(b) The phrase emission-related defect shall mean:
(1) A defect in design, materials, or workmanship in a device, system, or assembly described in the approved Application for Certification (required by 40 CFR 86.1843-01 and 86.1844-01, and by 40 CFR 86.001-22 and similar provisions of 40 CFR part 86) which affects any parameter or specification enumerated in appendix VIII of this part; or
(2) A defect in the design, materials, or workmanship in one or more emissions control or emission-related parts, components, systems, software or elements of design which must function properly to ensure continued compliance with greenhouse gas emission standards.
(c) The phrase useful life shall be given the meaning ascribed to it by section 202(d) of the Act and regulations promulgated thereunder.
(d) The phrase Voluntary Emissions Recall shall mean a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which direct notification of vehicle or engine owners has been provided, including programs to remedy defects related to emissions standards for CO2, CH4, N2O, and/or carbon-related exhaust emissions.
(e) The phrase ultimate purchaser shall be given the meaning ascribed to it by section 214 of the Act.
(f) The term manufacturer shall be given the meaning ascribed to it by section 214 of the Act.