40 CFR 92.1106 - Penalties.

§ 92.1106 Penalties.
(a) Violations. A violation of the requirements of this subpart is a violation of the applicable provisions of the Act, including sections 213(d) and 203, and is subject to the penalty provisions thereunder.
(1) A person who violates § 92.1103 (a)(1), (a)(4), or (a)(5), or a manufacturer, remanufacturer, dealer or railroad who violates § 92.1103(a)(3)(i) or (iii) is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $32,500 for each violation.
(2) A person other than a manufacturer, remanufacturer, dealer, or railroad who violates § 92.1103(a)(3)(i) or any person who violates § 92.1103(a)(3)(ii) is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $2,750 for each violation.
(3) A violation with respect to § 92.1103(a)(1), (a)(3)(i), (a)(3)(iii), (a)(4), or (a)(5) constitutes a separate offense with respect to each locomotive or locomotive engine.
(4) A violation with respect to § 92.1103(a)(3)(ii) constitutes a separate offense with respect to each part or component. Each day of a violation with respect to § 92.1103(a)(5) constitutes a separate offense.
(5) A person who violates § 92.1103(a)(2) is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $32,500 per day of violation.
(6) The maximum penalty values listed in this section are shown for calendar year 2004. Maximum penalty limits for later years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on which the prohibited action is based.
(b) Civil actions. The Administrator may commence a civil action to assess and recover any civil penalty under paragraph (a) of this section.
(1) An action under this paragraph (b) may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the defendant resides or has the Administrator's principal place of business, and the court has jurisdiction to assess a civil penalty.
(2) In determining the amount of a civil penalty to be assessed under this paragraph (b), the court is to take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with Title II of the Act, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require.
(3) In any such action, subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a district court in any district may run into any other district.
(c) Administrative assessment of certain penalties—
(1) Administrative penalty authority. In lieu of commencing a civil action under paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator may assess any civil penalty prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section, except that the maximum amount of penalty sought against each violator in a penalty assessment proceeding shall not exceed $270,000, unless the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a matter involving a larger penalty amount is appropriate for administrative penalty assessment. Any such determination by the Administrator and the Attorney General is not subject to judicial review. Assessment of a civil penalty shall be by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing held in accordance with the procedures found at part 22 of this chapter. The Administrator may compromise, or remit, with or without conditions, any administrative penalty which may be imposed under this section.
(2) Determining amount. In determining the amount of any civil penalty assessed under this paragraph (c), the Administrator shall take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with Title II of the Act, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require.
(3) Effect of administrator's action.
(i) Action by the Administrator under this paragraph (c) does not affect or limit the Administrator's authority to enforce any provisions of the Act; except that any violation with respect to which the Administrator has commenced and is diligently prosecuting an action under this paragraph (c), or for which the Administrator has issued a final order not subject to further judicial review and for which the violator has paid a penalty assessment under this paragraph shall not be the subject of a civil penalty action under paragraph (b) of this section.
(ii) No action by the Administrator under this paragraph (c) shall affect a person's obligation to comply with a section of this part.
(4) Finality of order. An order issued under this paragraph (c) is to become final 30 days after its issuance unless a petition for judicial review is filed under paragraph (c)(5) of this section.
(5) Judicial review. A person against whom a civil penalty is assessed in accordance with this paragraph (c) may seek review of the assessment in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, in which such person resides, or where the person's principal place of business is located, within the 30-day period beginning on the date a civil penalty order is issued. The person shall simultaneously send a copy of the filing by certified mail to the Administrator and the Attorney General. The Administrator shall file in the court within 30 days a certified copy, or certified index, as appropriate, of the record on which the order was issued. The court is not to set aside or remand any order issued in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph (c) unless substantial evidence does not exist in the record, taken as a whole, to support the finding of a violation or unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion, and the court is not to impose additional civil penalties unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion. In any proceedings, the United States may seek to recover civil penalties assessed under this section.
(6) Collection.
(i) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty imposed by the Administrator as provided in this part after the order making the assessment has become final or after a court in an action brought under paragraph (c)(5) of this section has entered a final judgment in favor of the Administrator, the Administrator shall request that the Attorney General bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to recover the amount assessed (plus interest at rates established pursuant to section 6621(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6621(a)(2)) from the date of the final order or the date of final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty is not subject to review.
(ii) A person who fails to pay on a timely basis the amount of an assessment of a civil penalty as described in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section shall be required to pay, in addition to that amount and interest, the United States' enforcement expenses, including attorney's fees and costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which the failure to pay persists. The nonpayment penalty is an amount equal to ten percent of the aggregate amount of that person's penalties and nonpayment penalties which are unpaid as of the beginning of such quarter.
[63 FR 18998, Apr. 16, 1998, as amended at 70 FR 40457, July 13, 2005]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NO

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed.

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed.

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed.

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

42 U.S. Code § 7450 to 7459 - Repealed.

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

42 U.S. Code § -

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions