40 CFR 98.343 - Calculating GHG emissions.

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§ 98.343 Calculating GHG emissions.
(a) For all landfills subject to the reporting requirements of this subpart, calculate annual modeled CH4 generation according to the applicable requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.
(1) Calculate annual modeled CH4 generation using Equation HH-1 of this section.
Where:
GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year T (metric tons CH4).
x = Year in which waste was disposed.
S = Start year of calculation. Use the year 1960 or the opening year of the landfill, whichever is more recent.
T = Reporting year for which emissions are calculated.
WX = Quantity of waste disposed in the landfill in year × from measurement data, tipping fee receipts, or other company records (metric tons, as received (wet weight)).
MCF = Methane correction factor (fraction). Use the default value of 1 unless there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year. If there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year, use either the default value of 1 or select an alternative value no less than 0.5 based on site-specific aeration parameters.
DOC = Degradable organic carbon from Table HH-1 of this subpart or measurement data, if available [fraction (metric tons C/metric ton waste)].
DOCF = Fraction of DOC dissimilated (fraction). Use the default value of 0.5.
F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas from measurement data on a dry basis, if available (fraction); default is 0.5.
k = Rate constant from Table HH-1 to this subpart (yr 1). Select the most applicable k value for the majority of the past 10 years (or operating life, whichever is shorter).
(2) For years when material-specific waste quantity data are available, apply Equation HH-1 of this section for each waste quantity type and sum the CH4 generation rates for all waste types to calculate the total modeled CH4 generation rate for the landfill. Use the appropriate parameter values for k, DOC, MCF, DOCF, and F shown in Table HH-1 of this subpart. The annual quantity of each type of waste disposed must be calculated as the sum of the daily quantities of waste (of that type) disposed. You may use the bulk waste parameters for a portion of your waste materials when using the material-specific modeling approach for mixed waste streams that cannot be designated to a specific material type. For years when waste composition data are not available, use the bulk waste parameter values for k and DOC in Table HH-1 to this subpart for the total quantity of waste disposed in those years.
(3) Beginning in the first emissions reporting year and for each year thereafter, if scales are in place, you must determine the annual quantity of waste (in metric tons as received, i.e., wet weight) disposed of in the landfill using paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section for all containers and for all vehicles used to haul waste to the landfill, except for passenger cars, light duty pickup trucks, or waste loads that cannot be measured using the scales due to physical limitations (load cannot physically access or fit on the scale) and/or operational limitations of the scale (load exceeding the limits or sensitivity range of the scale). If scales are not in place, you must use paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. For waste hauled to the landfill in passenger cars or light duty pickup trucks, you may use either paragraph (a)(3)(i) or paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. For loads that cannot be measured using the scales due to physical and/or operational limitations of the scale, you must use paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section or similar engineering calculations to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. The approach used to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed of must be documented in the monitoring plan.
(i) Use direct mass measurements of each individual load received at the landfill using either of the following methods:
(A) Weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container used to haul waste as it enters the landfill or disposal area; weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container after it has off-loaded the waste; determine the quantity of waste received from the individual load as the difference in the two mass measurements; and determine the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of all waste loads received during the year. Alternatively, you may determine annual quantity of waste by summing the weights of all vehicles and containers entering the landfill and subtracting from it the sum of all the weights of vehicles and containers after they have off-loaded the waste in the landfill.
(B) Weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container used to haul waste as it enters the landfill or disposal area; determine a representative tare weight by vehicle or container type by weighing no less than 5 of each type of vehicle or container after it has off-loaded the waste; determine the quantity of waste received from the individual load as the difference between the measured weight in and the tare weight determined for that container/vehicle type; and determine the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of all waste loads received during the year.
(ii) Determine the working capacity in units of mass for each type of container or vehicle used to haul waste to the landfill (e.g., using volumetric capacity and waste density measurements; direct measurement of a selected number of passenger vehicles and light duty pick-up trucks; or similar methods); record the number of loads received at the landfill by vehicle/container type; calculate the annual mass per vehicle/container type as the mass product of the number of loads of that vehicle/container multiplied by its working capacity; and calculate the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of the annual mass per vehicle/container type across all of the vehicle/container types used to haul waste to the landfill.
(4) For years prior to the first emissions reporting year, use methods in paragraph (a)(3) of this section when waste disposal quantity data are readily available. When waste disposal quantity data are not readily available, WX shall be estimated using one of the applicable methods in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) through (a)(4)(iii) of this section. You must determine which method is most applicable to the conditions and disposal history of your facility. Historical waste disposal quantities should only be determined once, as part of the first annual report, and the same values should be used for all subsequent annual reports, supplemented by the next year's data on new waste disposal.
(i) Assume all prior years waste disposal quantities are the same as the waste quantity in the first year for which waste quantities are available.
(ii) Use the estimated population served by the landfill in each year, the values for national average per capita waste disposal rates found in Table HH-2 to this subpart, and calculate the waste quantity landfilled using Equation HH-2 of this section.
where:
WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year x (metric tons, wet basis).
POPX = Population served by the landfill in year x from city population, census data, or other estimates (capita).
WDRX = Average per capita waste disposal rate for year x from Table HH-2 to this subpart (metric tons per capita per year, wet basis; tons/cap/yr).
(iii) Use a constant average waste disposal quantity calculated using Equation HH-3 of this section for each year the landfill was in operation (i.e., from the first year accepting waste until the last year for which waste disposal data is unavailable, inclusive).
where:
WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year x (metric tons, wet basis).
LFC = Landfill capacity or, for operating landfills, capacity of the landfill used (or the total quantity of waste-in-place) at the end of the year prior to the year when waste disposal data are available from design drawings or engineering estimates (metric tons).
YrData = Year in which the landfill last received waste or, for operating landfills, the year prior to the first reporting year when waste disposal data is first available from company records, or best available data.
YrOpen = Year in which the landfill first received waste from company records or best available data. If no data are available for estimating YrOpen for a closed landfill, use 30 years as the default operating life of the landfill.
(b) For landfills with gas collection systems, calculate the quantity of CH4 destroyed according to the requirements in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.
(1) If you continuously monitor the flow rate, CH4 concentration, temperature, pressure, and, if necessary, moisture content of the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) using a monitoring meter specifically for CH4 gas, as specified in § 98.344, you must use this monitoring system and calculate the quantity of CH4 recovered for destruction using Equation HH-4 of this section. A fully integrated system that directly reports CH4 content requires no other calculation than summing the results of all monitoring periods for a given year.
where:
R = Annual quantity of recovered CH4 (metric tons CH4).
N = Total number of measurement periods in a year. Use daily averaging periods for a continuous monitoring system and N = 365 (or N = 366 for leap years). For weekly sampling, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, use N=52.
n = Index for measurement period.
(V)n = Cumulative volumetric flow for the measurement period in actual cubic feet (acf). If the flow rate meter automatically corrects for temperature and pressure, replace “520°R/(T)n × (P)n/1 atm” with “1”.
(KMC)n = Moisture correction term for the measurement period, volumetric basis, as follows: (KMC)n = 1 when (V)n and (C)n are both measured on a dry basis or if both are measured on a wet basis; (KMC)n = [1-(fH 2 O)n] when (V)n is measured on a wet basis and (C)n is measured on a dry basis; and (KMC)n = 1/[1-(fH2O)n] when (V)n is measured on a dry basis and (C)n is measured on a wet basis.
(fH 2 O)n = Average moisture content of landfill gas during the measurement period, volumetric basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet landfill gas)
(CCH4)n = Average CH4 concentration of landfill gas for the measurement period (volume %).
0.0423 = Density of CH4 lb/cfm at 520°R or 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 1 atm.
(T)n = Average temperature at which flow is measured for the measurement period (°R).
(P)n = Average pressure at which flow is measured for the measurement period (atm).
0.454/1,000 = Conversion factor (metric ton/lb).
(2) If you do not continuously monitor according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, you must determine the flow rate, CH4 concentration, temperature, pressure, and moisture content of the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) according to the requirements in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section and calculate the quantity of CH4 recovered for destruction using Equation HH-4 of this section.
(i) Continuously monitor gas flow rate and determine the cumulative volume of landfill gas each week and the cumulative volume of landfill gas each year that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment). Under this option, the gas flow meter is not required to automatically correct for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content. If the gas flow meter is not equipped with automatic correction for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content, you must determine these parameters as specified in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section.
(ii) Determine the CH4 concentration in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar week; if only one measurement is made each calendar week, there must be at least three days between measurements.
(iii) If the gas flow meter is not equipped with automatic correction for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content:
(A) Determine the temperature and pressure in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar week; if only one measurement is made each calendar week, there must be at least three days between measurements.
(B) If the CH4 concentration is determined on a dry basis and flow is determined on a wet basis or CH4 concentration is determined on a wet basis and flow is determined on a dry basis, and the flow meter does not automatically correct for moisture content, determine the moisture content in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar week; if only one measurement is made each calendar week, there must be at least three days between measurements.
(c) For all landfills, calculate CH4 generation (adjusted for oxidation in cover materials) and actual CH4 emissions (taking into account any CH4 recovery, and oxidation in cover materials) according to the applicable methods in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(3) of this section.
(1) Calculate CH4 generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the modeled CH4 (GCH [=E T=0362]4 from Equation HH-1 of this section) using Equation HH-5 of this section.
Where:
MG = Methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH 4).
GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this section (metric tons CH4).
OX = Oxidation fraction. Use the default value of 0.1 (10%).
(2) For landfills that do not have landfill gas collection systems, the CH4 emissions are equal to the CH4 generation (MG) calculated in Equation HH-5 of this section.
(3) For landfills with landfill gas collection systems, calculate CH4 emissions using the methodologies specified in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) and (c)(3)(ii) of this section.
(i) Calculate CH4 emissions from the modeled CH4 generation and measured CH4 recovery using Equation HH-6 of this section.
Where:
Emissions = Methane emissions from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).
GCH 4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this section or the quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section, whichever is greater (metric tons CH4).
R = Quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section (metric tons).
OX = Oxidation fraction. Use the oxidation fraction default value of 0.1 (10%).
DE = Destruction efficiency (lesser of manufacturer's specified destruction efficiency and 0.99). If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use DE = 1.
fDest = Fraction of hours the destruction device was operating (annual operating hours/8760 hours per year). If the gas is destroyed in a back-up flare (or simlar device) or if the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use fDest = 1.
(ii) Calculate CH4 generation and CH4 emissions using measured CH4 recovery and estimated gas collection efficiency and Equations HH-7 and HH-8 of this section.
Where:
MG = Methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).
Emissions = Methane emissions from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).
R = Quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section (metric tons CH4).
CE = Collection efficiency estimated at landfill, taking into account system coverage, operation, and cover system materials from Table HH-3 of this subpart. If area by soil cover type information is not available, use default value of 0.75 (CE4 in table HH-3 of this subpart) for all areas under active influence of the collection system.
fRec = Fraction of hours the recovery system was operating (annual operating hours/8760 hours per year).
OX = Oxidation fraction. Use the oxidation fractions default value of 0.1 (10%).
DE = Destruction efficiency, (lesser of manufacturer's specified destruction efficiency and 0.99). If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use DE = 1.
fDest = Fraction of hours the destruction device was operating (device operating hours/8760 hours per year). If the gas is destroyed in a back-up flare (or similar device) or if the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use fDest = 1.
[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66470, Oct. 28, 2010]

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  • 2014-05-06; vol. 79 # 87 - Tuesday, May 6, 2014
    1. 79 FR - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I
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Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 98 after this date.

  • 2014-05-06; vol. 79 # 87 - Tuesday, May 6, 2014
    1. 79 FR - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      40 CFR Part 98