40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations.

§ 91.419 Raw emission sampling calculations.
(a) Derive the final test results through the steps described in this section.
(b) Air and fuel flow method. If both air and fuel flow mass rates are measured, the following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine:
Where:
WHC = Mass rate of HC in exhaust [g/hr],
GAIRD = Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis [g/hr],
GFUEL = Fuel mass flow rate [g/hr],
MHCexh = Molecular weight of hydrocarbons in the exhaust; see the following equation:
MHCexh = 12.01 1.008 × α
Where:
α=Hydrocarbon/carbon atomic ratio of the fuel.
Mexh=Molecular weight of the total exhaust; see the following equation:
Where:
WHC = HC volume concentration in exhaust, ppmC wet
WCO = CO percent concentration in the exhaust, wet
DCO = CO percent concentration in the exhaust, dry
WCO2 = CO2 percent concentration in the exhaust, wet
DCO2 = CO2 percent concentration in the exhaust, dry
WNOX = NO volume concentration in exhaust, ppm wet
WH2 = H2 percent concentration in exhaust, wet
K = correction factor to be used when converting dry measurements to a wet basis. Therefore, wet concentration = dry concentration × K, where K is:
DH2 = H2 percent concentration in exhaust, dry, calculated from the following equation:
WCO = Mass rate of CO in exhaust, [g/hr]
MCO = Molecular weight of CO = 28.01
WNOx = Mass rate of NOX in exhaust, [g/hr]
MNO2 = Molecular weight of NO2 = 46.01
KH = Factor for correcting the effects of humidity on NO2 formation for four-stroke gasoline engines; see the equation below:
Where:
H = specific humidity of the intake air in grams of moisture per kilogram of dry air.
For two-stroke gasoline engines, KH should be set to 1.
(c) Fuel flow method. The following equations are to be used when fuel flow is selected as the basis for mass emission calculations using the raw gas method.
Where:
WHC = Mass rate of HC in exhaust, [g/hr]
MF = Molecular weight of test fuel; see following equation:
GFUEL = Fuel mass flow rate, [g/hr]
TC = Total carbon; see following equation:
WHC = HC volume concentration in exhaust, ppmC wet
WCO = CO percent concentration in the exhaust, wet
DCO = CO percent concentration in the exhaust, dry
WCO2 = CO2 percent concentration in the exhaust, wet
DCO2 = CO2 percent concentration in the exhaust, dry
WNOX = NO volume concentration in exhaust, ppm wet
WH2 = H2 percent concentration in exhaust, wet
K = correction factor to be used when converting dry measurements to a wet basis. Therefore, wet concentration = dry concentration × K, where K is:
DH2 = H2 percent concentration in exhaust, dry, calculated from the following equation:
WCO = Mass rate of CO in exhaust, [g/hr]
MCO = Molecular weight of CO = 28.01
WNOx = Mass rate of NOX in exhaust, [g/hr]
MNO2 = Molecular weight of NO2 = 46.01
KH = Factor for correcting the effects of humidity on NO2 formation for four-stroke gasoline engines; see the equation below:
Where:
H = specific humidity of the intake air in grams of moisture per kilogram of dry air.
For two-stroke gasoline engines, KH should be set to 1.
(d) The final reported emission test results must be computed by using the following formula for each individual gas component:
Where:
Ywm = Weighted mass emission level (HC, CO, NOX) for a test [g/kW-hr].
Wi = Average mass flow rate (WHC, WCO, WNOx) of an emission from the test engine during mode i, [g/hr].
fi = Weighting factors for each mode according to § 91.410(a)
Pi = Average power measured during mode i, [kW], calculated according to the formula given in § 91.423(b). Power for the idle mode shall always be zero for this calculation.
(e) The final reported weighted brake-specific fuel consumption (WBSFC) shall be computed by use of the following formula:
Where:
WBSFC = Weighted brake-specific fuel consumption in grams of fuel per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr).
Fi = Fuel mass flow rate of the engine during mode i, [g/hr].
fi = Weighting factors for each mode according to § 91.410(a)
Pi = Average power measured during mode i, [kW], calculated according to the formula given in § 91.423(b). Power for the idle mode shall always be zero for this calculation.
[61 FR 52102, Oct. 4, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 68340, Nov. 8, 2002; 70 FR 40452, July 13, 2005]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions