40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

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§ 86.144-94 Calculations; exhaust emissions.
The final reported test results shall be computed by use of the following formula:
(a) For light-duty vehicles and light duty trucks:
Where:
(1) YWM = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., THC, CO, THCE, NMHC, NMHCE, CH4, NOX, or CO2, in grams per vehicle mile.
(2) Yct=Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
(3) Yht=Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in grams per test phase.
(4) Ys=Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
(5) Dct=The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
(6) Dht=The measured distance from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in miles.
(7) Ds=The measured driving distance from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
(b) The mass of each pollutant for each phase of both the cold start test and the hot start test is determined from the following:
(1) Total hydrocarbon mass:
HCmass=Vmix × DensityHC × (HCconc/1,000,000)
(2) Oxides of nitrogen mass:
NOxmass=Vmix × DensityNO2 × KH × (NOxconc/1,000,000)
(3) Carbon monoxide mass:
COmass=Vmix × DensityCO × (COconc/1,000,000)
(4) Carbon dioxide mass:
CO2mass=Vmix × DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/100)
(5) Methanol mass:
CH3OHmass=Vmix × DensityCH3OH × (CH3OHconc/1,000,000)
(6) Formaldehyde mass:
HCHOmass=Vmix × DensityHCHO × (HCHOconc/1,000,000)
(7) Total hydrocarbon equivalent mass:
THCEmass = HCmass 13.8756/32.042 × (CH3OHmass) 13.8756/32.0262 × (HCHOmass)
(8) Non-methane hydrocarbon mass:
NMHCmass = Vmix × DensityNMHC × (NMHCconc/1,000,000)
(9) Non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent mass:
NMHCEmass = NMHCmass 13.8756/32.042 × (CH3OHmass) 13.8756/30.0262 × (HCHOmass)
(10) Methane mass:
CH4mass=Vmix=DensityCH4=(CH4conc/1,000,00)
(11) Nitrous Oxide Mass:
Vmix × DensityN2O × (N2Oconc/1,000,000)
(c) Meaning of symbols:
(1)
(i) HCmass=Total hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityHC=Density of total hydrocarbon.
(A) For gasoline-fuel, diesel-fuel and methanol fuel; DensityHC=16.33 g/ft3−carbon atom (0.5768 kg/m3−carbon atom), assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85, at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(B) For natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas-fuel; DensityHC=1.1771 (12.011 H/C (1.008)) g/ft3−carbon atom (0.04157(12.011 H/C (1.008))kg/m3−carbon atom), where H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon components of the test fuel, at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) HCconc=Total hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm carbon equivalent, i.e., equivalent propane × 3.
(B) HCconc=HCe−HCd(1−1/DF).
Where:
(iv)
(A) HCe=Total hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled vehicles, if selected), average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as calculated from the integrated THC traces, in ppm carbon equivalent.
(B) HCe=FID HCe−(r)CCH 3OHe.
(v) FID HCe=Concentration of total hydrocarbon plus methanol in dilute exhaust as measured by the FID, ppm carbon equivalent.
(vi) r=FID response to methanol.
(vii) CCH 3OHe=Concentration of methanol in dilute exhaust as determined from the dilute exhaust methanol sample in ppm carbon. For vehicles not fueled with methanol, CCH 3OHe equals zero.
(viii)
(A) HCd=Total hydrocarbon concentration of the dilution air as measured, in ppm carbon equivalent.
(B) HCd=FID HCd−(r)CCH 3OHd.
(ix) FID HCd=Concentration of total hydrocarbon plus methanol in dilution air as measured by the FID, ppm carbon equivalent.
(x) CCH 3OHd=Concentration of methanol in dilution air as determined from dilution air methanol sample in ppm carbon. For vehicles not fueled with methanol, CCH 3OHd equals zero.
(2)
(i) NOxmass=Oxides of nitrogen emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityNO2=Density of oxides of nitrogen is 54.16 g/ft3 (1.913 kg/m3) assuming they are in the form of nitrogen dioxide, at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) NOxconc=Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm.
(B) NOxconc=NOxe−NOxd(1−(1/DF)).
Where:
(iv) NOxe=Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as measured, in ppm.
(v) NOxd=Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilution air as measured, in ppm.
(3)
(i) COmass=Carbon monoxide emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityCO = Density of carbon monoxide is 32.97 g/ft3 (1.164 kg/m3), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) COconc = Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm.
(B) COconc = COe − COd(1 − (1/DF)).
Where:
(iv)
(A) COe = Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction, in ppm.
(B) COe = (1 − 0.01925CO2e-0.000323R)COem for petroleum fuel with hydrogen to carbon ratio of 1.85:1.
(C) COe=[1−(0.01 0.005HCR) CO2e−0.000323R]COem for methanol-fuel or natural gas-fuel or liquefied petroleum gas-fuel, where HCR is hydrogen-to-carbon ratio as measured for the fuel used.
(v) COem = Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as measured, in ppm.
(vi) CO2e = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample, in percent.
(vii) R = Relative humidity of the dilution air, in percent (see § 86.142(n)).
(viii)
(A) COd = Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in ppm.
(B) COd = (1-0.000323R)COdm.
Where:
(ix) COdm = Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air sample as measured, in ppm.
Note:
If a CO instrument which meets the criteria specified in § 86.111 is used and the conditioning column has been deleted, COem must be substituted directly for COe and COdm must be substituted directly for COd.
(4)
(i) CO2mass = Carbon dioxide emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) Density CO2 = Density of carbon dioxide is 51.81 g/ft3 (1.830 kg/m3), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) CO2conc = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in percent.
(B) CO2conc = CO2e − CO2d(1 − (1/DF)). Where:
(iv) CO2d = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent.
(5)
(i) CH3OHmass = Methanol emissions corrected for background, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityCH3OH=Density of methanol is 37.71 g/ft3-carbon atom (1.332 kg/m3-carbon atom), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) CH3OHconc = Methanol concentration of the dilute exhaust corrected for background, ppm.
(B) CH3OHconc = CCH3OHe − CCH3OHd(1 − (1/DF)).
Where:
(iv)
(A) CCH3OHe=Methanol concentration in the dilute exhaust, ppm.
(B)
(v)
(A) CCH3OHd=Methanol concentration in the dilution air, ppm.
(B)
(vi) TEM=Temperature of methanol sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, °R.
(vii) TDM=Temperature of methanol sample withdrawn from dilution air, °R.
(viii) PB=Barometric pressure during test, mm Hg.
(ix) VEM=Volume of methanol sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, ft3.
(x) VDM=Volume of methanol sample withdrawn from dilution air, ft3.
(xi) CS=GC concentration of sample drawn from dilute exhaust, µg/ml.
(xii) CD=GC concentration of sample drawn from dilution air, µg/ml.
(xiii) AVS=Volume of absorbing reagent (deionized water) in impinger through which methanol sample from dilute exhaust is drawn, ml.
(xiv) AVD=Volume of absorbing reagent (deionized water) in impinger through which methanol sample from dilution air is drawn, ml.
(xv) 1=first impinger.
(xvi) 2=second impinger.
(xvii) 1 = first impinger.
(xviii) 2 = second impinger.
(6)
(i) HCHOmass = Formaldehyde emissions corrected for background, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityHCHO=Density of formaldehyde is 35.36 g/ft3- carbon atom (1.249 kg/m3-carbon atom), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) HCHOconc = Formaldehyde concentration of the dilute exhaust corrected for background, in ppm.
(B) HCHOconc = CHCHOe − CHCHOd (1 − (1/DF)).
Where:
(iv)
(A) CHCHOe = Formaldehyde concentration in dilute exhaust, in ppm.
(B)
(v)
(A) CHCHOd = Formaldehyde concentration in dilution air in ppm.
(B)
(vi) CFDE = Concentration of DNPH derivative of formaldehyde from dilute exhaust sample in sampling solution, µg/ml.
(vii) VAE = Volume of sampling solution for dilute exhaust formaldehyde sample, ml.
(viii)
(A) Q = Ratio of molecular weights of formaldehyde to its DNPH derivative.
(B) Q = 0.1429.
(ix) TEF = Temperature of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, °R.
(x) VSE = Volume of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilute exhaust, ft3.
(xi) PB = Barometric pressure during test, mm Hg.
(xii) CFDA = Concentration of DNPH derivative of formaldehyde from dilution air sample in sampling solution, µg/ml.
(xiii) VAA = Volume of sampling solution for dilution air formaldehyde sample, ml.
(xiv) TDF = Temperature of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilution air, °R.
(xv) VSA = Volume of formaldehyde sample withdrawn from dilution air, ft3.
(7)
(i) DF = 13.4/[CO2e (HCe COe) 10−4] for petroleum-fueled vehicles.
(ii) For methanol-fueled vehicles, where fuel composition is CXHyOz as measured, or calculated, for the fuel used:
(iii)
for natural gas-fueled or liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles where fuel composition is Cx Hy as measured for the fuel used.
(iv)
(A) KH=Humidity correction factor.
(B) KH=1/[1−0.0047(H−75)].
(C) For SI units, KH=1×[1-0.0329(H×10.71)].
Where:
(v)
(A) H=Absolute humidity in grains (grams) of water per pound (kilogram) of dry air.
(B) H=[(43.478)Ra × Pd]/[PB−(Pd × Ra/100)].
(C) For SI units, H=[(6.211)Ra × Pd]/[PB×(Pd × Ra/100)].
(vi) Ra=Relative humidity of the ambient air, percent.
(vii) Pd=Saturated vapor pressure, mm Hg (kPa) at the ambient dry bulb temperature.
(viii) PB=Barometric pressure, mm Hg (kPa).
(ix)
(A) Vmix=Total dilute exhaust volume in cubic feet per test phase corrected to standard conditions (528°R (293 °K) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa)).
(B) For PDP-CVS, Vmix is:
(C) For SI units,
Where:
(x) Vo=Volume of gas pumped by the positive displacement pump, in cubic feet (m3) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive displacement pump.
(xi) N=Number of revolutions of the positive displacement pump during the test phase while samples are being collected.
(xii) PB=Barometric pressure, mm Hg (kPa).
(xiii) P4=Pressure depression below atmospheric measured at the inlet to the positive displacement pump, in mm Hg (kPa) (during an idle mode).
(xiv) Tp=Average temperature of dilute exhaust entering positive displacement pump during test, °R(°K).
(8)
(i) NMHCconc=HCconc−(rCH4 × CH4conc).
(ii) DensityNMHC=The density of non-methane hydrocarbon.
(A) For gasoline-fuel and diesel-fuel; DensityNMHC=16.33 g/ft3-carbon atom (0.5768 kg/m3-carbon atom), assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85 at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(B) For natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas fuel; DensityNMHC=1.1771(12.011 H/C(1.008))g/ft3-carbon atom (0.04157(12.011 H/C(1.008))kg/m3-carbon atom), where H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the non-methane hydrocarbon components of the test fuel, at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) CH4conc = Methane concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm carbon equivalent.
(B) CH4conc = CH4e − CH4d(1 − 1/DF)
Where:
(iv) CH4e = Methane exhaust bag concentration in ppm carbon equivalent.
(v) CH4d = Methane concentration of the dilution air in ppm carbon equivalent.
(vi) rCH4=HC FID response to methane as measured in § 86.121(d).
(9)
(i) CH4mass=Methane emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityCH4=Density of methane is 18.89 g/ft3-carbon atom (0.6672 kg/m3-carbon atom), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3 kPa) pressure.
(10)
(i) N2Omass = Nitrous oxide emissions, in grams per test phase.
(ii) DensityN2O = Density of nitrous oxide is 51.81 g/ft3 (1.83 kg/m3), at 68 °F (20 °C) and 760 mm Hg (101.3kPa) pressure.
(iii)
(A) N2Oconc = Nitrous oxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm.
(B) N2Oconc = N2Oe − N2Od(1 − (1/DF)).
Where:
N2Oe = Nitrous oxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as measured, in ppm.
N2Od = Nitrous oxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in ppm.
(d) For petroleum-fueled vehicles, example calculation of mass values of exhaust emissions using positive displacement pump:
(1) For the “transient” phase of the cold start test assume the following: Vo = 0.29344 ft3rev; N = 10,485; R = 48.0 pct; Ra = 48.2 percent; PB = 762 mm Hg; Pd = 22.225 mm Hg; P4 = 70 mm Hg; Tp = 570 °R; HCe = 105.8 ppm, carbon equivalent; NOxe = 11.2 ppm; COem = 306.6 ppm; CO2e= 1.43 percent; CH4e = 10.74 ppm; HCd = 12.1 ppm; NOxd = 0.8 ppm; COdm = 15.3 ppm; CO2d = 0.032 percent; CH4d = 2.20 ppm; Dct = 3.598 miles.
Then:
(i) Vmix = (0.29344)(10,485)(762-70)(528)/(760)(570) = 2595.0 ft3 per test phase.
(ii) H = (43.478)(48.2)(22.225)/762 − (22.225)(48.2/100) = 62 grains of water per pound of dry air.
(iii) KH = 1/[1 − 0.0047(62-75)] = 0.9424.
(iv) COe = [1-0.01925(1.43) − 0.000323(48)](306.6) = 293.4 ppm.
(v) COd = [1 − 0.000323(48)](15.3) = 15.1 ppm.
(vi) DF = 13.4/[1.43 10−4(105.8 293.4)] = 9.116.
(vii) HCconc = 105.8-12.1(1 − 1/9.116) = 95.03 ppm.
(viii) HCmass = (2595)(16.33)(95.03/1,000,000) = 4.027 grams per test phase.
(ix) NOxconc = 11.2 − 0.8(1 − 1/9.116) = 10.49 ppm.
(x) NOxmass = (2595)(54.16)(10.49/1,000,000)(0.9424) = 1.389 grams per test phase.
(xi) COconc = 293.4 − 15.1(1 − 1/9.116) = 280.0 ppm.
(xii) COmass = (2595)(32.97)(280/1,000,000) = 23.96 grams per test phase.
(xiii) CO2conc = 1.43 − 0.032(1 − 1/9.116) = 1.402 percent.
(xiv) CO2mass = (2595.0)(51.85)(1.402/100) = 1886 grams per test phase.
(xv) CH4conc = 10.74 − 2.2 (1 − 1/9.116) = 8.78 ppm.
(xvi) NMHCconc = 95.03 − 8.78 = 86.25 ppm.
(xvii) NMHCmass = (2595)(16.33)(86.25)/1,000,000 = 3.655 grams per test phase.
(2) For the stabilized portion of the cold start test assume that similar calculations resulted in the following:
(i) HCmass = 0.62 gram per test phase.
(ii) NOxmass = 1.27 grams per test phase.
(iii) COmass = 5.98 grams per test phase.
(iv) CO2mass = 2346 grams per test phase.
(v) Ds = 3.902 miles.
(vi) NMHCmass = 0.50 gram per test phase.
(3) For the “transient” portion of the hot start test assume that similar calculations resulted in the following:
(i) HCmass = 0.51 gram per test phase.
(ii) NOxmass = 1.38 grams per test phase.
(iii) COmass = 5.01 grams per test phase.
(iv) CO2mass = 1758 grams per test phase.
(v) Dht = 3.598 miles.
(vi) NMHCmass = 0.44 grams per test phase.
(4) Weighted mass emission results:
(i) HCwm = 0.43[(4.027 0.62)/(3.598 3.902)] 0.57[(0.51 0.62)/(3.598 3.902)] = 0.352 gram per vehicle mile.
(ii) NOxwm = 0.43[(1.389 1.27)/(3.598 3.902)] 0.57[(1.38 1.27)/(3.598 3.902)] = 0.354 gram per vehicle mile.
(iii) COwm = 0.43[(23.96 5.98)/(3.598 3.902)] 0.57[(5.01 5.98)/(3.598 3.902)] = 2.55 grams per vehicle mile.
(iv) CO2wm = 0.43[(1886 2346)/(3.598 3.902) 0.57[(1758 2346)/(3.598 3.902)] = 555 gram per vehicle mile.
(v) NMHCwm = 0.43[(3.655 0.50)/(3.598 3.902)] 0.57[(0.44 0.50)/(3.598 3.902)] = 0.310 gram per vehicle mile.
(e) For methanol-fueled vehicles with measured fuel composition of CH3.487 O0.763, example calculation of exhaust emissions using positive displacement pump:
(1) For the “transient” phase of the cold start test assume the following: V0=0.29344 ft3 rev; N=25,801; R=37.5 pct; Ra=37.5 percent; PB=725.42 mm Hg; Pd=22.02 mm Hg; P4=70 mm Hg; Tp 570 deg.R; FID HCe=14.65 ppm, carbon equivalent; r=0.788; TEM=527.67 deg.R; VEM=0.2818 ft3; CS1=7.101; AVS1=15.0 ml; CS2=0.256; AVS2=15.0 ml; TDM=527.67 deg.R; VDM=1.1389 ft3; CD1=0.439; AVD1=15.0 ml; CD2=0.0; AVD2=15.0 ml; CFDE=8.970 µg/ml; VAE=5.0 ml; Q=0.1429; TEF=527.67 deg.R; VSE=0.2857 ft3; CFDA=0.39 µg/ml; VAA=5.0 ml; TDF=527.67 deg.R; VSA=1.1043 ft3; NOX.=5.273 ppm; COem=98.8 ppm; CO2e=0.469 pct; CH4e=2.825 ppm; FID HCd=2.771 ppm; NOX.=0.146 ppm; COdm=1.195 ppm; CO2d=0.039 percent; CH4d=2.019 ppm; Dct=3.583 miles.
Then:
(i) Vmix=(0.29344)(25,801)(725.42-70)(528)/(760)(570)=6048.1.0 ft3 per test phase.
(ii) H=(43.478)(37.5)(22.02)/[725.42-(22.02×37.5/100)]=50 grains of water per pound of dry air.
(iii) KH=1/[1−0.0047(50−75)]=0.8951.
(iv) COe=[1-(0.01 0.005×3.487)×0.469)−0.000323(37.5))×98.8=96.332 ppm.
(v) COd=(1−0.000323(37.5))×1.195=1.181 ppm.
(vi) CCH3OHe = (3.813×10−2)(527.67)[(7.101)(15.0) (0.256)(15.0)]/(725.42)(0.2818) = 10.86 ppm.
(vii) HCe=14.65−(0.788)(10.86)=6.092.
(viii) DF = 100(1/[1 (3.487/2) 3.76(1 (3.487/4) − (0.763/2))])/0.469 (6.092 96.332 10.86 0.664)(10−4) = 24.939.
(ix) CCH3OHd = (3.813 × 10−2)(527.67)[(0.439)(15.0) (0.0)(15.0)]/(725.42)(1.1389) = 0.16 ppm.
(x) CH3OHconc=10.86−0.16(1-1/24.939)=10.71 ppm.
(xi) CH3OHmass=6048.1×37.71×(10.71/1,000,000)=2.44 grams per test phase.
(xii) HCconc=[14.65 − (0.788)(10.86)] − [2.771 − (0.788)(0.16)] (1-1/24.94)=3.553 ppm.
(xiii) HCmass=(6048.1)(16.33)(3.553/1,000,000)=0.35 grams per test phase.
(xiv) CHCHOe = 4.069 × 10−2(8.970)(5.0)(0.1429)(527.67)/(0.2857)(725.42) = 0.664 ppm.
(xv) CHCHOd = 4.069 × 10−2(0.39)(5.0)(0.1429)(527.67)/(1.1043)(725.42) = 0.0075 ppm.
(xvi) HCHOconc=0.664-0.0075(1-1/24.939)=0.6568 ppm.
(xvii) HCHOmass=(6048.1)(35.36)(0.6568/1,000,000)=0.1405 grams per test phase.
(xviii) THCE=0.35 (13.8756/32.042)(2.44) (13.8756/ 30.0262)(0.1405)=1.47 grams per test phase.
(xix) NOXconc=5.273−(0.146)(1-1/24.939)=5.13 ppm.
(xx) NOXmass=(6048.1)(54.16)(5.13/1,000,000)(0.8951)=1.505 grams per test phase.
(xxi) COconc=96.332−1.181(1-1/24.939)=95.2 ppm.
(xxii) COmass=(6048.1)(32.97)(95.2/1,000,000)=18.98 grams per test phase.
(xxiii) CO2conc=0.469-0.039(1-1/24.939)=0.432 percent.
(xxiv) CO2mass=(6048.1)(51.85)(0.432/100)=1353 grams.
(xxv) CH4conc=2.825-2.019(1-1/24.939)=0.89 ppm.
(xxvi) NMHCconc=3.553 ppm−0.89 ppm=2.67 ppm.
(xxvii) NMHCmass=(6048.1)(16.33)(2.67/1,000,000)=0.263 grams per test phase.
(xxviii) NMHCEmass=0.263 (13.8756/32.042)(2.44) (13.8756/ 30.0262)(0.1405)=1.39 grams per test phase.
(2) For the stabilized portion of the cold start test assume that similar calculations resulted in the following:
(i) THCE=0.143 grams per test phase.
(ii) NOXmass=0.979 grams per test phase.
(iii) COmass=0.365 grams per test phase.
(iv) CO2mass=1467 grams per test phase.
(v) Ds=3.854 miles.
(vi) NMHCE=0.113 grams per test phase.
(3) For the “transient” portion of the hot start test assume that similar calculations resulted in the following:
(i) THCE=0.488 grams as carbon equivalent per test phase.
(ii) NOXmass=1.505 grams per test phase.
(iii) COmass=3.696 grams per test phase.
(iv) CO2mass=1179 grams per test phase.
(v) Dht=3.577 miles.
(vi) NMHCE=0.426 grams per test phase.
(4) Weighted emission results:
(i) THCEwm = (0.43) × (1.473 0.143)/(3.583 3.854) (0.57) × (0.488 0.143)/(3.577 3.854) = 0.142 grams as carbon equivalent per mile.
(ii) NOxwm = (0.43) × (1.505 0.979)/(3.583 3.854) (0.57) × (1.505 0.979)/3.577 3.854) = 0.344 grams per mile.
(iii) COwm = (0.43) × (18.983 0.365)/(3.583 = 3.854) (0.57) × (3.696 0.365)/(3.577 3.854) = 1.43 grams per mile.
(iv) CO2wm = (0.43) × (1353 1467)/(3.583 3.854) (0.57) × (1179 1467)/(3.577 3.854) = 366 grams per mile.
(v) NMHCEwm = (0.43) × (1.386 0.113)/(3.583 3.854) (0.57) × (0.426 = 0.113)/(3.577 3.854) = 0.128 grams per mile.
[56 FR 25777, June 5, 1991, as amended at 59 FR 39649, Aug. 3, 1994; 59 FR 48511, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34349, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47122, Sept. 5, 1997; 70 FR 40434, July 13, 2005; 75 FR 22980, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57377, Sept. 15, 2011]

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  • 2014-08-08; vol. 79 # 153 - Friday, August 8, 2014
    1. 79 FR 46356 - Emergency Vehicle Rule—SCR Maintenance and Regulatory Flexibility for Nonroad Equipment
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§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 86 after this date.

  • 2014-08-08; vol. 79 # 153 - Friday, August 8, 2014
    1. 79 FR 46356 - Emergency Vehicle Rule—SCR Maintenance and Regulatory Flexibility for Nonroad Equipment
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective on September 8, 2014.
      40 CFR Parts 86 and 1039