40 CFR 98.243 - Calculating GHG emissions.

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§ 98.243 Calculating GHG emissions.
(a) If you route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one or more stacks and use CEMS on each stack to measure CO2 emissions (except flare stacks), then you must determine process-based GHG emissions in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Otherwise, determine process-based GHG emissions in accordance with the procedures specified in paragraph (c) or (d) of this section.
(b) Continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS). Route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one or more stacks and determine CO2 emissions from each stack (except flare stacks) according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology requirements in subpart C of this part. For each stack (except flare stacks) that includes emissions from combustion of petrochemical process off-gas, calculate CH4 and N20 emissions in accordance with subpart C of this part (use the Tier 3 methodology, emission factors for “Petroleum” in Table C-2 of subpart C of this part, and either the default high heat value for fuel gas in Table C-1 of subpart C of this part or a calculated HHV, as allowed in Equation C-8 of subpart C of this part). For each flare, calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions using the methodology specified in § 98.253(b)(1) through (b)(3).
(c) Mass balance for each petrochemical process unit. Calculate the emissions of CO2 from each process unit, for each calendar month as described in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this section.
(1) For each gaseous and liquid feedstock and product, measure the volume or mass used or produced each calendar month with a flow meter by following the procedures specified in § 98.244(b)(2). Alternatively, for liquids, you may calculate the volume used or collected in each month based on measurements of the liquid level in a storage tank at least once per month (and just prior to each change in direction of the level of the liquid) following the procedures specified in § 98.244(b)(3). Fuels used for combustion purposes are not considered to be feedstocks.
(2) For each solid feedstock and product, measure the mass used or produced each calendar month by following the procedures specified in § 98.244(b)(1).
(3) Collect a sample of each feedstock and product at least once per month and determine the carbon content of each sample according to the procedures of § 98.244(b)(4). If multiple valid carbon content measurements are made during the monthly measurement period, average them arithmetically. However, if a particular liquid or solid feedstock is delivered in lots, and if multiple deliveries of the same feedstock are received from the same supply source in a given calendar month, only one representative sample is required. Alternatively, you may use the results of analyses conducted by a fuel or feedstock supplier, provided the sampling and analysis is conducted at least once per month using any of the procedures specified in § 98.244(b)(4).
(4) If you determine that the monthly average concentration of a specific compound in a feedstock or product is greater than 99.5 percent by volume (or mass for liquids and solids), then as an alternative to the sampling and analysis specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, you may calculate the carbon content assuming 100 percent of that feedstock or product is the specific compound during periods of normal operation. You must maintain records of any determination made in accordance with this paragraph (c)(4) along with all supporting data, calculations, and other information. This alternative may not be used for products during periods of operation when off-specification product is produced. You must reevaluate determinations made under this paragraph (c)(4) after any process change that affects the feedstock or product composition. You must keep records of the process change and the corresponding composition determinations. If the feedstock or product composition changes so that the average monthly concentration falls below 99.5 percent, you are no longer permitted to use this alternative method.
(5) Calculate the CO2 mass emissions for each petrochemical process unit using Equations X-1 through X-4 of this section.
(i) Gaseous feedstocks and products. Use Equation X-1 of this section to calculate the net annual carbon input or output from gaseous feedstocks and products. Note that the result will be a negative value if there are no gaseous feedstocks in the process but there are gaseous products.
Where:
Cg = Annual net contribution to calculated emissions from carbon (C) in gaseous materials (kilograms/year, kg/yr).
(Fgf)i,n = Volume of gaseous feedstock i introduced in month “n” (standard cubic feet, scf).
(CCgf)i,n = Average carbon content of the gaseous feedstock i for month “n” (kg C per kg of feedstock).
(MWf)i = Molecular weight of gaseous feedstock i (kg/kg-mole).
MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at 68 °F and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute or 836.6 scf/kg-mole at 60 °F and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute).
(Pgp)i,n = Volume of gaseous product i produced in month “n” (scf).
(CCgp)i,n = Average carbon content of gaseous product i, including streams containing CO2 recovered for sale or use in another process, for month “n” (kg C per kg of product).
(MWp)i = Molecular weight of gaseous product i (kg/kg-mole).
j = Number of feedstocks.
k = Number of products.
(ii) Liquid feedstocks and products. Use Equation X-2 of this section to calculate the net carbon input or output from liquid feedstocks and products. Note that the result will be a negative value if there are no liquid feedstocks in the process but there are liquid products.
Where:
Cl = Annual net contribution to calculated emissions from carbon in liquid materials, including liquid organic wastes (kg/yr).
(Flf)i,n = Volume or mass of liquid feedstock i introduced in month “n” (gallons or kg).
(CClf)i,n = Average carbon content of liquid feedstock i for month “n” (kg C per gallon or kg of feedstock).
(Plp)i,n = Volume or mass of liquid product i produced in month “n” (gallons or kg).
(CClp)i,n = Average carbon content of liquid product i, including organic liquid wastes, for month “n” (kg C per gallon or kg of product).
j = Number of feedstocks.
k = Number of products.
(iii) Solid feedstocks and products. Use Equation X-3 of this section to calculate the net annual carbon input or output from solid feedstocks and products. Note that the result will be a negative value if there are no solid feedstocks in the process but there are solid products.
Where:
Cs = Annual net contribution to calculated emissions from carbon in solid materials (kg/yr).
(Fsf)i,n = Mass of solid feedstock i introduced in month “n” (kg).
(CCsf)i,n = Average carbon content of solid feedstock i for month “n” (kg C per kg of feedstock).
(Psp)i,n = Mass of solid product i produced in month “n” (kg).
(CCsp)i,n = Average carbon content of solid product i in month “n” (kg C per kg of product).
j = Number of feedstocks.
k = Number of products.
(iv) Annual emissions. Use the results from Equations X-1 through X-3 of this section, as applicable, in Equation X-4 of this section to calculate annual CO2 emissions.
Where:
CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from process operations and process off-gas combustion (metric tons/year).
0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.
44 = Molecular weight of CO2 (kg/kg-mole).
12 = Atomic weight of carbon (C) (kg/kg-mole).
(d) Optional combustion methodology for ethylene production processes. For each ethylene production process, calculate GHG emissions from combustion units that burn fuel that contains any off-gas from the ethylene process as specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(5) of this section.
(1) Except as specified in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(5) of this section, calculate CO2 emissions using the Tier 3 or Tier 4 methodology in subpart C of this part.
(2) You may use either Equation C-1 or Equation C-2a in subpart C of this part to calculate CO2 emissions from combustion of any ethylene process off-gas streams that meet either of the conditions in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) or (d)(2)(ii) of this section (for any default values in the calculation, use the defaults for fuel gas in Table C-1 of subpart C of this part). Follow the otherwise applicable procedures in subpart C to calculate emissions from combustion of all other fuels in the combustion unit.
(i) The annual average flow rate of fuel gas (that contains ethylene process off-gas) in the fuel gas line to the combustion unit, prior to any split to individual burners or ports, does not exceed 345 standard cubic feet per minute at 60 °F and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute, and a flow meter is not installed at any point in the line supplying fuel gas or an upstream common pipe. Calculate the annual average flow rate using company records assuming total flow is evenly distributed over 525,600 minutes per year.
(ii) The combustion unit has a maximum rated heat input capacity of less than 30 mmBtu/hr, and a flow meter is not installed at any point in the line supplying fuel gas (that contains ethylene process off-gas) or an upstream common pipe.
(3) Except as specified in paragraph (d)(5) of this section, calculate CH4 and N2O emissions using the applicable procedures in § 98.33(c) for the same tier methodology that you used for calculating CO2 emissions.
(i) For all gaseous fuels that contain ethylene process off-gas, use the emission factors for “Petroleum” in Table C-2 of subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).
(ii) For Tier 3, use either the default high heat value for fuel gas in Table C-1 of subpart C of this part or a calculated HHV, as allowed in Equation C-8 of subpart C of this part.
(4) You are not required to use the same Tier for each stationary combustion unit that burns ethylene process off-gas.
(5) For each flare, calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions using the methodology specified in §§ 98.253(b)(1) through (b)(3).
[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79157, Dec. 17, 2010]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-05-06; vol. 79 # 87 - Tuesday, May 6, 2014
    1. 79 FR - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I
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      40 CFR Part 98

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Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 98 after this date.

  • 2014-05-06; vol. 79 # 87 - Tuesday, May 6, 2014
    1. 79 FR - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      40 CFR Part 98