(a) Dynamometer.(1) The dynamometer test stand and other instruments for measurement of power output shall be accurate to within 2 percent of point at all power settings above 10 percent of full-scale. Below 10 percent of full-scale the accuracy shall be within 5 percent of point. The dynamometer must be capable of performing the test cycle described in § 86,335 or § 86.336. Dynamometers used for testing gasoline-fueled engines must have sufficient motoring capability to meet the test requirements. A 60-tooth wheel in combination with a frequency counter shall be considered an absolute standard for engine speed.
(2) Dynamometer calibration weights. A minimum of 6 calibration weights for each range used are required. The weights must be equally spaced and traceable to within 0.5 percent of NBS weights. Laboratories located in foreign countries may certify calibration weights to local government bureau standards.
(b) Engine cooling. Means of engine cooling which will maintain the engine operating temperatures (e.g., intake air, oil, water, etc.) at approximately the same temperature as specified by the manufacturer shall be used. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain engine cooling during operation on the dynamometer.
(c) Exhaust system.(1) When testing gasoline-fueled engines:
(i) A chassis-type exhaust system including muffler(s) shall be used. The exhaust system must have a single tail pipe. For engines designed for a dual exhaust system, a standard or specially fabricated “Y” pipe may be used. The “Y” pipe may be located upstream of a single muffler or downstream of a single muffler or downstream of dual mufflers. The potential increase in backpressure due to the use of a single tail pipe instead of dual pipes may be compensated for by using larger than standard exhaust system components downstream of the “Y” pipe. For systems with the “Y” pipe upstream of the muffler, the backpressure at the exhaust manifold exit with the single exhaust system must be comparable to the standard dual exhaust system under the test conditions specified in § 86.335.
(ii) For all catalyst systems the distance from the exhaust manifold flange(s) to the catalyst shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration unless the manufacturer provides temperature data showing equivalent performance at another location.
(iii) For catalyst systems, the probe shall be located in the single exhaust pipe and from 2 to 10 feet downstream of the catalyst(s) and at least 2 feet downstream of the “Y” intersection of any “Y” pipe (if used).
(iv) For noncatalyst systems, the probe shall be located in the single exhaust pipe downstream of the muffler(s) and from 3 to 20 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger exit flange. The probe shall also be at least 2 feet downstream of the “Y” intersection of any “Y” pipe (if used).
(v) For all exhaust systems, the probe shall be located at least 24 inches from the end of the tail pipe. Additional exhaust pipe may be added to the tail pipe to meet the specification.
(2) When testing Diesel engines, a noninsulated exhaust system extending 15 ±5 feet from the exhaust manifold, or the crossover junction in the case of Vee engines, shall be used. The exhaust back pressure must be within 0.2 inch Hg. of the upper limit at maximum rated horsepower, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature for vehicle application. A conventional automotive muffler of a size and type commonly used with the engine being tested shall be employed in the exhaust system during smoke emission testing. The terminal 2 feet of the exhaust pipe shall be a circular cross section and be free of elbows and bends. The end of the pipe shall be cut off squarely. The terminal 2 feet of the exhaust pipe shall have a nominal inside diameter in accordance with the engine being tested, as specified below:
Maximum rated horsepower
Exhaust pipe inside diameter (inches)
Less than 101
101 to 200
201 to 300
301 or more
[42 FR 45154, Sept. 8, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 52922, Nov. 14, 1978]
Title 40 published on 2012-07-01
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