(a) Gases present in the exhaust other than the one being analyzed can interfere with the reading in several ways. Positive interference occurs in NDIR and PMD instruments when the interfering gas gives the same effect as the gas being measured, but to a lesser degree. Negative interference occurs in NDIR instruments by the interfering gas broadening the absorption band of the measured gas and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching the radiation. The interference checks described in this section are to be made initially and after any major repairs that could affect analyzer performance.
(b)CO analyzer water and CO2interference checks. Prior to its introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2.
(1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance on the most sensitive range to be used.
(2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.
(3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response.
(4) An analyzer response of more than 1 percent of full scale for ranges above 300 ppm full scale or more than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale requires corrective action. (Use of conditioning columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.)
(c)NOXanalyzer quench check. The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO2 and water vapor. Quench responses to these two gases are proportional to their concentrations and, therefore, require test techniques to determine quench at the highest expected concentrations experienced during testing.
(1)NOXanalyzer CO2quench check. A CO2 span gas having a concentration of 80 percent to 100 percent of full scale of the maximum operating range used during testing shall be passed through the CO2 NDIR analyzer and the value recorded as a. It is diluted approximately 50 percent with NO span gas and then passed through the CO2 NDIR and CLD (or HCLD), with the CO2 and NO values recorded as b and c respectively. The CO2 shall then be shut off and only the NO span gas passed through the CLD (or HCLD) and the NO value recorded as d. Percent CO2 quench shall be calculated as follows and shall not exceed 3 percent:
a = Undiluted CO2 concentration (percent)
b = Diluted CO2 concentration (percent)
c = Diluted NO concentration (ppm)
d = Undiluted NO concentration (ppm)
(2)NOXanalyzer water quench check. (i) This check applies to wet measurements only. An NO span gas having a concentration of 80 to 100 percent of full scale of a normal operating range shall be passed through the CLD (or HCLD) and the response recorded as D. The NO span gas shall then be bubbled through water at room temperature and passed through the CLD (or HCLD) and the analyzer response recorded as AR. Determine and record the bubbler absolute operating pressure and the bubbler water temperature. (It is important that the NO span gas contains minimal NO2 concentration for this check. No allowance for absorption of NO2 in water has been made in the following quench calculations. This test may be optionally run in the NO mode to minimize the effect of any NO2 in the NO span gas.)
(ii) Calculations for water quench must consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapor and scaling of the water vapor concentration of the mixture to that expected during testing. Determine the mixture's saturated vapor pressure (designated as Pwb) that corresponds to the bubbler water temperature. Calculate the water concentration (Z1, percent) in the mixture by the following equation:
GP = analyzer operating pressure (Pa)
(iii) Calculate the expected dilute NO span gas and water vapor mixture concentration (designated as D1) by the following equation:
(A) The maximum raw or dilute exhaust water vapor concentration expected during testing (designated as Wm) can be estimated from the CO2 span gas (or as defined in the equation in this paragraph and designated as A) criteria in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and the assumption of a fuel atom H/C ratio of 1.8:1 as:
A = maximum CO2 concentration expected in the sample system during testing.
(B) Percent water quench shall not exceed 3 percent and shall be calculated by:
[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56995, 57011, Oct. 23, 1998; 63 FR 58101, Oct. 29, 1998]
Title 40 published on 2012-07-01
no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.
This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.