following the compliance test procedures of paragraphs (g)(1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section. The design evaluation shall consider the vent stream composition, component concentrations, flow rate, relative humidity, and temperature, and shall establish the design exhaust vent stream organic compound concentration level, capacity of the carbon bed, type and working capacity of activated carbon used for the carbon bed, and design carbon replacement interval based on the total carbon working capacity of the control device and the emission point operating schedule.
(6)
(i) To demonstrate initial compliance with § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) when hard piping or ductwork is used to direct VOC and HAP emissions from a VOC and HAP source to the control device, each owner or operator shall demonstrate upon inspection that the criteria of paragraph (g)(6)(i)(A) and paragraph (g)(6)(i) (B) or (C) of this section VR/FD are met.
(A) The equipment shall be vented to a control device.
(B) The control device efficiency (E or Hsys, as applicable) determined using equation 10 or equations 12 and 13, respectively, and the test methods and procedures specified in § 63.750(g) (9) through (14), shall be equal to or greater than the overall HAP control efficiency required by § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(C) When a nonregenerative carbon adsorber is used, the ductwork from the affected emission point(s) shall be vented to the control device and the carbon adsorber shall be demonstrated, through the procedures of § 63.750(g) (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), to meet the requirements of § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d).
(7) Startups and shutdowns are normal operation for this source category. Emissions from these activities are to be included when determining if the standards specified in § 63.745(d), § 63.746(c), or § 63.747(d) are being attained.
(8) An owner or operator who uses compliance techniques other than those specified in this subpart shall submit a description of those compliance procedures, subject to the Administrator's approval, in accordance with § 63.7(f) of subpart A.
(9) Either EPA Method 18 or EPA Method 25A of appendix A of part 60, as appropriate to the conditions at the site, shall be used to determine VOC and HAP concentration of air exhaust streams as required by § 63.750(g) (1) through (6). The owner or operator shall submit notice of the intended test method to the Administrator for approval along with the notification of the performance test required under § 63.7(b). Method selection shall be based on consideration of the diversity of organic species present and their total concentration and on consideration of the potential presence of interfering gases. Except as indicated in paragraphs (g)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section, the test shall consist of three separate runs, each lasting a minimum of 30 minutes.
(i) When either EPA Method 18 or EPA Method 25A is to be used in the determination of the efficiency of a fixed-bed carbon adsorption system with a common exhaust stack for all the individual carbon adsorber vessels pursuant to paragraph (g) (2) or (4) of this section, the test shall consist of three separate runs, each coinciding with one or more complete sequences through the adsorption cycles of all of the individual carbon adsorber vessels.
(ii) When either EPA Method 18 or EPA Method 25A is to be used in the determination of the efficiency of a fixed-bed carbon adsorption system with individual exhaust stacks for each carbon adsorber vessel pursuant to § 63.750(g) (3) or (4), each carbon adsorber vessel shall be tested individually. The test for each carbon adsorber vessel shall consist of three separate runs. Each run shall coincide with one or more complete adsorption cycles.
(10) EPA Method 1 or 1A of appendix A of part 60 is used for sample and velocity traverses.
(11) EPA Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of appendix A of part 60 is used for velocity and volumetric flow rates.
(12) EPA Method 3 of appendix A of part 60 is used for gas analysis.
(13) EPA Method 4 of appendix A of part 60 is used for stack gas moisture.
(14) EPA Methods 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 3, and 4 shall be performed, as applicable, at least twice during each test period.
(h) Overall VOC and/or organic HAP control efficiency—control devices other than carbon adsorbers. Calculate the overall control efficiency of a control system with a control device other than a carbon adsorber using the following procedure.
(1) Calculate the overall control efficiency using equation 15:
where:
Ek=overall VOC and/or organic HAP control efficiency (expressed as a decimal) of control system k.
Rk=destruction or removal efficiency (expressed as a decimal) of total organic compounds or total organic HAP for control device k as determined under paragraph (h)(2) of this section.
Fk=capture efficiency (expressed as a decimal) of capture system k as determined under paragraph (h)(3) of this section.
(2) The organic HAP destruction or removal efficiency Rk of a control device other than a carbon adsorber shall be determined using the procedures described below. The destruction efficiency may be measured as either total organic HAP or as TOC minus methane and ethane according to these procedures.
(i) Use Method 1 or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, to select the sampling sites.
(ii) Determine the gas volumetric flow rate using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate.
(iii) Use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, to measure either TOC minus methane and ethane or total organic HAP. Alternatively, any other method or data that have been validated according to the applicable procedures in Method 301 of this part may be used.
(iv) Use the following procedure to calculate the destruction or removal efficiency:
(A) The destruction or removal efficiency test shall consist of three runs. The minimum sampling time for each run shall be 1 hour in which either an integrated sample or a minimum of four grab samples shall be taken. If grab sampling is used, the samples shall be taken at approximately equal intervals in time such as 15-minute intervals during the run.
(B) Calculate the mass rate of either TOC (minus methane and ethane) or total organic HAP (Ei, Eo using equations 16 and 17:
where:
Ei, Eo=mass rate of TOC (minus methane and ethane) or total organic HAP at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry basis, kg/hr.
K2=constant, 2.494×10−6 (parts per million)−1 (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) (kilogram/gram) (minute/hour), where standard temperature for (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) is 20 °C.
n=number of sample components in the gas stream.
Cij, Coj=concentration of sample component j of the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry basis, parts per million by volume.
Mij, Moj=molecular weight of sample component j of the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, gram/gram-mole.
Qi, Qo=flow rate of gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry standard cubic meter per minute.
(1) Where the mass rate of TOC is being calculated, all organic compounds (minus methane and ethane) measured by EPA Method 18 shall be summed using equation 16 in paragraph (h)(2)(iv)(B) of this section.
(2) Where the mass rate of total organic HAP is being calculated, only the organic HAP species shall be summed using equation 17 in paragraph (h)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. The list of organic HAP is provided in § 63.104 of subpart F of this part.
(C) Calculate the destruction or removal efficiency for TOC (minus methane and ethane) or total organic HAP using equation 18:
where:
R=destruction or removal efficiency of control device, percent.
Ei=mass rate of TOC (minus methane and ethane) or total organic HAP at the inlet to the control device as calculated under paragraph (h)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, kg TOC per hour or kg organic HAP per hour.
Eo=mass rate of TOC (minus methane and ethane) or total organic HAP at the outlet of the control device, as calculated under paragraph (h)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, kg TOC per hour or kg organic HAP per hour.
(3) Determine the capture efficiency Fk of each capture system to which organic HAP and VOC emissions from coating operations are vented. The capture efficiency value shall be determined using Procedure T—Criteria for and Verification of a Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure as found in appendix B to § 52.741 ofpart 52 of this chapter for total enclosures, and the capture efficiency protocol specified in § 52.741(a)(4)(iii) ofpart 52 of this chapter for all other enclosures.
(i)
(1) Alternative application method—primers and topcoats. Each owner or operator seeking to use an alternative application method (as allowed in § 63.745(f)(1)(ix)) in complying with the standards for primers and topcoats shall use the procedures specified in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) and (i)(2)(ii) or (i)(2)(iii) of this section to determine the organic HAP and VOC emission levels of the alternative application technique as compared to either HVLP or electrostatic spray application methods.
(2)
(i) For the process or processes for which the alternative application method is to be used, the total organic HAP and VOC emissions shall be determined for an initial 30-day period, the period of time required to apply coating to five completely assembled aircraft, or a time period approved by the permitting agency. During this initial period, only HVLP or electrostatic spray application methods shall be used. The emissions shall be determined based on the volumes, organic HAP contents (less water), and VOC contents (less water and exempt solvents) of the coatings as applied.
(ii) Upon implementation of the alternative application method, use the alternative application method in production on actual production parts or assemblies for a period of time sufficient to coat an equivalent amount of parts and assemblies with coatings identical to those used in the initial 30-day period. The actual organic HAP and VOC emissions shall be calculated for this post-implementation period.
(iii) Test the proposed application method against either HVLP or electrostatic spray application methods in a laboratory or pilot production area, using parts and coatings representative of the process(es) where the alternative method is to be used. The laboratory test will use the same part configuration(s) and the same number of parts for both the proposed method and the HVLP or electrostatic spray application methods.
(iv) Whenever the approach in either paragraph (i)(2)(ii) or (i)(2)(iii) of this section is used, the owner or operator shall calculate both the organic HAP and VOC emission reduction using equation:
where:
P=organic HAP or VOC emission reduction, percent.
Eb=organic HAP or VOC emissions, in pounds, before the alternative application technique was implemented, as determined under paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section.
Ea=organic HAP of VOC emissions, in pounds, after the alternative application technique was implemented, as determined under paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section.
(3) Each owner or operator seeking to demonstrate that an alternative application method achieves emission reductions equivalent to HVLP or electrostatic spray application methods shall comply with the following:
(i) Each coating shall be applied such that the dried film thickness is within the range specified by the applicable specification(s) for the aerospace vehicle or component being coated.
(ii) If no such dried film thickness specification(s) exists, the owner or operator shall ensure that the dried film thickness applied during the initial 30-day period is equivalent to the dried film thickness applied during the alternative application method test period for similar aerospace vehicles or components.
(iii) Failure to comply with these dried film thickness requirements shall invalidate the test results obtained under paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section.
(j) Spot stripping and decal removal. Each owner or operator seeking to comply with § 63.746(b)(3) shall determine the volume of organic HAP-containing chemical strippers or alternatively the weight of organic HAP used per aircraft using the procedure specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (j)(3) of this section.
(1) For each chemical stripper used for spot stripping and decal removal, determine for each annual period the total volume as applied or the total weight of organic HAP using the procedure specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
(2) Determine the total number of aircraft for which depainting operations began during the annual period as determined from company records.
(3) Calculate the annual average volume of organic HAP-containing chemical stripper or weight of organic HAP used for spot stripping and decal removal per aircraft using equation 20 (volume) or equation 21 (weight):
where:
C=annual average volume (gal per aircraft) of organic HAP-containing chemical stripper used for spot stripping and decal removal.
n=number of organic HAP-containing chemical strippers used in the annual period.
Vsi=volume (gal) of organic HAP-containing chemical stripper (i) used during the annual period.
A=number of aircraft for which depainting operations began during the annual period.
where:
C = annual average weight (lb per aircraft) of organic HAP (chemical stripper) used for spot stripping and decal removal.
m = number of organic HAP contained in each chemical stripper, as applied.
n = number of organic HAP-containing chemical strippers used in the annual period.
Whi = weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of each organic HAP (i) contained in the chemical stripper, as applied, for each aircraft depainted.
Dhi = density (lb/gal) of each organic HAP-containing chemical stripper (i), used in the annual period.
Vsi = volume (gal) of organic HAP-containing chemical stripper (i) used during the annual period.
A = number of aircraft for which depainting operations began during the annual period.
(k) Organic HAP content level determination—compliant chemical milling maskants. For those uncontrolled chemical milling maskants complying with the chemical milling maskant organic HAP content limit specified in § 63.747(c)(1) without being averaged, the following procedures shall be used to determine the mass of organic HAP emitted per unit volume of coating (chemical milling maskant) i as applied (less water), Hi (lb/gal).
(1) For coatings that contain no exempt solvents, determine the total organic HAP content using manufacturer's supplied data or Method 24 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to determine the VOC content. The VOC content shall be used as a surrogate for total HAP content for coatings that contain no exempt solvent. If there is a discrepancy between the manufacturer's formulation data and the results of the Method 24 analysis, compliance shall be based on the results from the Method 24 analysis.
When Method 24 is used to determine the VOC content of water-reducible coatings, the precision adjustment factors in Reference Method 24 shall be used. If the adjusted analytical VOC content is less than the formulation solvent content, then the analytical VOC content should be set equal to the formulation solvent content.
(2) [Reserved]
(l) Organic HAP content level determination—averaged chemical milling maskants. For those uncontrolled chemical milling maskants that are averaged together in order to comply with the chemical milling maskant organic HAP content level specified in § 63.747(c)(1), the procedure specified in paragraphs (l)(1) through (l)(4) of this section shall be used to determine the monthly volume-weighted average mass of organic HAP emitted per volume of chemical milling maskant (less water) as applied, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter averaging period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(1) Determine the total organic HAP weight fraction as applied of each chemical milling maskant used during each 30-day period using the procedure specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(2) Determine for each 30-day period:
(i) The individual volume of each chemical milling maskant applied in terms of total gallons (less water) (using the procedure specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section), and
(ii) The total volume in gallons of all chemical milling maskants (less water) as applied by summing the individual volumes of each chemical milling maskant as applied (less water).
(3) Determine the density of each chemical milling maskant as applied used during each 30-day period using the procedure specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.
(4) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of organic HAP emitted per unit volume (lb/gal) of chemical milling maskant (less water) as applied for all chemical milling maskants during each 30-day period using equation 22:
where:
Ha=volume-weighted mass of organic HAP emitted per unit volume of chemical milling maskants (lb/gal) (less water) as applied during each 30-day period for those chemical milling maskants being averaged.
n=number of chemical milling maskants being averaged.
WHi=weight fraction (expressed as a decimal) of organic HAP in chemical milling maskant i (less water) as applied during each 30-day period that is averaged.
Dmi=density (lb chemical milling maskant per gal coating) of chemical milling maskant i as applied during each 30-day period that is averaged.
Vmi=volume (gal) of chemical milling maskant i (less water) as applied during the 30-day period that is averaged.
Mlw=total volume (gal) of all chemical milling maskants (less water) as applied during each 30-day period that is averaged.
(m) VOC content level determination—compliant chemical milling maskants. For those uncontrolled chemical milling maskants complying with the chemical milling maskant VOC content limit specified in § 63.747(c)(2) without being averaged, the procedure specified in paragraphs (m)(1) and (m)(2) of this section shall be used to determine the mass of VOC emitted per volume of chemical milling maskant (less water and exempt solvents) as applied.
(1) Determine the mass of VOC emitted per unit volume of chemical milling maskant (lb/gal) (less water and exempt solvents) as applied, Gi, for each chemical milling maskant using the procedures specified in paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this section.
(2)
(i) If the VOC content is found to be different when EPA Method 24 is used during an enforcement inspection from that used by the owner or operator in calculating Gi, compliance shall be based, except as provided in paragraph (m)(2)(ii) of this section, upon the VOC content obtained using EPA Method 24.
(ii) If the VOC content of a chemical milling maskant obtained using EPA Method 24 would indicate noncompliance as determined under § 63.749(h)(3)(i), an owner or operator may elect to average the chemical milling maskant with other uncontrolled chemical milling maskants and (re)calculate Ga (using the procedure specified in paragraph (n) of this section), provided appropriate and sufficient records were maintained for all chemical milling maskants included in the average recalculation. The (re)calculated value of Ga for the averaged chemical milling maskants shall then be used to determine compliance.
(n) VOC content level determination—averaged chemical milling maskants. For those uncontrolled chemical milling maskants that are averaged together in order to comply with the chemical milling maskant VOC content limit specified in § 63.747(c)(2), the procedure specified in paragraphs (n)(1) through (n)(4) of this section shall be used to determine the monthly volume-weighted average mass of VOC emitted per volume of chemical milling maskant (less water and exempt solvents) as applied, unless the permitting agency specifies a shorter averaging period as part of an ambient ozone control program.
(1) Determine the VOC content of each chemical milling maskant (less water and exempt solvents) as applied used during each 30-day period using the procedure specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section.
(2)
(i) Determine the individual volume of each chemical milling maskant applied in terms of total gallons (less water and exempt solvents) using the procedure specified in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, and
(ii) Calculate the total volume in gallons of all chemical milling maskants (less water and exempt solvents) as applied by summing the individual volumes of each chemical milling maskant (less water and exempt solvents) as applied.
(3) Calculate the volume-weighted average mass of VOC emitted per unit volume (lb/gal) of chemical milling maskant (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during each 30-day period using equation 23:
where:
Ga=volume-weighted average mass of VOC per unit volume of chemical milling maskant (lb/gal) (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during each 30-day period for those chemical milling maskants that are averaged.
n=number of chemical milling maskants being averaged.
(VOC)mi=VOC content (lb/gal) of chemical milling maskant i (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during the 30-day period that is averaged.
Vmi=volume (gal) of chemical milling maskant i (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during the 30-day period that is averaged.
Mlwes=total volume (gal) of all chemical milling maskants (less water and exempt solvents) as applied during each 30-day period that is averaged.
(4)
(i) If the VOC content is found to be different when EPA Method 24 is used during an enforcement inspection from that used by the owner or operator in calculating Ga, recalculation of Ga is required using the new value. If more than one chemical milling maskant is involved, the recalculation shall be made once using all of the new values.
(ii) If recalculation is required, an owner or operator may elect to include in the recalculation of Ga uncontrolled chemical milling maskants that were not previously included provided appropriate and sufficient records were maintained for these other chemical milling maskants to allow daily recalculations.
(iii) The recalculated value of Ga under either paragraph (n)(4)(i) or (n)(4)(ii) of this section shall be used to determine compliance.
(o) Inorganic HAP emissions—dry particulate filter certification requirements. Dry particulate filters used to comply with § 63.745(g)(2) or § 63.746(b)(4) must be certified by the filter manufacturer or distributor, paint/depainting booth supplier, and/or the facility owner or operator using method 319 in appendix A of subpart A of this part, to meet or exceed the efficiency data points found in Tables 1 and 2, or 3 and 4 of § 63.745for existing or new sources respectively.
[60 FR 45956, Sept. 1, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 15021, Mar. 27, 1998; 63 FR 46534, Sept. 1, 1998; 65 FR 62215, Oct. 17, 2000]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-02-27; vol. 79 # 39 - Thursday, February 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 11228 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on February 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference materials listed in the rule are approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of February 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 51, 60, 61, and 63

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 63 after this date.

  • 2014-02-27; vol. 79 # 39 - Thursday, February 27, 2014
    1. 79 FR 11228 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on February 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference materials listed in the rule are approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of February 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 51, 60, 61, and 63