40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

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§ 86.134-96 Running loss test.
(a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban driving; this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles. During operation, tank temperatures are controlled according to a prescribed profile to simulate in-use conditions. If the vehicle is determined to have exceeded the standard before the end of the running loss test, the test may be terminated without invalidating the data. The test can be run either in a sealed enclosure or with the point-source method, as specified in paragraph (g) of this section. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test; however, if testing by the Administrator shows that a vehicle has exceeded an emission standard without measurement of vapor temperatures, the manufacturer may, utilizing its own resources, conduct subsequent testing on that vehicle to determine if the exceedance is attributable to inadequate control of vapor temperatures.
(b) Driving schedule. Conduct the running loss test by operating the test vehicle through one Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), a 2-minute idle, two New York City Cycles, another 2-minute idle, another UDDS, then another 2-minute idle (see § 86.115 and appendix I of this part). Fifteen seconds after the engine starts, place the transmission in gear. Twenty seconds after the engine starts, begin the initial vehicle acceleration of the driving schedule. The transmission shall be operated according to the specifications of § 86.128 during the driving cycles.
(c) Dynamometer operation.
(1) The exhaust from the vehicle must be routed outside the test cell or enclosure. Exhaust gases may, but need not, be collected and sampled.
(2) Provisions of § 86.135-90(c) shall apply.
(3) Practice runs over the prescribed driving schedule may not be performed at test point.
(4) Provisions of § 86.135-90 (e) and (f) shall apply.
(5) If the dynamometer horsepower must be adjusted manually, it shall be set within 1 hour prior to the running loss test phase. The test vehicle shall not be used to make this adjustment. Dynamometers using automatic control of preselectable power settings may be set any time prior to the beginning of the emissions test.
(6) Dynamometer roll or shaft revolutions shall be used to determine the actual driving distance for the running loss test, DRL, required in § 86.143. The revolutions shall be measured on the same roll or shaft used for measuring the vehicle's speed.
(7) Provisions of § 86.135-90(i) shall apply.
(8) The test run may be stopped if a warning light or gauge indicates that the vehicle's engine coolant has overheated.
(d) Engine starting and restarting.
(1) Provisions of § 86.136-90(a) shall apply.
(2) If the vehicle does not start after the manufacturer's recommended cranking time (or 10 continuous seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation), cranking shall cease for the period recommended by the manufacturer (or 10 seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation). This may be repeated for up to three start attempts. If the vehicle does not start after three attempts, the reason for failure to start shall be determined. If failure to start is an operational error, the vehicle shall be rescheduled for testing, starting with the soak period immediately preceding the running loss test.
(3) If failure to start is caused by a vehicle malfunction, corrective action of less than 30 minutes duration may be taken (according to § 86.090-25), and the test continued, provided that the ambient conditions to which the vehicle is exposed are maintained at 95±5 °F (35±3 °C). When the engine starts, the timing sequence of the driving schedule shall begin. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction and the vehicle cannot be started, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, and corrective action may be taken according to § 86.090-25. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be reported to the Administrator.
(4) Provisions of § 86.136-90(e) shall apply.
(e) Pressure checks. No pressure checks of the evaporative system shall be allowed. Under no circumstances will any changes/repairs to the evaporative emissions control system be allowed.
(f) Temperature stabilization. Immediately after the hot transient exhaust emission test, the vehicle shall be soaked in a temperature controlled area for a maximum of 6 hours until the fuel temperature is stabilized. The fuel may be heated or cooled to stabilize fuel temperatures, but the fuel heating rate must not exceed 5 °F in any 1-hour interval during the soak period. A manufacturer may use a faster heating rate or a longer period for stabilizing fuel temperatures if the needed heating cannot be easily accomplished in the 6-hour period, subject to Administrator approval.
(1) Fuel temperatures must be held at 95 ±3 °F for at least one hour before the start of the running loss test.
(2) If a vehicle's fuel temperature profile has an initial temperature lower than 95 °F, as described in § 86.129-94(d)(7)(v), the fuel in the test vehicle must be stabilized to within 3 °F of that temperature for at least one hour before the start of the running loss test.
(g) Running loss test. The running loss test may be conducted either by the enclosure method, or by the point-source method.
(1) Enclosure method.
(i) The running loss enclosure shall be purged for several minutes immediately prior to the test. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.
(ii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test.
(iii) If not already on, the running loss enclosure mixing fan(s) shall be turned on at this time. Throughout the test, the mixing fan(s) shall circulate the air at a rate of at least 1.0 cfm per cubic foot of ambient volume.
(iv) The test vehicle, with the engine off, shall be moved onto the dynamometer in the running loss enclosure. The vehicle engine compartment cover shall be unlatched, but closed as much as possible, allowing for the air intake equipment specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii) of this section. The vehicle engine compartment cover may be closed if alternate routing is found for the air intake equipment. Any windows, doors, and luggage compartments shall be closed. A window may be opened to direct cooling air into the passenger compartment of the vehicle, if the vehicle is not equipped with its own air conditioning.
(v) Fans shall be positioned as described in §§ 86.107-96 (d) and (h).
(vi) The vehicle air conditioning system (if so equipped) shall be set to the “normal” air conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and high fan speed. Vehicles equipped with automatic temperature controlled air conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F.
(vii) Connect the air intake equipment to the vehicle, if applicable. This connection shall be made to minimize leakage.
(viii) The temperature and pressure recording systems shall be started. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test. If vapor temperature is not measured, fuel tank pressure need not be measured.
(ix) Turn off purge blowers (if not already off).
(x) The temperature of the liquid fuel shall be monitored and recorded at least every 15 seconds with the temperature recording system specified in § 86.107-96(e).
(xi) Close and seal the enclosure doors.
(xii) When the ambient temperature is 95±5 °F (35±3 °C) and the fuel has been stabilized according to paragraph (f) of this section, the running loss test may begin. Measure the initial ambient temperature and pressure.
(A) Analyze enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) hydrocarbon concentration, CHCi, required in § 86.143. Hydrocarbon emissions may be sampled continuously during the test period.
(B) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) methanol concentration, CCH [=E T=0362]3 OHi, required in § 86.143. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.
(xiii) Start the engine and begin operation of the vehicle over the drive cycle specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
(xiv) The ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the vehicle; it shall be recorded at least every 60 seconds.
(xv) The fuel temperature during the dynamometer drive shall be controlled to match the fuel tank temperature profile determined in § 86.129. Measured fuel temperatures must be within ±3 °F of the target profile throughout the test run. Vapor temperatures, if measured, must be within ±5 °F of the target profile during the first 4186 seconds of the running loss test, and within ±3 °F for the remaining 120 seconds of the test run. For any vehicle complying with the test standards, vapor temperatures may be higher than the specified tolerances without invalidating test results. For testing by the Administrator, vapor temperatures may be lower than the specified tolerances without invalidating test results. If the test vehicle has more than one fuel tank, the temperatures for both fuel tanks shall follow the target profiles determined in § 86.129. The control system shall be tuned and operated to provide smooth and continuous tank temperature profiles that are representative of the on-road profiles.
(xvi) Tank pressure shall not exceed 10 inches of water at any time during the running loss test unless a pressurized system is used and the manufacturer demonstrates that vapor would not be vented to the atmosphere upon fuel cap removal. A vehicle may exceed the pressure limit for temporary periods during the running loss test, up to 10 percent of the total driving time, provided that the vehicle has demonstrated conformance with the pressure limit during the entire outdoor driving period specified in § 86.129. Measurement of fuel tank pressures will be considered valid only if vapor temperatures are measured and controlled to the tolerances specified in paragraph (g)(1)(xv) of this section.
(xvii) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior the end of the test.
(xviii) Fresh impingers shall be installed in the methanol collection system immediately prior to the end of the test, if applicable.
(xix) The running loss test ends with the completion of the third 2-minute idle period.
(xx) At the end of the running loss test:
(A) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the final hydrocarbon concentration, CHCf, required in § 86.143.
(B) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start prior to the end of the test and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. The methanol sampling must be completed within 2 minutes after the end of the running loss test. This is the final methanol concentration, CCH [=E T=0362]3 OHf, required in § 86.143. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.
(C) Turn off all the fans specified in § 86.107-96(d). Also, the time that the vehicle's engine compartment cover is open for removal of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the engine compartment.
(xxi) Turn off any CVS apparatus (if not already turned off).
(2) Point-source method.
(i) The test vehicle, with the engine off, shall be moved onto the dynamometer. The vehicle engine compartment cover and any windows, doors, and luggage compartments shall be closed.
(ii) Fans shall be positioned as described in §§ 86.135-90(b) and 86.107-96(d).
(iii) The running loss vapor vent collection system shall be properly positioned at the potential fuel vapor vents or leaks of the vehicle's fuel system. Typical vapor vents for current fuel systems are the ports of the evaporative emission canister and the pressure relief vent of the fuel tank (typically integrated into the fuel tank cap).
(iv) The running loss vapor vent collection system may be connected to a PDP-CVS or CFV-CVS bag collection system. Otherwise, running loss vapors shall be sampled continuously with analyzers meeting the requirements of § 86.107-96(b).
(v) Fans shall be positioned as described in § 86.107-96(d).
(vi) The vehicle air conditioning system (if so equipped) shall be set to the “normal” air conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and high fan speed. Vehicles equipped with automatic temperature controlled air conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F.
(vii) The temperature and pressure recording systems shall be started. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test. If vapor temperature is not measured, fuel tank pressure need not be measured.
(viii) The temperature of the liquid fuel shall be monitored and recorded at least every 15 seconds with the temperature recording system specified in § 86.107-96(e).
(ix) When the ambient temperature is 95±5 °F (35±3 °C) and the fuel tank temperature is 95±3 °F the running loss test may begin.
(x) The ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the vehicle; it shall be recorded at least every 60 seconds.
(xi) Fuel temperatures shall be controlled according to the specifications of paragraph (g)(1)(xv) of this section.
(xii) The tank pressure requirements described in paragraph (g)(1)(xvi) of this section apply also to running loss testing by the point source method.
(xiii) The running loss test ends with completion of the third 2-minute idle period.
(xiv) If emissions are collected in bags, the sample bags must be analyzed within 20 minutes of their respective sample collection phases, as described in § 86.137-94(b)(15). The results of the analysis are used in § 86.143 to calculate the mass of hydrocarbons emitted.
(xv) At the end of the running loss test, turn off all the fans specified in § 86.107-96(d).
(3) With prior approval of the Administrator, manufacturers may use an alternative running loss test procedure, provided the alternative test procedure is shown to yield equivalent or superior emission results (in terms of quality control, accuracy and repeatability) for the running loss, hot soak and diurnal portions of the three diurnal-plus-hot-soak test sequence. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct certification and in-use testing using the test procedures outlined in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, paragraph (g)(2) of this section or the alternative running loss test procedure as approved for a specific vehicle.
(h) Following the completion of the running loss drive, the vehicle may be tested for hot soak emissions as specified in § 86.138-96.
[58 FR 16040, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48510, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43896, Aug. 23, 1995; 70 FR 72927, Dec. 8, 2005]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-04-28; vol. 79 # 81 - Monday, April 28, 2014
    1. 79 FR 23414 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on June 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 86 after this date.

  • 2014-04-28; vol. 79 # 81 - Monday, April 28, 2014
    1. 79 FR 23414 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on June 27, 2014. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 27, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1048, 1054, 1065, and 1066