40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

§ 89.424 Dilute emission sampling calculations.
(a) The final reported emission test results are computed by use of the following formula:
Where:
Awm = Weighted mass emission level (HC, CO, CO2, PM, or NOX) in g/kW-hr.
gi = Mass flow in grams per hour, = grams measured during the mode divided by the sample time for the mode.
WFi = Effective weighing factor.
Pi = Power measured during each mode (Power set = zero for the idle mode).
(b) The mass of each pollutant for each mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the following equations:
(1) Hydrocarbon mass:
HCmass= Vmix × DensityHC × (HCconc/106)
(2) Oxides of nitrogen mass:
NOXmass = Vmix × DensityNO2 × KH × (NOXconc/106)
(3) Carbon monoxide mass:
COmass= Vmix× DensityCO× (COconc/106)
(4) Carbon dioxide mass:
CO2mass= Vmix× DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/102)
(c) The mass of each pollutant for the mode for flow compensated sample systems is determined from the following equations:
(d) Meaning of symbols:
(1) For hydrocarbon equations:
HC mass= Hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per test mode.
Density HC= Density of hydrocarbons is (.5800 kg/m3) for #1 diesel, and (0.5746 kg/m3) for #2 diesel, assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.93 for #1 diesel, and 1:1.80 for #2 diesel at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure.
HC conc= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm carbon equivalent (that is, equivalent propane times 3).
Where:
HC e= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample or, for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as calculated from the integrated HC traces, in ppm carbon equivalent. For flow compensated sample systems (HC e)i is the instantaneous concentration.
HC d= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilution air as measured, in ppm carbon equivalent.
(2) For oxides of nitrogen equations:
NO Xmass = Oxides of nitrogen emissions, in grams per test mode.
Density NO 2= Density of oxides of nitrogen is 1.913 kg/m3, assuming they are in the form of nitrogen dioxide, at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure.
NO Xconc= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm:
Where:
NO X.= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample as measured, in ppm. For flow compensated sample systems (NO X.)i is the instantaneous concentration.
NO X.= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute air as measured, in ppm.
(3) For carbon monoxide equations:
CO mass=Carbon monoxide emissions, grams per test mode. DensityCO=Density of carbon monoxide (1.164 kg/m3 at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure).
CO conc=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, ppm.
Where:
CO e=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction, ppm. For flow compensated sample systems, (CO e)i is the instantaneous concentration.
The following calculation assumes the carbon to hydrogen ratio of the fuel is 1:1.85. As an option the measured actual carbon to hydrogen ratio may be used:
CO e=[1−0.01925CO2.−0.000323R]CO em
Where:
CO em=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as measured, ppm.
CO 2.=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample, in percent, if measured. For flow compensated sample systems, (CO 2.) i is the instantaneous concentration. For cases where exhaust sampling of CO2 is not performed, the following approximation is permitted:
a=Average carbon to hydrogen ratio.
M 1 = Fuel mass consumed during the mode.
R=Relative humidity of the dilution air, percent.
CO d=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, ppm.
CO d=(1−0.000323R)COdm
Where:
CO dm=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air sample as measured, ppm.
(Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, is used without a sample dryer according to 40 CFR 1065.145, COem must be substituted directly for COe and COdm must be substituted directly for COd.)
(4) For carbon dioxide equation:
CO 2mass=Carbon dioxide emissions, in grams per test mode.
Density CO 2=Density of carbon dioxide is 1.830 kg/m3, at 20 °C and 760 mm Hg pressure.
CO 2conc=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in percent.
Where:
CO 2.=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent.
(6) Measured “dry” concentrations shall be corrected to a wet basis, if not already measured on a wet basis. This section is applicable only for measurements made on dilute exhaust gas. Correction to a wet basis shall be according to the following formula:
ConcWET = KW × ConcDRY
Where: KW is determined according to the equation in paragraph (d)(6)(i) or (d)(6)(ii), of this section.
(i) For wet CO2 measurement:
(ii) For dry CO2 measurement:
(iii) For the equations in paragraph (d)(6)(i) and (d)(6)(ii) of this section, the following equation applies:
Where: Ha and Hd are the grams of water per kilogram of dry air; as illustrated in the following equations:
(e) The final modal reported brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc) shall be computed by use of the following formula:
Where:
bsfc = brake-specific fuel consumption for a mode in grams of fuel per kilowatt-hour (kW-hr).
M = mass of fuel in grams, used by the engine during a mode.
kW-hr = total kilowatts integrated with respect to time for a mode.
(f) The mass of fuel for the mode is determined from mass fuel flow measurements made during the mode, or from the following equation:
Where:
M=Mass of fuel, in grams, used by the engine during the mode.
G s=Grams of carbon measured during the mode:
R 2=Grams C in fuel per gram of fuel
Where:
HC mass=hydrocarbon emissions, in grams for the mode
CO 2mass=carbon monoxide emissions, in grams for the mode
CO 2mass=carbon dioxide emissions, in grams for the mode
α=The atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel.
[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57018, Oct. 23, 1998; 70 FR 40446, July 13, 2005]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions