40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

§ 86.132-96 Vehicle preconditioning.
(a) Fuel tank cap(s) of gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles shall be removed during any period that the vehicle is parked outdoors awaiting testing, to prevent unusual loading of the canisters. During this time care must be taken to prevent entry of water or other contaminants into the fuel tank. During storage in the test area while awaiting testing, the fuel tank cap(s) may be in place. The vehicle shall be moved into the test area and the following operations performed.
(b)
(1) Gasoline- and Methanol-Fueled Vehicles. Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with test fuel, as specified in § 86.113, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in § 86.082-2. The fuel cap(s) shall be installed within one minute after refueling.
(2) Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles. Vehicle fuel tanks to be filled with fuel that meets the specifications in § 86.113. Fuel tanks shall be filled to a minimum of 75% of service pressure for natural gas-fueled vehicles or a minimum of 75% of available fill volume for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Prior draining of the fuel tanks is not called for if the fuel in the tanks already meets the specifications in § 86.113.
(c)
(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles shall be soaked for at least 6 hours after being refueled. Petroleum-fueled diesel vehicles and gaseous-fueled vehicles shall be soaked for at least 1 hour after being refueled. Following this soak period, the test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and operated through one Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), specified in § 86.115 and appendix I of this part.
(2) Once a test vehicle has completed the refueling and vehicle soak steps specified in paragraphs (b) and (c)(1) of this section, these steps may be omitted in subsequent testing with the same vehicle and the same fuel specifications, provided the vehicle remains under laboratory ambient temperature conditions for at least 6 hours before starting the next test. In such cases, each subsequent test shall begin with the preconditioning drive specified in this paragraph. The test vehicle may not be used to set dynamometer horsepower.
(d) For unusual circumstances where the need for additional preconditioning is demonstrated by the manufacturer, such preconditioning may be allowed with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(e) The Administrator may also choose to conduct or require to be conducted additional preconditioning to ensure that the evaporative emission control system is stabilized in the case of gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled vehicles, or to ensure that the exhaust system is stabilized in the case of petroleum- and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The preconditioning shall consist of one of the following:
(1) For gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles.
(i) Additional preconditioning shall consist of no more than 50 miles of mileage accumulation under typical driving conditions, either on the road or on a dynamometer.
(ii) In the case of repeat testing on a flexible-fueled vehicle, in which the test fuel is changed, the following preconditioning procedure shall be used. This additional preconditioning allows the vehicle to adapt to the new fuel before the next test run.
(A) Purge the vehicle's evaporative canister for 60 minutes at 0.8 cfm.
(B) Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with 3 gallons of the test fuel.
(C) Start the vehicle and allow it to idle for 1 minute.
(D) Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with the new test fuel to the “tank fuel volume” defined in § 86.082-2. The average temperature of the dispensed fuel shall be less than 60 °F.
(E) Conduct a heat build according to the procedure specified in § 86.133-90.
(F) The vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and operated through one UDDS, specified in § 86.115 and appendix I of this part.
(G) Following the dynamometer drive, the vehicle shall be turned off for 5 minutes, then restarted and allowed to idle for 1 minute. The vehicle shall then be turned off for 1 minute, and allowed to idle again for 1 minute.
(H) After the vehicle is turned off the last time, it may be tested for evaporative and exhaust emissions, starting with paragraph (a) of this section.
(2) For petroleum-fueled diesel, methanol-fueled diesel, and gaseous-fueled vehicles. The preconditioning shall consist of either of the following:
(i) An initial one hour minimum soak and, one, two, or three driving cycles of the UDDS, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, each followed by a soak of at least one hour with engine off, engine compartment cover closed and cooling fan off. The vehicle may be driven off the dynamometer following each UDDS for the soak period; or
(ii) For abnormally treated vehicles, as defined in § 86.085-2 or § 86.1803-01 as applicable, two Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedules, found in 40 CFR part 600, appendix I, run in immediate succession, with the road load power set at twice the value obtained from § 86.129-80.
(f)
(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles. After completion of the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be driven off the dynamometer. The vehicle's fuel tank(s) shall be drained and then filled with test fuel, as specified in § 86.113, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in § 86.082-2. The vehicle shall be refueled within 1 hour after completion of the preconditioning drive. The fuel cap(s) shall be installed within 1 minute after refueling. The vehicle shall be parked within five minutes after refueling.
(2) Petroleum-fueled diesel vehicles. Within five minutes after completion after the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be driven off the dynamometer and parked.
(3) Gaseous-fueled vehicles. After completion of the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be driven off the dynamometer. Vehicle fuel tanks shall be refilled with fuel that meets the specifications in § 86.113. Fuel tanks shall be filled to a minimum of 75% of service pressure for natural gas-fueled vehicles or a minimum of 75% of available fill volume for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Prior draining of the fuel tanks is not called for if the fuel in the tanks already meets the specifications in § 86.113. The vehicle shall be parked within five minutes after refueling, or, in the absence of refueling, within five minutes after completion of the preconditioning drive.
(g) The vehicle shall be soaked for not less than 12 hours nor more than 36 hours between the end of the refueling event and the beginning of the cold start exhaust emission test.
(h) During the soak period for the three-diurnal test sequence described in § 86.130-96, evaporative canisters, if the vehicle is so equipped, shall be preconditioned according to the following procedure. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a series configuration, the set of canisters must be preconditioned as a unit. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a parallel configuration, each canister must be preconditioned separately. If production evaporative canisters are equipped with a functional service port designed for vapor load or purge steps, the service port shall be used during testing to precondition the canister. In addition, for model year 1998 and later vehicles equipped with refueling canisters, these canisters shall be preconditioned for the three-diurnal test sequence according to the procedure in paragraph (j)(1) of this section. If a vehicle is designed to actively control evaporative or refueling emissions without a canister, the manufacturer shall devise an appropriate preconditioning procedure, subject to the approval of the Administrator.
(1)
(i) Prepare the evaporative emission canister for the canister purging and loading operation. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle, unless access to the canister in its normal location is so restricted that purging and loading can only reasonably be accomplished by removing the canister from the vehicle. Special care shall be taken during this step to avoid damage to the components and the integrity of the fuel system. A replacement canister may be temporarily installed during the soak period while the canister from the test vehicle is preconditioned.
(ii) The canister purge shall be performed with ambient air of humidity controlled to 50±25 grains per pound of dry air. This may be accomplished by purging the canister in a room that is conditioned to this level of absolute humidity. The flow rate of the purge air shall be maintained at a nominal flow rate of 0.8 cfm and the duration shall be determined to provide a total purge volume flow through the canister equivalent to 300 canister bed volume exchanges. The bed volume is based on the volume of adsorbing material in the canister.
(iii) The evaporative emission canister shall then be loaded by sending to the canister an amount of commercial grade butane vapors equivalent to 1.5 times its nominal working capacity. The canister shall be loaded with a mixture composed of 50 percent butane and 50 percent nitrogen by volume at a rate of 15±2 grams butane per hour. If the canister loading at that rate takes longer than 12 hours, a manufacturer may determine a new rate, based on completing the canister loading in no less than 12 hours. The new rate may be used for all subsequent canister loading according to paragraph (h) of this section. The time of initiation and completion of the canister loading shall be recorded.
(iv) The determination of a canister's nominal working capacity shall be based on the average capacity of no less than five canisters that are in a stabilized condition.
(A) For stabilization, each canister must be loaded no less than 10 times and no more than 100 times to 2-gram breakthrough with a 50/50 mixture by volume of butane and nitrogen, at a rate of 15 grams butane per hour. Each canister loading step must be preceded by canister purging with 300 canister bed volume exchanges at 0.8 cfm.
(B) For determining working capacity, each canister must first be purged with 300 canister bed volume exchanges at 0.8 cfm. The working capacity of each canister shall be established by determining the mass of butane required to load the canister from the purged state so that it emits 2 grams of hydrocarbon vapor; the canister must be loaded with a 50/50 mixture by volume of butane and nitrogen, at a rate of 15 grams butane per hour.
(2) For methanol-fueled and flexible-fueled vehicles, canister preconditioning shall be performed with a fuel vapor composition representative of that which the vehicle would generate with the fuel mixture used for the current test. Manufacturers shall develop a procedure to precondition the evaporative canister, if the vehicle is so equipped, for the different fuel. The procedure shall represent a canister loading equivalent to that specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section and shall be approved in advance by the Administrator.
(i) [Reserved]
(j) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in § 86.130-96, one of the following methods shall be used to precondition evaporative canisters during the soak period specified in paragraph (g) of this section. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a series configuration, the set of canisters must be preconditioned as a unit. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a parallel configuration, each canister must be preconditioned separately. In addition, for model year 1998 and later vehicles equipped with refueling canisters, these canisters shall be preconditioned for the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence according to the procedure in paragraph (j)(1) of this section. Canister emissions are measured to determine breakthrough. Breakthrough is here defined as the point at which the cumulative quantity of hydrocarbons emitted is equal to 2 grams.
(1) Butane loading to breakthrough. The following procedure provides for emission measurement in an enclosure. Breakthrough may also be determined by measuring the weight gain of an auxiliary evaporative canister connected downstream of the vehicle's canister, in which case, the following references to the enclosure can be ignored. The auxiliary canister shall be well purged prior to loading. If production evaporative canisters are equipped with a functional service port designed for vapor load or purge steps, the service port shall be used during testing to precondition the canister.
(i) Prepare the evaporative/refueling emission canister for the canister loading operation. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle, unless access to the canister in its normal location is so restricted that purging and loading can only reasonably be accomplished by removing the canister from the vehicle. Special care shall be taken during this step to avoid damage to the components and the integrity of the fuel system. A replacement canister may be temporarily installed during the soak period while the canister from the test vehicle is preconditioned.
(ii) The evaporative emission enclosure shall be purged for several minutes. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.
(iii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the canister loading procedure.
(iv) If not already on, the evaporative enclosure mixing fan shall be turned on at this time.
(v) Place the vehicle in a sealed enclosure and measure emissions with a FID.
(vi)
(A) For gasoline-fueled vehicles, load the canister with a mixture composed of 50 percent butane and 50 percent nitrogen by volume at a rate of 40 grams butane per hour.
(B) For methanol-fueled and flexible-fueled vehicles, canister preconditioning shall be performed with a fuel vapor composition representative of that which the vehicle would generate with the fuel mixture used for the current test. Manufacturers shall develop a procedure to precondition the evaporative canister, if the vehicle is so equipped, for the different fuel.
(vii) As soon as the canister reaches breakthrough, the vapor source shall be shut off.
(viii) Reconnect the evaporative/refueling emission canister and restore the vehicle to its normal operating condition.
(2) Load with repeated diurnal heat builds to breakthrough. The following procedure provides for emission measurement in an enclosure. Breakthrough may also be determined by measuring the weight gain of an auxiliary evaporative canister connected downstream of the vehicle's canister, in which case, the following references to the enclosure can be ignored. The auxiliary canister shall be well purged with dry air prior to loading.
(i) The evaporative emission enclosure shall be purged for several minutes. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.
(ii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the diurnal heat builds.
(iii) If not already on, the evaporative enclosure mixing fan shall be turned on at this time.
(iv) The fuel tank(s) of the prepared vehicle shall be drained and filled with test fuel, as specified in § 86.113, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in § 86.082-2. The average temperature of the dispensed fuel shall be 60±12 °F (16±7 °C). The fuel tank cap(s) shall be installed within 1 minute after refueling.
(v) Within one hour of being refueled, the vehicle shall be placed, with the engine shut off, in the evaporative emission enclosure. The fuel tank temperature sensor shall be connected to the temperature recording system. A heat source, specified in § 86.107-90(a)(4), shall be properly positioned with respect to the fuel tank(s) and connected to the temperature controller.
(vi) The temperature recording system shall be started.
(vii) The fuel may be artificially heated to the starting diurnal temperature.
(viii) When the fuel temperature reaches at least 69 °F (21 °C), immediately: turn off purge blower (if not already off); close and seal enclosure doors; and initiate measurement of the hydrocarbon level in the enclosure.
(ix) When the fuel temperature reaches 72±2 °F (22±1 °C), start the diurnal heat build.
(x) The fuel shall be heated in such a way that its temperature change conforms to the following function to within ±4 °F (±3 °C):
F=To 0.4t; or
for SI units,
C=To (2/9)t.
Where,
F=fuel temperature, °F;
C=fuel temperature, °C;
t=time since beginning of test, minutes; and
To=initial temperature in °F (°C for SI units).
(xi) As soon as breakthrough occurs or when the fuel temperature reaches 96 °F (36 °C), whichever occurs first, the heat source shall be turned off, the enclosure doors shall be unsealed and opened, and the vehicle fuel tank cap(s) shall be removed. If breakthrough has not occurred by the time the fuel temperature reaches 96 °F (36 °C), the heat source shall be removed from the vehicle, the vehicle shall be removed (with engine still off) from the evaporative emission enclosure and the entire procedure outlined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section shall be repeated until breakthrough occurs.
(xii) After breakthrough occurs, the fuel tank(s) of the prepared vehicle shall be drained and filled with test fuel, as specified in § 86.113, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in § 86.082-2. The fuel shall be stabilized to a temperature within 3 °F of the lab ambient before beginning the driving cycle for the exhaust emission test.
(k) The Administrator may conduct the vehicle preparation and preconditioning for measurement of fuel economy or exhaust emissions according to the procedures specified in §§ 86.132-90 and 86.133-90, in lieu of the procedures specified in this section.
(l) Vehicles to be tested for exhaust emissions only shall be processed according to §§ 86.135 through 86.137. Vehicles to be tested for evaporative emissions shall be processed in accordance with the procedures in §§ 86.133 through 86.138, starting with § 86.135.
(m) Vehicles to be tested for evaporative emissions with the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in § 86.130-96, shall proceed according to §§ 86.135 through 86.137, followed by the supplemental hot soak test (see § 86.138-96(k)) and the supplemental diurnal emission test (see § 86.133-96(p)).
(n) With prior approval of the Administrator, manufacturers may use an alternative canister loading method in lieu of the applicable canister loading method described in the provisions of paragraphs (h), (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section, provided the alternative method is shown to be equivalent or result in a more fully loaded canister (a canister that has adsorbed an equal or greater amount of hydrocarbon vapors) than the applicable canister loading method required by the provisions of paragraphs (h), (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct confirmatory certification testing and in-use testing using the alternative canister loading method used by the manufacturer to test applicable certification and/or in-use vehicles or the appropriate method outlined in the provisions of paragraphs (h), (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section.
[58 FR 16037, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 16296, Apr. 6, 1994; 59 FR 48509, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43895, Aug. 23, 1995; 64 FR 23922, May 4, 1999; 70 FR 72927, Dec. 8, 2005]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7625–1 - Exemptions for certain territories

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions