(a) The engine shall be started according to the manufacturer's recommended starting procedure in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer. The speed at which the engine is cranked (motored) with the dynamometer shall be equal to the cranking speed (nominal speed ±10 percent) in the vehicle with a fully charged battery. The time taken to accelerate the engine to cranking speed by the dynamometer shall be equal (nominal ±0.5 seconds) to the time required with a starter motor. Motoring by the dynamometer shall be terminated not more than one second after the engine starts. The 24 ±1-second free idle period, and declutching if applicable, shall begin when the engine is determined to have started.
(1) Engines equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual, including choke setting and “kick-down” from cold fast idle.
(2) Engines equipped with manual chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual.
(3) The operator may use the choke, throttle, etc. where necessary to keep the engine running.
(4) If the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual do not specify a warm engine starting procedure, the engine (automatic and manual choke engines) shall be started by depressing the throttle half way and cranking the engine until it starts.
(b) (1) If the engine does not start after 15 seconds of cranking, cranking shall cease and the reason for failure to start shall be determined. The gas flow measuring device (or revolution counter) on the constant volume sampler (and the hydrocarbon integrator when testing diesel-fueled engines) shall be turned off during this diagnostic period. In addition, either the CVS should be turned off or the exhaust tube disconnected from the tailpipe during the diagnostic period. If failure to start is an operational error, the engine shall be rescheduled for testing from a cold start.
(2) If longer cranking times are necessary and recommended to the ultimate purchaser, such cranking times may be used in lieu of the 15-second limit, provided the owner's manual and the service repair manual indicate that the longer cranking times are normal.
(3) If a failure to start occurs during the cold portion of the test and is caused by an engine malfunction, corrective action of less than 30 minutes duration may be taken (according to § 86.084-25 ), and the test continued. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same time cranking begins. When the engine starts, the timing sequence shall begin. If failure to start is caused by engine malfunction and the engine cannot be started, the test shall be voided and corrective action may be taken according to § 86.084-25.
(4) If a failure to start occurs during the hot start portion of the test and is caused by engine malfunction, the engine must be started within one minute of key on. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same time cranking begins. When the engine starts, the transient engine cycle timing sequence shall begin. If the engine cannot be started within one minute of key on, the test shall be voided, corrective action taken (according to § 86.084-25 ), and the engine rescheduled for testing.
(c) Engine stalling.(1) If the engine stalls during the initial idle period of either the cold or hot start test, the engine shall be restarted immediately using the appropriate cold or hot starting procedure and the test continued.
(2) If the engine stalls anywhere in the cold cycle, except in the initial idle period, the test shall be voided.
(3) If the engine stalls on the hot cycle portion of the test at any time other than the initial idle, the engine may be shut off and resoaked for 20 minutes. The hot cycle may then be rerun. Only one hot start resoak and restart is permitted.
(d) Engine shutdown. Engine shutdown shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.
(e) Test equipment malfunction—(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled engines. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test run, the test shall be voided.
(2) Diesel-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines.(i) If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the cold cycle portion of the test, the test shall be voided.
(ii) If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment (computer, gaseous emissions analyzer, etc.) during the hot cycle portion of the test, complete the full engine cycle before engine shut-down then resoak for 20 minutes.
(A) If the test equipment malfunction can be corrected before the resoak period has been completed, the hot cycle portion of the test may be rerun.
(B) (1) If the test equipment malfunction is corrected after the completion of the resoak period, then the preconditioning cycle must be run before the hot cycle. This consists of a full 20 minute transient cycle followed by a 20 minute soak and then the for-record hot cycle.
(2) In no case can the start of the cold cycle and the start of the hot cycle be separated by more than 4 hours.
(Secs. 202, 203, 206, 207, 208, 301a, Clean Air Act, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7522, 7525, 7541, 7542, 7601a)
[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48145, Dec. 10, 1984; 50 FR 10694, Mar. 15, 1985; 52 FR 47874, Dec. 16, 1987; 58 FR 16065, Mar. 24, 1993; 59 FR 48533, Sept. 21, 1994]
Title 40 published on 2012-07-01
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