40 CFR Part 141, Subpart O, Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 141 - Regulated Contaminants

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 141, Subpt. O, App. A
Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 141—Regulated Contaminants
Contaminant (units) Traditional MCL in mg/L To convert for CCR, multiply by MCL in CCR units MCLG Major sources in drinking water Health effects language
1 These arsenic values are effective January 23, 2006. Until then, the MCL is 0.05 mg/L and there is no MCLG.
Key:
AL=Action Level
MCL=Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG=Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MFL=million fibers per liter
MRDL=Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
MRDLG=Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal
mrem/year=millirems per year (a measure of radiation absorbed by the body)
N/A=Not Applicable
NTU=Nephelometric Turbidity Units (a measure of water clarity)
pCi/l=picocuries per liter (a measure of radioactivity)
ppm=parts per million, or milligrams per liter (mg/l)
ppb=parts per billion, or micrograms per liter (µg/l)
ppt=parts per trillion, or nanograms per liter
ppq=parts per quadrillion, or picograms per liter
TT=Treatment Technique
Microbiological contaminants:
Total Coliform Bacteria MCL: (systems that collect ≥40 samples/month) 5% of monthly samples are positive; (systems that collect <40 samples/month) 1 positive monthly sample MCL: (systems that collect ≥40 samples/month) 5% of monthly samples are positive; (systems that collect <40 samples/month) 1 positive monthly sample 0 Naturally present in the environment Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other, potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present. Coliforms were found in more samples than allowed and this was a warning of potential problems.
Fecal coliform and E. coli 0 0 0 Human and animal fecal waste Fecal coliforms and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, some of the elderly, and people with severely-compromised immune systems.
Fecal Indicators (enterococci or coliphage) TT TT N/A Human and animal fecal waste Fecal indicators are microbes whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term health effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, some of the elderly, and people with severely compromised immune systems.
Total organic carbon (ppm) TT TT N/A Naturally present in the environment Total organic carbon (TOC) has no health effects. However, total organic carbon provides a medium for the formation of disinfection by products. These byproducts include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Drinking water containing these byproducts in excess of the MCL may lead to adverse health effects, liver or kidney problems, or nervous system effects, and may lead to an increased risk of getting cancer.
Turbidity (NTU) TT TT N/A Soil runoff Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches.
Radioactive contaminants:
Beta/photon emitters (mrem/yr) 4 mrem/yr 4 0 Decay of natural and man-made deposits Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta particle and photon radioactivity in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Alpha emitters (pCi/L) 15 pCi/L 15 0 Erosion of natural deposits Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Combined radium (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L 5 0 Erosion of natural deposits Some people who drink water containing radium-226 or -228 in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Uranium (pCi/L) 30 µg/L 30 0 Erosion of natural deposits Some people who drink water containing uranium in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer and kidney toxicity.
Inorganic contaminants:
Antimony (ppb) .006 1000 6 6 Discharge from petroleum refineries; fire retardants; ceramics; electronics; solder Some people who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience increases in blood cholesterol and decreases in blood sugar.
Arsenic (ppb) 1 0.010 1000 1 10. 1 0 Erosion of natural deposits; Runoff from orchards; Runoff from glass and electronics production wastes Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the MCL over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Asbestos (MFL) 7 MFL 7 7 Decay of asbestos cement water mains; Erosion of natural deposits Some people who drink water containing asbestos in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps.
Barium (ppm) 2 2 2 Discharge of drilling wastes; Discharge from metal refineries; Erosion of natural deposits Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
Beryllium (ppb) .004 1000 4 4 Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories; Discharge from electrical, aerospace, and defense industries Some people who drink water containing beryllium well in excess of the MCL over many years could develop intestinal lesions
Bromate (ppb) .010 1000 10 0 By-product of drinkig water disinfection Some people who drink water of containing bromate in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Cadmium (ppb) .005 1000 5 5 Corrosion of galvanized pipes; Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge from metal refineries; Runoff from waste batteries and paints Some people who drink water containing cadmium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
Chloramines (ppm) MRDL=4 MRDL=4 MRDLG=4 Water additive used to control microbes Some people who use water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort or anemia.
Chlorine (ppm) MRDL=4 MRDL=4 MRDLG=4 Water additive used to control microbes Some people who use water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort.
Chlorine dioxide (ppb) MRDL=.8 1000 MRDL=800 MRDLG=800 Water additive used to control micorbes Some infants and young children who drink water chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL. Some people may experience anemia.
Chlorite (ppm) 1 1 0.8 By-product of drinking water disinfection Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL. Some people may experience anemia.
Chromium (ppb) .1 1000 100 100 Discharge from steel and pulp mills; Erosion of natural deposits Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis.
Copper (ppm) AL=1.3 AL=1.3 1.3 Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over a relatively short amount of time could experience gastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson's disease should consult their personal doctor.
Cyanide (ppb) .2 1000 200 200 Discharge from steel/metal factories; Discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories Some people who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience nerve damage or problems with their thyroid.
Fluoride (ppm) 4 4 4 Erosion of natural deposits; Water additive which promotes strong teeth; Discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories Some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of the MCL over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones. Fluoride in drinking water at half the MCL or more may cause mottling of children's teeth, usually in children less than nine years old. Mottling, also known as dental fluorosis, may include brown staining and/or pitting of the teeth, and occurs only in developing teeth before they erupt from the gums.
Lead (ppb) AL=.015 1000 AL=15 0 Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the action level could experience delays in their physical or mental development. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems or high blood pressure.
Mercury [inorganic] (ppb) .002 1000 2 2 Erosion of natural deposits; Dis charge from refineries and factories; Runoff from landfills; Runoff from cropland Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
Nitrate (ppm) 10 10 10 Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sew age; Erosion of natural deposits Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
Nitrite (ppm) 1 1 1 Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sew age; Erosion of natural deposits Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
Selenium (ppb) .05 1000 50 50 Discharge from petroleum and metal refineries; Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge from mines Selenium is an essential nutrient. However, some people who drink water containing selenium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hair or fingernail losses, numbness in fingers or toes, or problems with their circulation.
Thallium (ppb) .002 1000 2 0.5 Leaching from ore-processing sites; Discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories Some people who drink water containing thallium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hair loss, changes in their blood, or problems with their kidneys, intestines, or liver.
Synthetic organic contaminants including pesticides and herbicides:
2,4-D (ppb) .07 1000 70 70 Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Some people who drink water containing the weed killer 2,4-D well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys, liver, or adrenal glands.
2,4,5-TP [Silvex](ppb) .05 1000 50 50 Residue of banned herbicide Some people who drink water containing silvex in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver problems.
Acrylamide TT TT 0 Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Some people who drink water containing high levels of acrylamide over a long period of time could have problems with their nervous system or blood, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Alachlor (ppb) .002 1000 2 0 Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Some people who drink water containing alachlor in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their eyes, liver, kidneys, or spleen, or experience anemia, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Atrazine (ppb) .003 1000 3 3 Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Some people who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their cardiovascular system or reproductive difficulties.
Benzo(a)pyrene [PAH] (nanograms/l) .0002 1,000,000 200 0 Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene in excess of the MCL over many years may experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Carbofuran (ppb) .04 1000 40 40 Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Some people who drink water containing carbofuran in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their blood, or nervous or reproductive systems.
Chlordane (ppb) .002 1000 2 0 Residue of banned termiticide Some people who drink water containing chlordane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or nervous system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Dalapon (ppb) .2 1000 200 200 Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Some people who drink water containing dalapon well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience minor kidney changes.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (ppb) .4 1000 400 400 Discharge from chemical factories Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience toxic effects such as weight loss, liver enlargement or possible reproductive difficulties.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ppb) .006 1000 6 0 Discharge from rubber and chemical factories Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate well in excess of the MCL over many years may have problems with their liver, or experience reproductive difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Dibromochloropropane (ppt) .0002 1,000,000 200 0 Runoff/leaching from soil fumigant used on soybeans, cotton, pineapples, and orchards Some people who drink water containing DBCP in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Dinoseb (ppb) .007 1000 7 7 Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Some people who drink water containing dinoseb well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
Diquat (ppb) .02 1000 20 20 Runoff from herbicide use Some people who drink water containing diquat in excess of the MCL over many years could get cataracts.
Dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] (ppq) .00000003 1,000,000, 000 30 0 Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion; Discharge from chemical factories Some people who drink water containing dioxin in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Endothall (ppb) .1 1000 100 100 Runoff from herbicide use Some people who drink water containing endothall in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their stomach or intestines.
Endrin (ppb) .002 1000 2 2 Residue of banned insecticide Some people who drink water containing endrin in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver problems.
Epichlorohydrin TT TT 0 Discharge from industrial chemical factories; An impurity of some water treatment chemicals Some people who drink water containing high levels of epichlorohydrin over a long period of time could experience stomach problems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Ethylene dibromide (ppt) .00005 1,000,000 50 0 Discharge from petroleum refineries Some people who drink water containing ethylene dibromide in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Glyphosate (ppb) .7 1000 700 700 Runoff from herbicide use Some people who drink water containing glyphosate in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or reproductive difficulties.
Heptachlor (ppt) .0004 1,000,000 400 0 Residue of banned pesticide Some people who drink water containing heptachlor in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver damage and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Heptachlor epoxide (ppt) .0002 1,000,000 200 0 Breakdown of heptachlor Some people who drink water containing heptachlor epoxide in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver damage, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Hexachlorobenzene (ppb) .001 1000 1 0 Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Some people who drink water containing hexachlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys, or adverse reproductive effects, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (ppb) .05 1000 50 50 Discharge from chemical factories Some people who drink water containing hexachlorocyclopentadiene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or stomach.
Lindane (ppt) .0002 1,000,000 200 200 Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle, lumber, gardens Some people who drink water containing lindane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or liver.
Methoxychlor (ppb) .04 1000 40 40 Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock Some people who drink water containing methoxychlor in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
Oxamyl [Vydate] (ppb) .2 1000 200 200 Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples, potatoes and tomatoes Some people who drink water containing oxamyl in excess of the MCL over many years could experience slight nervous system effects.
PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] (ppt) .0005 1,000,000 500 0 Runoff from landfills; Discharge of waste chemicals Some people who drink water containing PCBs in excess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their skin, problems with their thymus gland, immune deficiencies, or reproductive or nervous system difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Pentachlorophenol (ppb) .001 1000 1 0 Discharge from wood preserving factories Some people who drink water containing pentachlorophenol in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Picloram (ppb) .5 1000 500 500 Herbicide runoff Some people who drink water containing picloram in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
Simazine (ppb) .004 1000 4 4 Herbicide runoff Some people who drink water containing simazine in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their blood.
Toxaphene (ppb) .003 1000 3 0 Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Some people who drink water containing toxaphene in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their kidneys, liver, or thyroid, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Volatile organic contaminants:
Benzene (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from factories; Leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Some people who drink water containing benzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience anemia or a decrease in blood platelets, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Carbon tetrachloride (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Chlorobenzene (ppb) .1 1000 100 100 Discharge from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Some people who drink water containing chlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
o-Dichlorobenzene (ppb) .6 1000 600 600 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing o-dichlorobenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory systems.
p-Dichlorobenzene (ppb) .075 1000 75 75 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience anemia, damage to their liver, kidneys, or spleen, or changes in their blood.
1,2-Dichloroethane (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
1,1-Dichloroethylene (ppb) .007 1000 7 7 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing 1,1-dichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene (ppb) .07 1000 70 70 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing cis-1,2-dichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (ppb) .1 1000 100 100 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing trans-1,2-dichloroethylene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
Dichloromethane (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from pharmaceutical and chemical factories Some people who drink water containing dichloromethane in excess of the MCL over many years could have liver problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
1,2-Dichloropropane (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloropropane in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Ethylbenzene (ppb) .7 1000 700 700 Discharge from petroleum refineries Some people who drink water containing ethylbenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
Haloacetic Acids (HAA) (ppb) .060 1000 60 N/A By-product of drinking water disinfection Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Styrene (ppb) .1 1000 100 100 Discharge from rubber and plastic factories; Leaching from landfills Some people who drink water containing styrene well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory system.
Tetrachloroethylene (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Some people who drink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (ppb) .07 1000 70 70 Discharge from textile-finishing factories Some people who drink water containing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their adrenal glands.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (ppb) .2 1000 200 200 Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Some people who drink water containing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, nervous system, or circulatory system.
1,1,2-Trichloroethane (ppb) .005 1000 5 3 Discharge from industrial chemical factories Some people who drink water containing 1,1,2-trichloroethane well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or immune systems.
Trichloroethylene (ppb) .005 1000 5 0 Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
TTHMs [Total trihalomethanes] (ppb) 0.10/.080 1000 100/80 N/A By-product of drinking water disinfection Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the MCL over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Toluene (ppm) 1 1 1 Discharge from petroleum factories Some people who drink water containing toluene well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their nervous system, kidneys, or liver.
Vinyl Chloride (ppb) .002 1000 2 0 Leaching from PVC piping; Discharge from plastics factories Some people who drink water containing vinyl chloride in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Xylenes (ppm) 10 10 10 Discharge from petroleum factories; Discharge from chemical factories Some people who drink water containing xylenes in excess of the MCL over many years could experience damage to their nervous system.
[65 FR 26024, May 4, 2000, as amended at 65 FR 76749, Dec. 7, 2000; 66 FR 7064, Jan. 22, 2001; 67 FR 70855, Nov. 27, 2002; 67 FR 73011, Dec. 9, 2002; 68 FR 14506, Mar. 25, 2003; 71 FR 65652, Nov. 8, 2006]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-11-13; vol. 79 # 219 - Thursday, November 13, 2014
    1. 79 FR 67408 - Notice of Public Meeting and Webinar: Preliminary Regulatory Determinations for the Third Contaminant Candidate List
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Notice of public meeting on potential rulemaking.
      The public meeting and webinar will be held on Tuesday, December 9, 2014, from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m., eastern time. Persons wishing to attend the meeting in person or online via webinar must register by December 2, 2014, as described in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section.
      40 CFR Part 141