40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

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§ 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.
(a)
(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this paragraph is designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS concept of measuring mass emissions, two conditions must be satisfied; the total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must be collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period.
(2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct connected to the dilution tunnel (for the purposes of this paragraph, the exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized. This may be accomplished by:
(i) Using a duct of unrestricted length maintained at a temperature below 599 °F (315 °C). (Cooling capabilities as required); or
(ii) Using a smooth wall duct less than five feet long with no required heating (a maximum of two short flexible connectors are allowed under this option); or
(iii) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function at the engine exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or
(iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the dilution tunnel, which lowers the duct temperature below 599 °F (315 °C).
(3) Positive displacement pump. The Positive Displacement Pump Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS), Figure N90-1 satisfies the first condition by metering at a constant temperature and pressure through the pump. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional samples for the bag sample, the methanol sample (Figure N90-2), and the formaldehyde sample (Figure N90-3), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the sample lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation. (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol.)
(4) Critical flow venturi. The operation of the Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS), Figure N90-4 is based upon the principles of fluid dynamics associated with critical flow. The CFV system is commonly called a constant volume system (CVS) even though the flow varies. It would be more proper to call the critical flow venturi (CFV) system a constant proportion sampling system since proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions is maintained by use of a small CFVs in the sample lines. For engines requiring measurement of methanol and/or formaldehyde, one line supplies sample for the bag sample, another line supplies sample for the methanol sample, and a third line supplies sample for the formaldehyde sample. The lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation with care being taken to ensure that the CFVs of the sample probes are not heated. (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at choked flow, which is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, and is computed continuously. Since the pressure and temperature are the same at all venturi inlets, the sample volume is proportional to the total volume.)
(5) Electronic Flow Control. The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume Sampler (EFC-CFV-CVS) is identical to the CFV-CVS system, except that it uses electronic mass flow meters to maintain proportional sampling for methanol and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically. Proportionality is maintained by electronically controlled metering valves in the methanol and formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is based on the electronic response of the flow meters. It is recommended that total flow sample volumes be measured by separate flow meters. For methanol-fueled engines, one line supplies sample for the bag sample, another line supplies sample for the methanol sample, and a third line supplies sample for the formaldehyde sample. The sample lines for methanol and for formaldehyde may both draw samples from a single static probe. The lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation.
(6) Other systems. Other sampling and/or analytical systems including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown to yield equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator.
(7) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.
(b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure N90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, heat exchanger, positive displacement pump, sampling systems (see Figure N90-2 for methanol sampling system and Figure N90-3 for formaldehyde sampling system) including sampling lines which are heated to prevent condensation in the case of the methanol-fueled engine, and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of the mixture and less than 250 °F (121 °C). (It is recommended the they be maintained at 235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C)). Heating of the sample lines may be omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Exhaust system backpressure must not be artificially lowered by the CVS or dilution air inlet system. Measurements to verify this should be made in the raw exhaust immediately upstream of the inlet to the CVS. (For diesel engines, this measurement should be made immediately upstream of the backpressure set device.) This verification requires the continuous measurement and comparison of raw exhaust static pressure observed during a transient cycle, both with and without the operating CVS. Static pressure measured with the operating CVS system shall remain within ±5 inches of water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure measured without connection to the CVS, at identical moments in the test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0.25 kPa) will be used by the Administrator if a written request substantiates the need for this closer tolerance.) This requirement is essentially a design specification for the CVS/dilution air inlet system, and should be performed as often as good engineering practice dictates (e.g., after installation of an uncharacterized CVS, addition of an unknown inlet restriction on the dilution air, etc.).
(2) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the positive displacement pump and after the heat exchanger, shall be maintained within ±10 °F (±5.6 °C) of the average operating temperature observed during the test. (The average operating temperature may be estimated from the average operating temperature from similar tests.) The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3.4 °F (1.9 °C).
(3) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3 mm Hg (0.4 kPa).
(4) The flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to eliminate water condensation in the system. This is especially critical for methanol-fueled engines and may also be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009. Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided:
(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 250 °F, or 125 °F if particulate emissions are measured;
(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.);
(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.
(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (where applicable).
(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the PDP. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:
(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) during the first phase of the test, the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.
(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 0.2 g/Bhp-hr for a 1.1 g/Bhp-hr THCE standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, during the first phase of the test, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.
(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. Sampling systems shall be identical for all phases.
(c) Component description, CFV. The CFV sample system, Figure N90-4, consists of a dilution air filter (optional) and mixing assembly, cyclone particulate separator (optional), unheated sampling venturies for the bag, methanol and formaldehyde samples, as applicable, heated sample lines to prevent condensation in the case of the methanol-fueled engine, critical flow venturi, and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of the mixture and less than 250 °F (121 °C). (It is recommended the they be maintained at 235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C)). Heating of the sample lines may be omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines. The CFV sample system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Static pressure variations in the raw exhaust shall conform to the specifications detailed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(2) The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3.4 °F (±1.9 °C). The temperature measuring system used in a CVS without a heat exchanger shall have a response time of 1.50 seconds to 62.5 percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil). There is no response time requirement for a CVS equipped with a heat exchanger.
(3) The pressure measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3 mm Hg (0.4 kPa).
(4) The flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to eliminate water condensation in the system. This is especially critical for methanol-fueled engines and may also be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009. Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided:
(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 250 °F, or 125 °F if particulate emissions are measured.
(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.)
(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.
(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (where applicable).
(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the CFV. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:
(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) during the first phase of the test, the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.
(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 0.2 g/Bhp-hr for a 1.1 g/Bhp-hr THCE standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, during the first phase of the test, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.
(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. Sampling systems shall be identical for all phases of the test.
(d) Component description, EFC-CFV. The EFC-CFV sample system, is identical to the CFV system described in paragraph (c) of this section, with the addition of electronic flow controllers, metering valves, separate flow meters to totalize sample flow volumes (optional), for methanol and formaldehyde samples. Both samples may be drawn from a single static probe. The EFC sample system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) All of the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
(2) The ratio of sample flow to CVS flow must not vary by more ±5 percent from the setpoint of the test.
(3) The sample flow totalizers shall meet the accuracy specifications of § 86.1320. Total sample flow volumes may be obtained from the flow controllers, with advance approval of the Administrator, provided that they can be shown to meet the accuracy specifications of § 86.1320.
[54 FR 14572, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34364, June 30, 1995; 66 FR 5169, Jan. 18, 2001]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-04-28; vol. 79 # 81 - Monday, April 28, 2014
    1. 79 FR 23414 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on June 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 86 after this date.

  • 2014-04-28; vol. 79 # 81 - Monday, April 28, 2014
    1. 79 FR 23414 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on June 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066