40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

§ 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system.
(a)
(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust. In the CVS concept of measuring mass emissions, two conditions must be satisfied: the total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must be collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and totalized flow over the test period.
(2) Vehicle tailpipe to CVS duct. For methanol fueled vehicles, cooling of the exhaust gases in the duct connecting the vehicle tailpipe to the CVS shall be minimized. This may be accomplished by:
(i) Using a duct of unrestricted length maintained at a temperature above the maximum dew point of the exhaust, but below 121 °C (250 °F); heating and possibly cooling capabilities are required; or
(ii) Using a short duct (up to 12 feet long) constructed of smooth wall pipe with a minimum of flexible sections, maintained at a temperature above the maximum dew point of the exhaust, but below 121 °C (250 °F), prior to the test and during any breaks in the test and uninsulated during the test (insulation may remain in place and/or heating may occur during testing provided maximum temperature is not exceeded); or
(iii) Using smooth wall duct less than five feet long with no required heating. A maximum of two short flexible connectors are allowed under this option; or
(iv) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function at the motorcycle tailpipe exit.
(3) Positive displacement pump. The Positive Displacement Pump-Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS), Figure F90-1 satisfies the first condition by metering at a constant temperature and pressure through the pump. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional samples are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled motorcycle sample lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 3 °C (5 °F) above the maximum dew point of the sample, but below 121 °C (250 °F). (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled motorcycles, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol.)
(4) Critical flow venturi. The operation of the Critical Flow Venturi—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS) sample system, Figure F90-2, is based upon the principles of fluid dynamics associated with critical flow. Proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions is maintained by use of small CFVs in the sample lines, which respond to the varying temperatures in the same manner as the main CFV. For methanol-fueled motorcycles, the methanol and formaldehyde sample lines are heated to prevent condensation. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 3 °C (5 °F) above the maximum dew point of the sample, but below 121 °C (250 °F). Care must be taken to ensure that the CFVs of the sample probes are not heated since heating of the CFVs would cause loss of proportionality. (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled motorcycles, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol.) Total flow per test is determined by continuously computing and integrating instantaneous flow. A low response time temperature sensor is necessary for accurate flow calculation.
(5) Electronic Flow Control. The Critical Flow Venturi—Electronic Flow Control—Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-EFC-CVS) system is identical to the CFV-CVS system described in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c) of this section, except that it maintains proportional sampling for methanol and formaldehyde by measuring the CVS flow rate, and electronically controlling sample flow rates. It is recommended that sample volumes be measured by separate flow meters. For methanol-fueled motorcycles, the samples lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 20 °F (11 °C) above the maximum dew point of the sample, but below 121 °C (250 °F).
(6) Other systems. Other sampling systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator (e.g., a heat exchanger with the CFV-CVS or an electronic flow integrator without a heat exchanger, with the PDP-CVS).
(b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, heat exchanger, positive displacement pump, sampling systems including, probes and sampling lines which, in the case of the methanol-fueled motorcycles, are heated to prevent condensation (heating of the sample lines may be omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines), and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Static pressure variations at the tailpipe(s) of the vehicle shall remain within ±1.25 kPa (±5.02 in H2O) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no connection to the tailpipe(s). (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±0.25 kPa (±1.00 in. H2O) will be used by the Administrator if a written request substantiates the need for this closer tolerance.)
(2) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the positive displacement pump, shall be within ±5 °C (9 °F) of the designed operating temperature at the start of the test. The gas mixture temperature variation from its value at the start of the test shall be limited to ±5 °C (9 °F) during the entire test. The temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±1 °C (1.8 °F).
(3) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and precision of ±0.4 kPa (±3 mm Hg).
(4) The location of the dilution air inlet shall be placed so as to use test-cell air for dilution and the flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems. Control of water condensation with methanol-fueled vehicles is critical. Additional care may also be required to eliminate water condensation when testing natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (Procedures for determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009.) Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating the dilution air is also allowed, provided:
(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 121 °C (250 °F).
(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.)
(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.
(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples (hydrocarbons and carbon monoide) shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (methanol-fueled motorcycles).
(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the PDP. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:
(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that if a test motorcycle continuously emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.
(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that if a test motorcycle continuously emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 1.0 g/km for a 5.0 g/km standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.
(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. This requirement does not apply to dilution air samples, since they do not require secondary impingers, or to samples in which the concentrations approach the limit of detection.
(c) Component description, CFV-CVS. The CFV-CVS sample system, Figure F90-2, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, a cyclone particulate separator, unheated sampling venturies for the bag samples, and for the methanol and formaldehyde samples from methanol-fueled vehicles, samples lines heated to prevent condensation for the methanol and formaldehyde samples from methanol fueled vehicles (heating of the sample lines may be omitted provided, the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines), a critical flow venturi, and assorted valves, and pressure and temperature sensors. The CFV sample system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Static pressure variations at the tailpipe(s) of the vehicle shall remain within ±1.25 kPa (5.02 in H2O) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no connection to the tailpipe(s). (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±0.25 kPa (1.00 in H2O) will be used by the Administrator if a written request substantiates the need for this closer tolerance.)
(2) The temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±1 °C (1.8 °F) and a response time of 0.100 second to 62.5 percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil).
(3) The pressure measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±0.4 kPa (±3 mm Hg).
(4) The location of the dilution air inlet shall be placed so as to use test-cell air for dilution and the flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to completely eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems. Control of water condensation with methanol-fueled vehicles is critical. Additional care may also be required to eliminate water condensation when testing natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (Procedures for determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009.) Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating the dilution air is also allowed, provided:
(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 250 °F.
(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.)
(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.
(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples (hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide) shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (methanol-fueled motorcycles).
(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the CVS. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:
(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that if a test motorcycle continuously emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.
(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that if a test motorcycle continuously emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 1.0 g/km for a 5.0 g/km standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.
(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. This requirement does not apply to dilution air samples, since they do not require secondary impingers, or to samples in which the concentrations approach the limit of detection.
(d) Component description, CFV-EFC-CVS. The CVS sample system is identical to the system described in paragraph (c) of this section, plus includes a means of electronically measuring the CVS flow rate, and electronic mass flow controllers for the methanol and formaldehyde sample lines, and separate flow meters to totalize sample flow volumes (optional). The EFC sample system shall conform to all of the requirements listed in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the methanol and formaldehyde samples mat both be drawn from a single static probe. It also must comply with the following additional requirements:
(1) The ratio of the CVS flow rate to the sample flow rate shall not deviate from the ratio at the start of the test by more than ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with the square root of the bulk stream temperature.)
(2) Flow totalizers for methanol and/or formaldehyde samples shall have an accuracy of ±2 percent. Total sample volumes may be obtained from the flow controllers, with the advance approval of the administrator, provided that the controllers can be shown to have an accuracy of ±2 percent.
[54 FR 14539, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48512, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34351, June 30, 1995]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7625–1 - Exemptions for certain territories

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions