(a)Date for submittal. Not later than November 15, 1993, the Governor of each State shall submit to the Administrator for approval a proposed part 70 program, under State law or under an interstate compact, meeting the requirements of this part. If part 70 is subsequently revised such that the Administrator determines that it is necessary to require a change to an approved State program, the required revisions to the program shall be submitted within 12 months of the final changes to part 70 or within such other period as authorized by the Administrator.
(b)Elements of the initial program submission. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this part shall submit to the Administrator a letter of submittal from the Governor or his designee requesting EPA approval of the program and at least three copies of a program submission. The submission shall contain the following:
(1) A complete program description describing how the State intends to carry out its responsibilities under this part.
(2) The regulations that comprise the permitting program, reasonably available evidence of their procedurally correct adoption, (including any notice of public comment and any significant comments received on the proposed part 70 program as requested by the Administrator), and copies of all applicable State or local statutes and regulations including those governing State administrative procedures that either authorize the part 70 program or restrict its implementation. The State shall include with the regulations any criteria used to determine insignificant activities or emission levels for purposes of determining complete applications consistent with § 70.5(c) of this part.
(3) A legal opinion from the Attorney General for the State, or the attorney for those State, local, or interstate air pollution control agencies that have independent legal counsel, stating that the laws of the State, locality, or interstate compact provide adequate authority to carry out all aspects of the program. This statement shall include citations to the specific states, administrative regulations, and, where appropriate, judicial decisions that demonstrate adequate authority. State statutes and regulations cited by the State Attorney General or independent legal counsel shall be in the form of lawfully adopted State states and regulations at the time the statement is signed and shall be fully effective by the time the program is approved. To qualify as “independent legal counsel,” the attorney signing the statement required by this section shall have full authority to independently represent the State agency in court on all matters pertaining to the State program. The legal opinion shall also include a demonstration of adequate legal authority to carry out the requirements of this part, including authority to carry out each of the following:
(i) Issue permits and assure compliance with each applicable requirement and requirement of this part by all part 70 sources.
(ii) Incorporate monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting, and compliance certification requirements into part 70 permits consistent with § 70.6.
(iii) Issue permits for a fixed term of 5 years in the case of permits with acid rain provisions and issue all other permits for a period not to exceed 5 years, except for permits issued for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 129(e) of the Act.
(iv) Issue permits for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste subject to standards under section 129(e) of the Act for a period not to exceed 12 years and review such permits at least every 5 years. No permit for a solid waste incineration unit may be issued by an agency, instrumentality or person that is also responsible, in whole or in part, for the design and construction or operation of the unit.
(v) Incorporate into permits all applicable requirements and requirements of this part.
(vi) Terminate, modify, or revoke and reissue permits for cause.
(vii) Enforce permits, permit fee requirements, and the requirement to obtain a permit, as specified in § 70.11.
(viii) Make available to the public any permit application, compliance plan, permit, and monitoring and compliance, certification report pursuant to section 503(e) of the Act, except for information entitled to confidential treatment pursuant to section 114(c) of the Act. The contents of a part 70 permit shall not be entitled to protection under section 115(c) of the Act.
(ix) Not issue a permit if the Administrator timely objects to its issuance pursuant to § 70.8(c) of this part or, if the permit has not already been issued, to § 70.8(d) of this part.
(x) Provide an opportunity for judicial review in State court of the final permit action by the applicant, any person who participated in the public participation process provided pursuant to § 70.7(h) of this part, and any other person who could obtain judicial review of such actions under State laws.
(xi) Provide that, solely for the purposes of obtaining judicial review in State court for failure to take final action, final permit action shall include the failure of the permitting authority to take final action on an application for a permit, permit renewal, or permit revision within the time specified in the State program. If the State program allows sources to make changes subject to post hoc review [as set forth in §§ 70.7(e)(2) and (3) of this part], the permitting authority's failure to take final action within 90 days of receipt of an application requesting minor permit modification procedures (or 180 days for modifications subject to group processing requirements) must be subject to judicial review in State court.
(xii) Provide that the opportunity for judicial review described in paragraph (b)(3)(x) of this section shall be the exclusive means for obtaining judicial review of the terms and conditions of permits, and require that such petitions for judicial review must be filed no later than 90 days after the final permit action, or such shorter time as the State shall designate. Notwithstanding the preceding requirement, petitions for judicial review of final permit actions can be filed after the deadline designated by the State, only if they are based solely on grounds arising after the deadline for judicial review. Such petitions shall be filed no later than 90 days after the new grounds for review arise or such shorter time as the State shall designate. If the final permit action being challenged is the permitting authority's failure to take final action, a petition for judicial review may be filed any time before the permitting authority denies the permit or issues the final permit.
(xiii) Ensure that the authority of the State/local permitting Agency is not used to modify the acid rain program requirements.
(4) Relevant permitting program documentation not contained in the State regulations, including the following:
(i) Copies of the permit form(s), application form(s), and reporting form(s) the State intends to employ in its program; and
(ii) Relevant guidance issued by the State to assist in the implementation of its permitting program, including criteria for monitoring source compliance (e.g., inspection strategies).
(5) A complete description of the State's compliance tracking and enforcement program or reference to any agreement the State has with EPA that provides this information.
(6) A showing of adequate authority and procedures to determine within 60 days of receipt whether applications (including renewal applications) are complete, to request such other information as needed to process the application, and to take final action on complete applications within 18 months of the date of their submittal, except for initial permit applications, for which the permitting authority may take up to 3 years from the effective date of the program to take final action on the application, as provided for in the transition plan.
(7) A demonstration, consistent with § 70.9, that the permit fees required by the State program are sufficient to cover permit program costs.
(8) A statement that adequate personnel and funding have been made available to develop, administer, and enforce the program. This statement shall include the following:
(i) A description in narrative form of the scope, structure, coverage, and processes of the State program.
(ii) A description of the organization and structure of the agency or agencies that will have responsibility for administering the program, including the information specified in this paragraph. If more than one agency is responsible for administration of a program, the responsibilities of each agency must be delineated, their procedures for coordination must be set forth, and an agency shall be designated as a “lead agency” to facilitate communications between EPA and the other agencies having program responsibility.
(iii) A description of the agency staff who will carry out the State program, including the number, occupation, and general duties of the employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State program.
(iv) A description of applicable State procedures, including permitting procedures and any State administrative or judicial review procedures.
(v) An estimate of the permit program costs for the first 4 years after approval, and a description of how the State plans to cover those costs.
(9) A commitment from the State to submit, at least annually to the Administrator, information regarding the State's enforcement activities including, but not limited to, the number of criminal and civil, judicial and administrative enforcement actions either commenced or concluded; the penalties, fines, and sentences obtained in those actions; and the number of administrative orders issued.
(10) A requirement under State law that, if a timely and complete application for a permit renewal is submitted, consistent with § 70.5(a)(2), but the State has failed to issue or deny the renewal permit before the end of the term of the previous permit, then:
(i) The permit shall not expire until the renewal permit has been issued or denied and any permit shield that may be granted pursuant to § 70.6(f) may extend beyond the original permit term until renewal; or
(ii) All the terms and conditions of the permit including any permit shield that may be granted pursuant to § 70.6(f) shall remain in effect until the renewal permit has been issued or denied.
(11) A transition plan providing a schedule for submittal and final action on initial permit applications for all part 70 sources. This plan shall provide that:
(i) Submittal of permit applications by all part 70 sources (including any sources subject to a partial or interim program) shall occur within 1 year after the effective date of the permit program;
(ii) Final action shall be taken on at least one-third of such applications annually over a period not to exceed 3 years after such effective date;
(iii) Any complete permit application containing an early reduction demonstration under section 112(i)(5) of the Act shall be acted on within 9 months of receipt of the complete application; and
(iv) Submittal of permit applications and the permitting of affected sources shall occur in accordance with the deadlines in title IV of the Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
(12) Provisions consistent with paragraphs (b)(12)(i) through (iii) of this section to allow changes within a permitted facility without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in the terms of total emissions): Provided, That the facility provides the Administrator and the permitting authority with written notification as required below in advance of the proposed changes, which shall be a minimum of 7 days, unless the permitting authority provides in its regulations a different time frame for emergencies. The source, permitting authority, and EPA shall attach each such notice to their copy of the relevant permit. The following provisions implement this requirement of an approvable part 70 permit program:
(i) The program shall allow permitted sources to make section 502(b)(10) changes without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the Act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit (whether expressed therein as a rate of emissions or in terms of total emissions).
(A) For each such change, the written notification required above shall include a brief description of the change within the permitted facility, the date on which the change will occur, any change in emissions, and any permit term or condition that is no longer applicable as a result of the change.
(B) The permit shield described in § 70.6(f) of this part shall not apply to any change made pursuant to this paragraph (b)(12)(i) of this section.
(ii) The program may provide for permitted sources to trade increases and decreases in emissions in the permitted facility, where the applicable implementation plan provides for such emissions trades without requiring a permit revision and based on the 7-day notice prescribed in this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section. This provision is available in those cases where the permit does not already provide for such emissions trading.
(A) Under this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section, the written notification required above shall include such information as may be required by the provision in the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade, including at a minimum, when the proposed change will occur, a description of each such change, any change in emissions, the permit requirements with which the source will comply using the emissions trading provisions of the applicable implementation plan, and the pollutants emitted subject to the emissions trade. The notice shall also refer to the provisions with which the source will comply in the applicable implementation plan and that provide for the emissions trade.
(B) The permit shield described in § 70.6(f) of this part shall not extend to any change made under this paragraph (b)(12)(ii) of this section. Compliance with the permit requirements that the source will meet using the emissions trade shall be determined according to requirements of the applicable implementation plan authorizing the emissions trade.
(iii) The program shall require the permitting authority, if a permit applicant requests it, to issue permits that contain terms and conditions, including all terms required under § 70.6 (a) and (c) of this part to determine compliance, allowing for the trading of emissions increases and decreases in the permitted facility solely for the purpose of complying with a federally-enforceable emissions cap that is established in the permit independent of otherwise applicable requirements. The permit applicant shall include in its application proposed replicable procedures and permit terms that ensure the emissions trades are quantifiable and enforceable. The permitting authority shall not be required to include in the emissions trading provisions any emissions units for which emissions are not quantifiable or for which there are no replicable procedures to enforce the emissions trades. The permit shall also require compliance with all applicable requirements.
(A) Under this paragraph (b)(12)(iii) of this section, the written notification required above shall state when the change will occur and shall describe the changes in emissions that will result and how these increases and decreases in emissions will comply with the terms and conditions of the permit.
(B) The permit shield described in § 70.6(f) of this part may extend to terms and conditions that allow such increases and decreases in emissions.
(13) Provisions for adequate, streamlined, and reasonable procedures for expeditious review of permit revisions or modifications. The program may meet this requirement by using procedures that meet the requirements of § 70.7(e) or that are substantially equivalent to those provided in § 70.7(e) of this part.
(14) If a State allows changes that are not addressed or prohibited by the permit, other than those described in paragraph (b)(15) of this section, to be made without a permit revision, provisions meeting the requirements of paragraphs (b)(14) (i) through (iii) of this section. Although a State may, as a matter of State law, prohibit sources from making such changes without a permit revision, any such prohibition shall not be enforceable by the Administrator or by citizens under the Act unless the prohibition is required by an applicable requirement. Any State procedures implementing such a State law prohibition must include the requirements of paragraphs (b)(14) (i) through (iii) of this section.
(i) Each such change shall meet all applicable requirements and shall not violate any existing permit term or condition.
(ii) Sources must provide contemporaneous written notice to the permitting authority and EPA of each such change, except for changes that qualify as insignificant under the provisions adopted pursuant to § 70.5(c) of this part. Such written notice shall describe each such change, including the date, any change in emissions, pollutants emitted, and any applicable requirement that would apply as a result of the change.
(iii) The change shall not qualify for the shield under § 70.6(f) of this part.
(iv) The permittee shall keep a record describing changes made at the source that result in emissions of a regulated air pollutant subject to an applicable requirement, but not otherwise regulated under the permit, and the emissions resulting from those changes.
(15) Provisions prohibiting sources from making, without a permit revision, changes that are not addressed or prohibited by the part 70 permit, if such changes are subject to any requirements under title IV of the Act or are modifications under any provision of title I of the Act.
(16) Provisions requiring the permitting authority to implement the requirements of §§ 70.6 and 70.7 of this part.
(1) The EPA may approve a partial program that applies to all part 70 sources within a limited geographic area (e.g., a local agency program covering all sources within the agency's jurisdiction). To be approvable, any partial program must, at a minimum, ensure compliance with all of the following applicable requirements, as they apply to the sources covered by the partial program:
(i) All requirements of title V of the Act and of part 70;
(ii) All applicable requirements of title IV of the Act and regulations promulgated thereunder which apply to affected sources; and
(iii) All applicable requirements of title I of the Act, including those established under sections 111 and 112 of the Act.
(2) Any partial permitting program, such as that of a local air pollution control agency, providing for the issuance of permits by a permitting authority other than the State, shall be consistent with all the elements required in paragraphs (b) (1) through (16) of this section.
(3) Approval of any partial program does not relieve the State from its obligation to submit a whole program or from application of any sanctions for failure to submit a fully-approvable whole program.
(4) Any partial program may obtain interim approval under paragraph (d) of this section if it substantially meets the requirements of this paragraph (c) of this section.
(1) If a program (including a partial permit program) submitted under this part substantially meets the requirements of this part, but is not fully approvable, the Administrator may be rule grant the program interim approval.
(2) Interim approval shall expire on a date set by the Administrator (but not later than 2 years after such approval), and may not be renewed. Sources shall become subject to the program according to the schedule approved in the State program. Permits granted under an interim approval shall expire at the end of their fixed term, unless renewed under a part 70 program.
(3) The EPA may grant interim approval to any program if it meets each of the following minimum requirements and otherwise substantially meets the requirements of this part:
(i)Adequate fees. The program must provide for collecting permit fees adequate for it to meet the requirements of § 70.9 of this part.
(A) The program must provide for adequate authority to issue permits that assure compliance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section for those major sources covered by the program.
(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, where a State or local permitting authority lacks adequate authority to issue or revise permits that assure compliance with applicable requirements established exclusively through an EPA-approved minor NSR program, EPA may grant interim approval to the program upon a showing by the permitting authority of compelling reasons which support the interim approval.
(C) Any part 70 permit issued during an interim approval granted under paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section that does not incorporate minor NSR requirements shall:
(1) Note this fact in the permit;
(2) Indicate how citizens may obtain access to excluded minor NSR permits;
(3) Provide a cross reference, such as a listing of the permit number, for each minor NSR permit containing an excluded minor NSR term; and
(4) State that the minor NSR requirements which are excluded are not eligible for the permit shield under § 70.6(f).
(D) A program receiving interim approval for the reason specified in (d)(3)(ii)(B) of this section must, upon or before granting of full approval, institute proceedings to reopen part 70 permits to incorporate excluded minor NSR permits as terms of the part 70 permits, as required by § 70.7(f)(1)(iv). Such reopening need not follow full permit issuance procedures nor the notice requirement of § 70.7(f)(3), but may instead follow the permit revision procedure in effect under the State's approved part 70 program for incorporation of minor NSR permits.
(iii)Fixed term. The program must provide for fixed permit terms, consistent with paragraphs (b)(3) (iii) and (iv) of this section.
(iv)Public participation. The program must provide for adequate public notice of and an opportunity for public comment and a hearing on draft permits and revisions, except for modifications qualifying for minor permit modification procedures under § 70.7(e) of this part.
(v)EPA and affected State review. The program must allow EPA an opportunity to review each proposed permit, including permit revisions, and to object to its issuance consistent with § 70.8(c) of this part. The program must provide for affected State review consistent with § 70.8(b) of this part.
(vi)Permit issuance. The program must provide that the proposed permit will not be issued if EPA objects to its issuance.
(vii)Enforcement. The program must contain authority to enforce permits, including the authority to assess penalties against sources that do not comply with their permits or with the requirement to obtain a permit.
(viii)Operational flexibility. The program must allow changes within a permitted facility without requiring a permit revision, if the changes are not modifications under any provision of title I of the act and the changes do not exceed the emissions allowable under the permit, consistent with paragraph (b)(12) of this section.
(ix)Streamlined procedures. The program must provide for streamlined procedures for issuing and revising permits and determining expeditiously after receipt of a permit application or application for a permit revision whether such application is complete.
(x)Permit application. The program submittal must include copies of the permit application and reporting form(s) that the State will use in implementing the interim program.
(xi)Approval of AOSs. The program submittal must include provisions to insure that AOSs requested by the source as approved by the permitting authority are included in the part 70 permit pursuant to § 70.6(a)(9).
(e)EPA review of permit program submittals. Within 1 year after receiving a program submittal, the Administrator shall approve or disapprove the program, in whole or in part, by publishing a notice in the Federal Register. Prior to such notice, the Administrator shall provide an opportunity for public comment on such approval or disapproval. Any EPA action disapproving a program, in whole or in part, shall include a statement of the revisions or modifications necessary to obtain full approval. The Administrator shall approve State programs that conform to the requirements of this part.
(1) Within 60 days of receipt by EPA of a State program submission, EPA will notify the State whether its submission is complete enough to warrant review by EPA for either full, partial, or interim approval. If EPA finds that a State's submission is complete, the 1-year review period (i.e., the period of time allotted for formal EPA review of a proposed State program) shall be deemed to have begun on the date of receipt of the State's submission. If EPA finds that a State's submission is incomplete, the 1-year review period shall not begin until all the necessary information is received by EPA.
(2) If the State's submission is materially changed during the 1-year review period, the Administrator may extend the review period for no more than 1 year following receipt of the revised submission.
(3) In any notice granting interim or partial approval, the Administrator shall specify the changes or additions that must be made before the program can receive full approval and the conditions for implementation of the program until that time.
(f)State response to EPA review of program—
(1)Disapproval. The State shall submit to EPA program revisions or modifications required by the Administrator's action disapproving the program, or any part thereof, within 180 days of receiving notification of the disapproval.
(2)Interim approval. The State shall submit to EPA changes to the program addressing the deficiencies specified in the interim approval no later than 6 months prior to the expiration of the interim approval.
(g)Effective date. The effective date of a part 70 program, including any partial or interim program approved under this part, shall be the effective date of approval by the Administrator.
(h)Individual permit transition. Upon approval of a State program, the Administrator shall suspend the issuance of Federal permits for those activities subject to the approved State program, except that the Administrator will continue to issue phase I acid rain permits. After program approval, EPA shall retain jurisdiction over any permit (including any general permit) that it has issued unless arrangements have been made with the State to assume responsibility for these permits. Where EPA retains jurisdiction, it will continue to process permit appeals and modification requests, to conduct inspections, and to receive and review monitoring reports. If any permit appeal or modification request is not finally resolved when the federally-issued permit expires, EPA may, with the consent of the State, retain jurisdiction until the matter is resolved. Upon request by a State, the Administrator may delegate authority to implement all or part of a permit issued by EPA, if a part 70 program has been approved for the State. The delegation may include authorization for the State to collect appropriate fees, consistent with § 70.9 of this part.
(i)Program revisions. Either EPA or a State with an approved program may initiate a program revision. Program revision may be necessary when the relevant Federal or State statutes or regulations are modified or supplemented. The State shall keep EPA apprised of any proposed modifications to its basic statutory or regulatory authority or procedures.
(1) If the Administrator determines pursuant to § 70.10 of this part that a State is not adequately administering the requirements of this part, or that the State's permit program is inadequate in any other way, the State shall revise the program or its means of implementation to correct the inadequacy. The program shall be revised within 180 days, or such other period as the Administrator may specify, following notification by the Administrator, or within 2 years if the State demonstrates that additional legal authority is necessary to make the program revision.
(2) Revision of a State program shall be accomplished as follows:
(i) The State shall submit a modified program description, Attorney General's statement, or such other documents as EPA determines to be necessary.
(ii) After EPA receives a proposed program revision, it will publish in the Federal Register a public notice summarizing the proposed change and provide a public comment period of at least 30 days.
(iii) The Administrator shall approve or disapprove program revisions based on the requirements of this part and of the Act.
(iv) A program revision shall become effective upon the approval of the Administrator. Notice of approval of any substantial revision shall be published in the Federal Register. Notice of approval of nonsubstantial program revisions may be given by a letter from the Administrator to the Governor or a designee.
(v) The Governor of any State with an approved part 70 program shall notify EPA whenever the Governor proposes to transfer all or part of the program to any other agency, and shall identify any new division of responsibilities among the agencies involved. The new agency is not authorized to administer the program until the revision has been approved by the Administrator under this paragraph.
(3) Whenever the Administrator has reason to believe that circumstances have changed with respect to a State program, he may request, and the State shall provide, a supplemental Attorney General's statement, program description, or such other documents or information as he determines are necessary.
(j)Sharing of information.
(1) Any information obtained or used in the administration of a State program shall be available to EPA upon request without restriction and in a form specified by the Administrator, including computer-readable files to the extent practicable. If the information has been submitted to the State under a claim of confidentiality, the State may require the source to submit this information to the Administrator directly. Where the State submits information to the Administrator under a claim of confidentiality, the State shall submit that claim to EPA when providing information to EPA under this section. Any information obtained from a State or part 70 source accompanied by a claim of confidentiality will be treated in accordance with the regulations in part 2 of this chapter.
(2) The EPA will furnish to States with approved programs the information in its files that the State needs to implement its approved program. Any such information submitted to EPA under a claim of confidentiality will be subject to the regulations in part 2 of this chapter.
(k)Administration and enforcement. Any State that fails to adopt a complete, approvable part 70 program, or that EPA determines is not adequately administering or enforcing such program shall be subject to certain Federal sanctions as set forth in § 70.10 of this part.