(a) Conditional exemption. In response to a petition submitted by the Governor of The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and pursuant to section 325(a) of the Clean Air Act (Act), the Administrator of the United States EPA (EPA) grants the following conditional exemptions:
(1) CNMI is exempted from the requirement to develop, submit for approval, and implement an operating permit program under title V of the Clean Air Act on the condition that CNMI meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section and subject to the provisions of paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section.
(2) Except for sources listed under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, owners or operators of sources located in CNMI subject to the operating permit requirements of title V of the Clean Air Act are exempt from the requirement to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit, on the condition that the owner or operator of each such source must apply for and obtain an operating permit under an EPA approved alternate program that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section and subject to the provisions of paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section. The owner or operator of each such source shall apply for and obtain a permit under the alternate operating permit program by the deadlines set forth in the approved program, but in any event shall obtain a permit no later than January 13, 2003. If the owner or operator of any source has not obtained an operating permit under an alternate operating program approved by EPA for CNMI by January 13, 2003, the exemption for such source shall expire and the owner or operator of such source shall become subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 71 on that date, consistent with paragraph (e)(3) of this section.
(3) Upon EPA approval of an alternate operating permit program adopted by CNMI in accordance with this § 69.32, a person shall not violate any permit condition or term in a permit that has been issued under such alternate permit program.
(4) This exemption does not apply to owners or operators of major sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as defined under section 112 of the Clean Air Act or to owners or operators of solid waste incinerators subject to the title V requirements of section 129(e) of the Act. Owners or operators of major sources of HAPs or solid waste incinerators shall be subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 71 and shall apply for and obtain a part 71 permit by the deadlines specified in 40 CFR part 71. Any owner or operator of a major source of HAPs subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart B, shall submit a timely part 71 permit application as required by 40 CFR part 71 and 40 CFR part 63, subpart B, requesting a case-by-case section 112(g) or 112(j) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) determination.
(b) Requirements for the alternate operating program. CNMI shall develop and submit an alternate operating permit program (the program) to EPA for approval. Upon approval by EPA, CNMI shall implement the program. The program, including the necessary statutory and regulatory authority, must be submitted by January 13, 1999 for approval. The submittal shall include the following elements:
(1) The program must contain regulations that ensure that:
(i) The permits shall include emission limits and standards, and other terms or conditions necessary to ensure compliance with all applicable federal requirements, as defined under 40 CFR 70.2.
(ii) The limitations, controls, and requirements in the permits shall be permanent, quantifiable, and otherwise enforceable as a practical matter.
(iii) Permits shall contain monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements sufficient to ensure compliance with applicable federal requirements during the reporting period.
(iv) The program shall require that the owner or operator of each source submit permit applications with compliance certifications describing the source's compliance status with all applicable requirements. The program shall also provide that each permit contain a requirement that the owner or operator of a source submit annual compliance certifications. The compliance certification shall contain a compliance plan, and shall contain a schedule for expeditiously achieving compliance if the source is not in compliance with all applicable requirements. The program must provide that approval of a permit with a compliance plan and schedule does not sanction noncompliance.
(v) If the program chooses to accept electronic documents it must satisfy the requirements of 40 CFR part 3 —(Electronic reporting).
(2) The program shall provide for the collection of fees from permitted sources or other revenues in an amount that will pay for the cost of operation of such a program and ensure that these funds are used solely to support the program.
(3) The program shall provide for public notice and a public comment period of at least 30 days for each permit, significant permit modification, and permit renewal, and shall include submittal to EPA of each permit, significant permit modification, and permit renewal.
(4) The program shall provide EPA at least 45 days from receipt of a permit, modification, or renewal for EPA review and objection prior to issuance. The program shall provide that if EPA objects to a permit sent to EPA for review, CNMI cannot issue such permit until the permit is revised in a manner that resolves EPA's objections. The program will provide that CNMI will have no more than 180 days to resolve EPA's objections and that if the objections are not resolved within that time period, EPA shall issue the permit under 40 CFR part 71.
(5) The program shall provide that all documents other than confidential business information will be made available to the public.
(6) The program shall provide CNMI with the authority to enforce permits, including the authority to assess civil and criminal penalties up to $10,000 per day per violation and to enjoin activities that are in violation of the permit, the program, or the Act without first revoking the permit.
(7) The program shall require that owners or operators of nonmajor sources of hazardous air pollutants that are required to obtain title V permits, and owners or operators of major sources of all other air pollutants as defined at 40 CFR 70.2 that are exempted from 40 CFR part 71 under paragraph (a) of this section, obtain an operating permit under the approved program. The program shall include a schedule for issuing permits to all subject sources within three years of EPA approval of the program.
(8) The program shall include a system of regular inspections of permitted sources, a system to identify any unpermitted major sources, and guidelines for appropriate responses to violations.
(9) The program shall provide for the issuance of permits with a fixed term that shall not exceed five years.
(10) The program shall allow CNMI or the EPA to reopen a permit for cause. The program shall provide that if EPA provides CNMI with written notice that a permit must be reopened for cause, CNMI shall issue a revised permit within 180 days (including public notice and comment) that sufficiently addresses EPA's concerns. The program shall provide that if CNMI fails to issue a permit that resolves EPA's concerns within 180 days, then EPA will terminate, modify, or revoke and reissue the permit under part 71 after providing the permittee and the public with notice and opportunity for comment.
(c) Ambient air quality program. CNMI shall implement the following program to protect attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) as a condition of the waiver:
(1) CNMI shall enforce its January 19, 1987 Air Pollution Control (APC) regulations, including the requirement that all new or modified sources comply with the NAAQS and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) increments.
(2) CNMI may conduct air emissions modeling, using EPA guidelines, for power plants located on Saipan to assess EPA's preliminary determination of non-compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). CNMI shall complete and submit any additional modeling to EPA by January 13, 1998 to determine whether existing power plants cause or contribute to violation of the NAAQS and PSD increments in the APC regulations and 40 CFR 52.21.
(3) If CNMI's additional modeling, based on EPA guidelines, predicts exceedances of the NAAQS for SO2, or if CNMI elects to accept EPA's preliminary determination that the NAAQS for SO2 have been exceeded, CNMI shall submit a revised SIP that ensures compliance with the NAAQS for SO2. CNMI shall submit the proposed revision to the SIP by January 13, 1998 or, if CNMI elects to conduct additional modeling, by January 13, 1999. CNMI shall take appropriate corrective actions through the SIP to demonstrate compliance with the NAAQS for SO2 by January 15, 2001.
(d) State Implementation Plan (SIP) submittal. In conjunction with the submittal of the alternative operating permit program, CNMI shall, no later than January 13, 1999 submit a revision to its SIP that provides that a person shall not violate a permit condition or term in an operating permit that has been issued under an EPA approved alternate operating permit program adopted by CNMI pursuant to the exemption authorized in this § 69.32.
(e) Expiration and revocation of the exemption. This exemption shall expire or may be revoked under the following circumstances:
(1) If CNMI fails to submit the required alternate operating permit program or any required SIP revision by January 13, 1999, the exemption shall automatically expire with no further rulemaking and 40 CFR part 71 shall become effective for all subject sources in CNMI on that date, consistent with paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(2) In the event that EPA disapproves CNMI's alternate operating permit program because the program does not meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, EPA will revoke the exemption by rulemaking.
(3) If, by January 13, 2003, the owner or operator of any subject source has not obtained a federally enforceable operating permit under an EPA approved program, the exemption shall automatically expire for such source and such source shall be subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 71. CNMI will work with EPA to identify such sources prior to expiration of the exemption under this paragraph (e).
(4) EPA shall revoke the exemption in its entirety through rulemaking if CNMI does not adequately administer and enforce an alternate operating permit program approved by EPA.
(5) EPA shall revoke the exemption by rulemaking with respect to the owner or operator of any source if, during the 45-day review period, EPA objects to issuance of a permit and CNMI fails to resolve EPA's objections within 180 days. EPA shall also revoke the exemption by rulemaking for the owner or operator of any source in the event that EPA reopens a permit for cause and CNMI does not issue a permit that resolves the concerns as set forth in EPA's notice to reopen within 180 days.
(6) EPA reserves its authority to revoke or modify this exemption in whole or in part.
(f) Scope of the exemption. This exemption applies solely to the requirement that an owner or operator obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and the requirement that CNMI implement a title V permit program. In addition, this exemption does not apply to owners or operators of sources set forth in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. Owners and operators of air pollutant sources are required to comply with all other applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act. For purposes of complying with any applicable requirement that is triggered or implemented by the approval of a title V permit program, the approval date for owners or operators to which this exemption applies shall be the date that EPA approves the alternate program for each territory or, for owners or operators of sources that are subject to 40 CFR part 71, the approval date shall be the effective date of 40 CFR part 71, which is July 31, 1996.