40 CFR 86.1834-01 - Allowable maintenance.
(a) Maintenance performed on vehicles, engines, subsystems, or components used to determine exhaust, evaporative or refueling emission deterioration factors, as appropriate, is classified as either emission-related or non-emission-related and each of these can be classified as either scheduled or unscheduled. Further, some emission-related maintenance is also classified as critical emission-related maintenance.
(b) This section specifies emission-related scheduled maintenance for purposes of obtaining durability data and for inclusion in maintenance instructions furnished to purchasers of new motor vehicles and under § 86.1808-01.
(1) All emission-related scheduled maintenance for purposes of obtaining durability data must occur at the same mileage intervals (or equivalent intervals if engines, subsystems, or components are used) that will be specified in the manufacturer's maintenance instructions furnished to the ultimate purchaser of the motor vehicle or engine under § 86.1808-01. This maintenance schedule may be updated as necessary throughout the testing of the vehicle/engine, provided that no maintenance operation is deleted from the maintenance schedule after the operation has been performed on the test vehicle or engine.
(2) Any emission-related maintenance which is performed on vehicles, engines, subsystems, or components must be technologically necessary to assure in-use compliance with the emission standards. Manufacturers shall determine the technological need for maintenance using good engineering judgment. The Administrator has determined that emission-related maintenance at shorter intervals than those outlined in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section is not technologically necessary to ensure in-use compliance. However, the Administrator may determine that maintenance even more restrictive (e.g., longer intervals) than that listed in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section is also not technologically necessary.
(3) Emission-related maintenance in addition to, or at shorter intervals than, that listed in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) through (vi) of this section will not be accepted as technologically necessary, except as provided in paragraph (b)(7) of this section.
(A) The cleaning or replacement of light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck spark plugs shall occur at 30,000 miles of use and at 30,000-mile intervals thereafter.
(B) The cleaning or replacement of complete heavy-duty vehicle spark plugs shall occur at 25,000 miles (or 750 hours) of use and at 30,000-mile (or 750 hour) intervals thereafter, for vehicles certified for use with unleaded fuel only.
(ii) For light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, the adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the following items shall occur at 50,000 miles of use and at 50,000-mile intervals thereafter:
(iii) For complete heavy-duty vehicles, the adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the following items shall occur at 50,000 miles (or 1,500 hours) of use and at 50,000-mile (1,500 hour) intervals thereafter:
(iv) For light-duty trucks, light-duty vehicles, and complete heavy-duty vehicles, the adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the oxygen sensor shall occur at 80,000 miles (or 2,400 hours) of use and at 80,000-mile (or 2,400-hour) intervals thereafter.
(v) For light-duty trucks and light-duty vehicles, the adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the following items shall occur at 100,000 miles of use and at 100,000-mile intervals thereafter:
(vi) For complete heavy-duty vehicles, the adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the following items shall occur at 100,000 miles (or 3,000 hours) of use and at 100,000-mile (or 3,000 hour) intervals thereafter:
(H) Exhaust gas recirculation system (including all related control valves and tubing) except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(E) of this section.
(4) For diesel-cycle light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, emission-related maintenance in addition to, or at shorter intervals than the following will not be accepted as technologically necessary, except as provided in paragraph (b)(7) of this section:
(i) The adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement of the positive crankcase ventilation valve shall occur at 50,000 miles of use and at 50,000-mile intervals thereafter.
(ii) The adjustment, cleaning, repair, or replacement shall occur at 100,000 miles of use and at 100,000-mile intervals thereafter of the following items:
(C) Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors (including oxygen sensor if installed) and actuators.
(H) Any other add-on emissions-related component (i.e., a component whose sole or primary purpose is to reduce emissions or whose failure will significantly degrade emissions control and whose function is not integral to the design and performance of the engine.)
(ii) All critical emission-related scheduled maintenance must have a reasonable likelihood of being performed in use. The manufacturer shall be required to show the reasonable likelihood of such maintenance being performed in use, and such showing shall be made prior to the performance of the maintenance on the durability data vehicle. Critical emission-related scheduled maintenance items which satisfy one of the following conditions will be accepted as having a reasonable likelihood of the maintenance item being performed in use:
(A) Data are presented which establish for the Administrator a connection between emissions and vehicle performance such that as emissions increase due to lack of maintenance, vehicle performance will simultaneously deteriorate to a point unacceptable for typical driving.
(B) Survey data are submitted which adequately demonstrate to the Administrator that, at an 80 percent confidence level, 80 percent of such engines already have this critical maintenance item performed in use at the recommended interval(s).
(C) A clearly displayed visible signal system approved by the Administrator is installed to alert the vehicle driver that maintenance is due. A signal bearing the message “maintenance needed” or “check engine,” or a similar message approved by the Administrator, shall be actuated at the appropriate mileage point or by component failure. This signal must be continuous while the engine is in operation and not be easily eliminated without performance of the required maintenance. Resetting the signal shall be a required step in the maintenance operation. The method for resetting the signal system shall be approved by the Administrator.
(D) A manufacturer may desire to demonstrate through a survey that a critical maintenance item is likely to be performed without a visible signal on a maintenance item for which there is no prior in-use experience without the signal. To that end, the manufacturer may in a given model year market up to 200 randomly selected vehicles per critical emission-related maintenance item without such visible signals, and monitor the performance of the critical maintenance item by the owners to show compliance with paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(B) of this section. This option is restricted to two consecutive model years and may not be repeated until any previous survey has been completed. If the critical maintenance involves more than one test group, the sample will be sales weighted to ensure that it is representative of all the groups in question.
(E) The manufacturer provides the maintenance free of charge, and clearly informs the customer that the maintenance is free in the instructions provided under § 86.1808-01.
(F) Any other method which the Administrator approves as establishing a reasonable likelihood that the critical maintenance will be performed in use.
(iii) Visible signal systems used under paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(C) of this section are considered an element of design of the emission control system. Therefore, disabling, resetting, or otherwise rendering such signals inoperative without also performing the indicated maintenance procedure is a prohibited act under section 203(a)(3) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(3)).
(i) For maintenance practices that existed prior to the 1980 model year, only the maintenance items listed in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section are currently considered by EPA to be emission-related. The Administrator may, however, determine additional scheduled maintenance items that existed prior to the 1980 model year to be emission-related by announcement in a Federal Register Notice. In no event may this notification occur later than September 1 of the calendar year two years prior to the affected model year.
(ii) In the case of any new scheduled maintenance, the manufacturer must submit a request for approval to the Administrator for any maintenance that it wishes to recommend to purchasers and perform during durability determination. New scheduled maintenance is that maintenance which did not exist prior to the 1980 model year, including that which is a direct result of the implementation of new technology not found in production prior to the 1980 model year. The manufacturer must also include its recommendations as to the category (i.e., emission-related or non-emission-related, critical or non-critical) of the subject maintenance and, for suggested emission-related maintenance, the maximum feasible maintenance interval. Such requests must include detailed evidence supporting the need for the maintenance requested, and supporting data or other substantiation for the recommended maintenance category and for the interval suggested for emission-related maintenance. Requests for new scheduled maintenance must be approved prior to the introduction of the new maintenance. The Administrator will then designate the maintenance as emission-related or non-emission-related. For maintenance items established as emission-related, the Administrator will further designate the maintenance as critical if the component which receives the maintenance is a critical component under paragraph (b)(6) of this section. For each maintenance item designated as emission-related, the Administrator will also establish a technologically necessary maintenance interval, based on industry data and any other information available to EPA. Designations of emission-related maintenance items, along with their identification as critical or non-critical, and establishment of technologically necessary maintenance intervals, will be announced in the Federal Register.
(iii) Any manufacturer may request a hearing on the Administrator's determinations in this paragraph (b)(7). The request shall be in writing and shall include a statement specifying the manufacturer's objections to the Administrator's determinations, and data in support of such objections. If, after review of the request and supporting data, the Administrator finds that the request raises a substantial factual issue, he shall provide the manufacturer a hearing in accordance with § 86.1853-01 with respect to such issue.
(c) Non-emission-related scheduled maintenance which is reasonable and technologically necessary (e.g., oil change, oil filter change, fuel filter change, air filter change, cooling system maintenance, adjustment of idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, injector lash, timing, adjustment of air pump drive belt tension, lubrication of the exhaust manifold heat control valve, lubrication of carburetor choke linkage, re-torquing carburetor mounting bolts, etc.) may be performed on durability data vehicles at the least frequent intervals recommended by the manufacturer to the ultimate purchaser, (e.g., not at the intervals recommended for severe service).
(1) Unscheduled maintenance may be performed during the testing used to determine deterioration factors, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section, only under the following provisions defined in paragraphs (d)(1) (i) through (iii) of this section:
(ii) Readjustment of an Otto-cycle vehicle cold-start enrichment system may be performed if there is a problem of stalling.
(iii) Readjustment of the engine idle speed (curb idle and fast idle) may be performed in addition to that performed as scheduled maintenance under paragraph (c) of this section if the idle speed exceeds the manufacturer's recommended idle speed by 300 rpm or more, or if there is a problem of stalling.
(2) Any other unscheduled vehicle, emission control system, or fuel system adjustment, repair, removal, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement during testing to determine deterioration factors shall be performed (using good engineering judgment) only in the following circumstances:
(i) The part failure or system malfunction, or the repair of such failure or malfunction, does not render the vehicle or engine unrepresentative of vehicles or engines in use and does not require direct access to the combustion chamber, except for spark plug, fuel injection component, or removable prechamber removal or replacement.
(ii) The need for maintenance or repairs is indicated by an overt indication of malfunction such as persistent misfiring, engine stalling, overheating, fluid leakage, loss of oil pressure, excessive fuel consumption, or excessive power loss. The Administrator shall be given the opportunity to verify the existence of an overt indication of part failure and/or vehicle/engine malfunction (e.g., misfiring, stalling, black smoke), or an activation of an audible and/or visible signal, prior to the performance of any maintenance to which such overt indication or signal is relevant under the provisions of this section.
(iii) The OBD system of a durability data vehicle representing any test group certifying fully to the Federal OBD requirements as specified in § 86.1806-01(a) through (h) has specifically detected the problem and has illuminated the malfunction indicator light.
(3) Emission measurement may not be used as a means of determining the need for unscheduled maintenance under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, except under the following conditions:
(i) The Administrator may approve unscheduled maintenance on durability data vehicles based upon a significant change in emission levels that indicates a vehicle or engine malfunction. In these cases the Administrator may first approve specific diagnostic procedures to identify the source of the problem. The Administrator may further approve of specific corrections to the problem after the problem has been identified. The Administrator may only approve the corrective action after it is determined that:
(A) The malfunction was caused by nonproduction build practices or by a previously undetected design problem;
(C) The deterioration factor generated by the durability data vehicle or engine will remain unaffected by the malfunction or by the corrective action (e.g., the malfunction was present for only a short period of time before detection, replacement parts are functionally representative of the proper mileage or hours, etc.).
(ii) Following any unscheduled maintenance approved under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, the manufacturer shall perform an after-maintenance emission test. If the Administrator determines that the after-maintenance emission levels for any pollutant indicates that the deterioration factor is no longer representative of production, the Administrator may disqualify the durability data vehicle or engine.
(4) If a part failure or system malfunction occurrence and/or repair has rendered the vehicle/engine unrepresentative of vehicles in use, the vehicle/engine shall not be used for determining deterioration factors.
(5) Repairs to vehicle components of a durability data vehicle other than the engine, emission control system, or fuel system, shall be performed only as a result of part failure, vehicle system malfunction, or with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(1) Adjustment of engine idle speed on emission data vehicles may be performed once before the low-mileage/low-hour emission test point. Any other engine, emission control system, or fuel system adjustment, repair, removal, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement on emission data vehicles shall be performed only with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(2) Repairs to vehicle components of an emission data vehicle other than the engine, emission control system, or fuel system, shall be performed only as a result of part failure, vehicle system malfunction, or with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(f) Equipment, instruments, or tools may not be used to identify malfunctioning, maladjusted, or defective engine components unless the same or equivalent equipment, instruments, or tools will be available to dealerships and other service outlets and:
(2) Are used subsequent to the identification of a vehicle or engine malfunction, as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section for durability data vehicles or in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for emission data vehicles; or
(g) Complete emission tests (see §§ 86.106-96 through 86.145-82) are required, unless waived by the Administrator, before and after scheduled maintenance approved for durability data vehicles. The manufacturer may perform emission tests before unscheduled maintenance. Complete emission tests are required after unscheduled maintenance which may reasonably be expected to affect emissions. The Administrator may waive the requirement to test after unscheduled maintenance. These test data may be submitted weekly to the Administrator, but shall be air posted or delivered within 7 days after completion of the tests, along with a complete record of all pertinent maintenance, including a preliminary engineering report of any malfunction diagnosis and the corrective action taken. A complete engineering report shall be delivered to the Administrator concurrently with the manufacturer's application for certification.
(h) When air conditioning SFTP exhaust emission tests are required, the manufacturer must document that the vehicle's air conditioning system is operating properly and in a representative condition. Required air conditioning system maintenance is performed as unscheduled maintenance and does not require the Administrator's approval.
Title 40 published on 2013-07-01
no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.