EPA shall set a separate upper limit for each phase of NCPs and for each service class.
(a) The provisions of this section specify a default approach for determining the upper limit values.
(1) The default upper limit applicable to a pollutant emission standard for a subclass of heavy-duty engines or heavy-duty vehicles for which an NCP is established in accordance with § 86.1103-87, shall be the previous pollutant emission standard for that subclass.
(2) If a manufacturer participates in any of the emissions averaging, trading, or banking programs, and carries over certification of an engine family from the prior model year, the upper limit for that engine family shall be the family emission limit of the prior model year, unless the family emission limit is less than the upper limit determined in paragraph (a) of this section.
(b) If no previous standard existed for the pollutant under paragraph (a) of this section, the upper limit will be developed by EPA during rulemaking.
(c) EPA may set the upper limit during rulemaking at a level below the default level specified in paragraph (a) of this section if we determine that a lower level is achievable by all engines.