40 CFR 90.104 - Compliance with emission standards.

§ 90.104 Compliance with emission standards.
Paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section apply to Phase 1 engines only. Paragraphs (d) through (h) of this section apply only to Phase 2 engines.
(a) If all test engines representing an engine family have emissions less than or equal to each emission standard in a given engine displacement class, that family complies with that class of emission standards.
(b) If any test engine representing an engine family has emissions greater than any one emission standard in a given engine displacement class, that family will be deemed not in compliance with that class of emission standards.
(c) If catalysts are used in an engine family, the engine manufacturer must affirm that catalyst durability has been confirmed on the basis of the evaluation procedure that is specified in subpart E of this part.
(d) The exhaust emission standards (FELs, where applicable) for Phase 2 engines set forth in this part apply to the emissions of the engines for their full useful lives as determined pursuant to § 90.105.
(e) For all Phase 2 engines, if all test engines representing an engine family have emissions, when properly tested according to procedures in this part, less than or equal to each Phase 2 emission standard (FEL, where applicable) in a given engine class and given model year, when multiplicatively adjusted by the deterioration factor determined in this section, that family complies with that class of emission standards for purposes of certification. If any test engine representing an engine family has emissions adjusted multiplicatively by the deterioration factor determined in this section, greater than any one emission standard (FEL, where applicable) for a given displacement class, that family does not comply with that class of emission standards.
(f) Each engine manufacturer must comply with all provisions of the averaging, banking and trading program outlined in subpart C of this part for each engine family participating in that program.
(g)
(1) Small volume engine manufacturers and small volume engine families may, at their option, take deterioration factors for HC NOX (NMHC NOX) and CO from Table 1 or Table 2 of this paragraph (g), or they may calculate deterioration factors for HC NOX (NMHC NOX) and CO according to the process described in paragraph (h) of this section. For technologies that are not addressed in Table 1 or Table 2 of this paragraph (g), the manufacturer may ask the Administrator to assign a deterioration factor prior to the time of certification. The provisions of this paragraph (g) do not apply to Class I-A and Class I-B engines.
(2) Table 1 follows:
Table 1: Nonhandheld Engine HC NOX (NMHC NOX) and CO Assigned Deterioration Factors for Small Volume Manufacturers and Small Volume Engine Families
Engine class Side valve engines Overhead valve engines Engines with aftertreatment
HC NOX (NMHC NOX) CO HC NOX (NMHC NOX) CO
Class I 2.1 1.1 1.5 1.1 Dfs must be calculated using the formula in § 90.104(g)(4).
Class II 1.6 1.1 1.4 1.1
(3) Table 2 follows:
Table 2—Handheld Engine HC NOX and CO Assigned Deterioration Factors for Small Volume Manufacturers and Small Volume Engine Families
Engine class Two-stroke engines 1 Four-stroke engines Engines with aftertreatment
HC NOX CO HC NOX CO
1 Two-stroke technologies to which these assigned deterioration factors apply include conventional two-strokes, compression wave designs, and stratified scavenging designs.
Class III 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1 Dfs must be calculated using the formula in § 90.104(g)(4).
Class IV 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1
Class V 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1
(4) Formula for calculating deterioration factors for engines with aftertreatment:
DF = [(NE * EDF)−(CC * F)]/(NE−CC)
Where:
DF = deterioration factor.
NE = new engine emission levels prior to the catalyst (g/kW-hr)
EDF = deterioration factor for engines without catalyst as shown in Table 1 or Table 2 of this paragraph (g)
CC = amount converted at 0 hours in g/kW-hr.
F = 0.8 for HC (NMHC), 0.0 for NOX. and 0.8 for CO for all classes of engines.
(h)
(1) Manufacturers shall obtain an assigned df or calculate a df, as appropriate, for each regulated pollutant for all Phase 2 engine families. Such dfs shall be used for certification, production line testing, and Selective Enforcement Auditing.
(2) For engines not using assigned dfs from Table 1 or Table 2 of paragraph (g) of this section, dfs shall be determined as follows:
(i) On at least one test engine representing the configuration chosen to be the most likely to exceed HC NOX (NMHC NOX) emission standards, (FELs where applicable), and constructed to be representative of production engines pursuant to § 90.117, conduct full Federal test procedure emission testing pursuant to the regulations of subpart E of this part at the number of hours representing stabilized emissions pursuant to § 90.118. If more than one engine is tested, average the results and round to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable standard, expressed to one additional significant figure;
(ii) Conduct such emission testing again following aging the engine. The aging procedure should be designed to allow the manufacturer to appropriately predict the in-use emission deterioration expected over the useful life of the engine, taking into account the type of wear and other deterioration mechanisms expected under typical consumer use which could affect emissions performance. If more than one engine is tested, average the results and round to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable standard, expressed to one additional significant figure;
(iii) Divide the full useful life emissions (average emissions, if applicable) for each regulated pollutant by the stabilized emissions (average emissions, if applicable) and round to two significant figures. The resulting number shall be the df, unless it is less than 1.0, in which case the df shall be 1.0.
(iv) At the manufacturer's option additional emission test points can be scheduled between the stabilized emission test point and the full useful life test period. If intermediate tests are scheduled, the test points must be evenly spaced over the full useful life period (plus or minus 2 hours) and one such test point shall be at one-half of full useful life (plus or minus 2 hours). For each pollutant HC NOX (NMHC NOX) and CO, a line must be fitted to the data points treating the initial test as occurring at hour zero, and using the method of least-squares. The deterioration factor is the calculated emissions durability period divided by the calculated emissions at zero hours.
(3) EPA may reject a df if it has evidence that the df is not appropriate for that family within 30 days of receipt from the manufacturer. The manufacturer must retain actual emission test data to support its choice of df and furnish that data to the Administrator upon request. Manufacturers may request approval by the Administrator of alternate procedures for determining deterioration. Any submitted df not rejected by EPA within 30 days shall be deemed to have been approved.
(4) Calculated deterioration factors may cover families and model years in addition to the one upon which they were generated if the manufacturer submits a justification acceptable to the Administrator in advance of certification that the affected engine families can be reasonably expected to have similar emission deterioration characteristics.
(5) Engine families that undergo running changes need not generate a new df if the manufacturer submits a justification acceptable to the Administrator concurrent with the running change that the affected engine families can be reasonably expected to have similar emission deterioration characteristics.
[60 FR 34598, July 3, 1995, as amended by 64 FR 15237, Mar. 30, 1999; 65 FR 24306, Apr. 25, 2000]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 6939 - Domestic sewage

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions