40 CFR 87.60 - Introduction.

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§ 87.60 Introduction. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012.
(a) Except as provided under § 87.5, the procedures described in this subpart shall be the test program to determine the conformity of new aircraft gas turbine engines with the applicable standards set forth in this part.
(b) The test consists of operating the engine at prescribed power settings on an engine dynamometer (for engines producing primarily shaft power) or thrust measuring test stand (for engines producing primarily thrust). The exhaust gases generated during engine operation are sampled continuously for specific component analysis through the analytical train.
(c) The exhaust emission test is designed to measure hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen concentrations, and to determine mass emissions through calculations during a simulated aircraft landing-takeoff cycle (LTO). The LTO cycle is based on time in mode data during high activity periods at major airports. The test for propulsion engines consists of at least the following four modes of engine operation: taxi/idle, takeoff, climbout, and approach. The mass emission for the modes are combined to yield the reported values.
(d) When an engine is tested for exhaust emissions on an engine dynamometer or test stand, the complete engine shall be used with all accessories which might reasonably be expected to influence emissions to the atmosphere installed and functioning, if not otherwise prohibited by § 87.62(a)(2). Use of service air bleed and shaft power extraction to power auxiliary gearbox-mounted components required to drive aircraft systems is not permitted.
(e) Other gaseous emissions measurement systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator or the Secretary.
[47 FR 58470, Dec. 30, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 31875, Aug. 9, 1984; 62 FR 25366, May 8, 1997]
Effective Date Note:
At 77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012, § 87.60 was revised, effective July 18, 2012. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows:
§ 87.60 Testing engines.
(a) Use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 3, Appendix 5, and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in § 87.8), as applicable, to demonstrate whether engines meet the gaseous emission standards specified in subpart C of this part. Measure the emissions of all regulated gaseous pollutants. Similarly, use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 2 and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 to determine whether engines meet the smoke standard specified in subpart C of this part. The compliance demonstration consists of establishing a mean value from testing some number of engines, then calculating a “characteristic level” by applying a set of statistical factors that take into account the number of engines tested. Round each characteristic level to the same number of decimal places as the corresponding emission standard. For turboprop engines, use the procedures specified for turbofan engines, consistent with good engineering judgment.
(b) Use a test fuel meeting the specifications described in Appendix 4 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in § 87.8). The test fuel must not have additives whose purpose is to suppress smoke, such as organometallic compounds.
(c) Prepare test engines by including accessories that are available with production engines if they can reasonably be expected to influence emissions. The test engine may not extract shaft power or bleed service air to provide power to auxiliary gearbox-mounted components required to drive aircraft systems.
(d) Test engines must reach a steady operating temperature before the start of emission measurements.
(e) In consultation with the EPA, the FAA may approve alternate procedures for measuring emissions as specified in this paragraph (e). This might include testing and sampling methods, analytical techniques, and equipment specifications that differ from those specified in this part. Manufacturers and operators may request this approval by sending a written request with supporting justification to the FAA and to the Designated EPA Program Officer. Such a request may be approved only if one of the following conditions is met:
(1) The engine cannot be tested using the specified procedures.
(2) The alternate procedure is shown to be equivalent to or better (e.g., more accurate or precise) than the specified procedure.
(f) The following landing and take-off (LTO) cycles apply for emission testing and calculating weighted LTO values:
Table 1 to § 87.60 —LTO Test Cycles
Mode Turboprop Subsonic turbofan Supersonic turbofan
Percent of rated output Time in mode(minutes) Percent of rated output Time in mode(minutes) Percent of rated output Time in mode(minutes)
Take-off 100 0.5 100 0.7 100 1.2
Climb 90 2.5 85 2.2 65 2.0
Descent 15 1.2
Approach 30 4.5 30 4.0 34 2.3
Taxi/ground idle 7 26.0 7 26.0 5.8 26.0
(g) Engines comply with an applicable standard if the testing results show that the engine type certificate family's characteristic level does not exceed the numerical level of that standard, as described in § 87.60.

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