# 40 CFR 86.1333-90 - Transient test cycle generation.

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§ 86.1333-90 Transient test cycle generation.
(a) The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I ((f) (1), (2) and (3)) to this part. These second-by-second listings represent torque and rpm maneuvers characteristic of heavy-duty engines. Both rpm and torque are normalized (expressed as a percentage of maximum) in these listings.
(1) To unnormalize rpm, use the following equation:
The method of calculating measured rated rpm is detailed in paragraph (g) of this section.
(2) Torque is normalized to the maximum torque at the rpm listed with it. Therefore, to unnormalize the torque values in the cycle, the maximum torque curve for the engine in question must be used. The generation of the maximum torque curve is described in § 86.1332.
(3) The EPA Engine Dynamometer Schedule for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines listed in appendix I (f)(2) contains torque points referred to as “closed rack motoring.” For reference cycle calculation torque points shall take on unnormalized values determined in either of the following three ways:
(i) Negative 40 percent of the positive torque available at the associated speed point. The generation of this positive maximum torque curve is described in § 86.1332.
(ii) Map the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine between idle and maximum mapping speed and use this map to determine the amount of negative torque required at the associated speed point.
(iii) Determine the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and rated speeds and linearly interpolate using these two points.
(b) Example of the unnormalization procedure. The following test point shall be unnormalized:
Given the following values:
Measured Rated rpm = 3800.
Curb Idle rpm = 600.
(1) Calculate actual rpm:
(2) Determine actual torque: Determine the maximum observed torque at 1976 rpm from the maximum torque curve. Then multiply this value (e.g., 358 ft-lbs) by 0.82. This results in an actual torque of 294 ft-lbs.
(c) Engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once every second during the cold start test and hot start test. The torque and rpm feedback signals may be filtered.
(d) Idle Speed Enhancement Devices (e.g. cold idle, alternator idle, etc.). For an engine equipped with an idle speed enhancement device, the zero percent speed specified in the engine dynamometer schedules (appendix I (f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part) does not apply. The idle speed shall be the speed that results from the proper operation of the engine's idle speed enhancement device.
(1) During idle speed enhancement device operation, a manual transmission engine shall be allowed to idle at whatever speed is required to target a feedback torque equal to zero (using, for example, clutch disengagement, speed to torque control switching, software overrides, etc.) at those points in appendix I(f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part where both reference speed and reference torque are zero percent values. For each idle segment that is ten seconds or longer, the average feedback torque must be within ±10 ft-lbs of zero. To allow for transition, up to the first four seconds may be deleted from each idle segment calculation.
(2) During idle speed enhancement device operation, an automatic transmission engine shall be allowed to idle at whatever speed is required to target a feedback torque equal to CITT (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section for definition of CITT) at those points in appendix I(f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part where both reference speed and reference torque are zero percent values. For each idle segment that is ten seconds or longer, the average feedback torque must be within ±10 ft-lbs of CITT. To allow for transition, up to the first four seconds may be deleted from each idle segment calculation.
(e) Automatic transmissions. The reference cycles in paragraphs (f) (1) and (2) of appendix I to this part shall be altered for test engines intended primarily for use with automatic transmissions.
(1) Zero percent speed for automatic transmission engines is defined as curb idle rpm (i.e., in-vehicle, coupled with automatic transmission in gear).
(2) All zero-percent speed, zero-percent torque points (idle points) shall be modified to zero percent speed, Curb Idle Transmission Torque (CITT), except as permitted in § 86.1337-90(a)(9). Also, all points with speed equal to or less than zero percent and torque less than CITT shall be modified to CITT. Motoring torque shall remain unchanged. In order to provide a smooth torque transition, all consecutive torque points that are between 0 and CITT shall be changed to CITT if the first of these is preceded or the last of these is succeeded by idle points. The manufacturer's specified CITT shall be based upon that value observed in typical applications at the mean of the manufacturers' specified idle speed range at stabilized temperature conditions.
(f) Clutch operation. Manual transmission engines may be tested with a clutch. If used, the clutch shall be disengaged at all zero percent speeds, zero percent torque points, but may be engaged up to two points preceeding a non-zero point, and may be engaged for time segments with zero percent speed and torque points of durations less than four seconds. (See § 86.1341 for allowances in the cycle validation criteria.)
(g) Measured rated rpm. The measured rated rpm corresponds to the 100 percent rpm values specified in the reference cycles (paragraphs (f) (1) and (2) of appendix I to this part). It is generally intended to represent the rpm at which maximum brake horsepower occurs. For the purposes of this test sequence, it shall either be defined as the manufacturer's specified rated speed, or calculated in the following way, whichever yields the higher speed:
(1) From the maximum torque curve generated per § 86.1332, find the maximum observed brake horsepower of the engine.
(2) Calculate 98 percent of the observed maximum brake horsepower, and determine from the maximum torque curve the highest and lowest engine rpms at which this brake horsepower is observed.
(3) The highest and lowest of the 98 percent power rpms represent the endpoints of an rpm range. The midpoint of this range shall be considered the measured rated rpm for cycle generation purposes.
[54 FR 14599, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 62 FR 47131, Sept. 5, 1997; 63 FR 24449, May 4. 1998; 65 FR 8279, Feb. 18, 2000]

Title 40 published on 2012-07-01

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For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

• 2012-11-15; vol. 77 # 221 - Thursday, November 15, 2012
1. 77 FR - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards
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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
40 CFR Parts 85, 86, and 600

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

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United States Code
U.S.C. : Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 USC § 7625–1 - Exemptions for certain territories

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 USC § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 USC § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 USC § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 USC § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2012-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 86 after this date.

• 2013-01-25; vol. 78 # 17 - Friday, January 25, 2013
1. 78 FR 5347 - Denial of Reconsideration Petition on Model Year 2012-2016 Light Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards
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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Denial of petition for reconsideration.
This action is effective on January 25, 2013.
40 CFR Parts 85, 86, 600